Koldewey Station, Ny-Ålesund/Spitsbergen: projects/activities

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Displaying: 21 - 40 of 41 Next
21. Arctic Airborne Measuring Program 2002

The subject is to determine the horizontal distribution of aerosol and trace gases by airborne measurements with the Gulfstream III (transarctic flight), ground based measurements in Ny Ålesund (Koldewey Station, Rabben) and satellite measurements with SAGE II / SAGE III. Objective is to get vertical and horizontal aerosol profiles, to research the trace gase variations in the Arctic and to compare remote sensing und in situ measurements.

Aerosols Atmospheric processes Trace gases Climate variability Climate Spatial trends Climate change Arctic Atmosphere
22. Water vapour balloon soundings

In situ measurements of the tropospheric and tropopause and if possible lower stratospheric water vapour content will be carried out with different balloon sondes. Start of up to three balloons with Snow White Sensor-Package prepared by a team from the University of Nagoya and University of Kyoto. Possibly water vapour sondes from NOAA (S. Oltmans) will be started within the scope of an EU-project. This may happen earliest in autumn.

Aerosols Atmospheric processes Climate variability Stratosphere Climate Climate change Soundings Arctic Water vapour Tropopause Atmosphere Tropospere
23. Ecological interactions between zoo- and phytobenthos with regard to defense-mechanisms against grazing pressure

Benthic macroalgae communities of the arctic ocean provide habitat, protection, nursery and nutrition to a large number of invertebrates. In contrast to temperate and tropical regions the basic ecological interactions between zoo- and phytobenthos of the Arctic are little understood. Therefore this project for the first time investigates biological and chemical interactions between invertebrates and macroalgae on Spitsbergen/Svalbard (Koldewey Station) with special emphasis on defense mechanisms against grazing pressure. Initial diving-investigations will map the invertebrate fauna which is associated with the macroalgae; the following feeding-experiments with herbivorous animals aim to selectively identify generalists, generalists with preference or specialists. Additional bioassays serve to reveal structural and/or chemical properties of those plants, which affect a specific impact on the grazing of herbivores. Our investigations on the chemical protection of the algae against grazing focus on the basic mechanisms and the chemical structure of potent secondary metabolites carried out in cooperation with natural product chemists.

Biological effects Biology Chemical protection Zoobenthos Phytobenthos Invertebrates Macroalgae Biodiversity Arctic Ecosystems
24. Stratospheric ozone loss determination (Match)

By launching several hundred ozonesondes and by ozone lidar measurements at many Arctic and sub-Arctic stations, one of them Ny-Ålesund, the stratospheric chemical ozone loss will be determined. The launches of all stations will be coordinated by analysis of trajectory calculations based on analysis and forecast wind fields. The aim is to get as many ozone sounding pairs as possible, each of them linked by trajectories in space and time. A statistical description of the ozone differencies given by the first and the second measurement of individual sonde pairs will yield the chemical ozone loss with spatial and time resolution. Four similar campaigns took place in the Arctic and in the mid-latitudes covering the time period of Januar to March in each of the last four winters. In the first three winters high ozone depletion rates (20 - 50 ppbv per day) were determined in some height levels within the polar vortex. In the height level of the ozone maximum an integrated ozone loss (during the winter) in the order of 60 % have been found. These are record ozone losses for the Arctic polar region. In the last winter the ozone depletion rates had been much lower due to moderate temperatures in the stratosphere.

Atmospheric processes Ozone MATCH Climate variability Stratosphere Climate Spatial trends Climate change Ozonesonde Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
25. Heat and mass transfer in the active layer

The active layer, the annually freezing and thawing upper ground in permafrost areas, is of pivotal importance. The moisture and heat transfer characteristics of this layer also determine the boundary layer interactions of the underlying permafrost and the atmosphere and are therefore important parameters input for geothermal or climate modeling. Finally, changes in the characteristics of the permafrost and permafrost related processes may be used as indicators of global ecological change provided the system permafrost-active layer-atmosphere is understood sufficiently well. The dynamics of permafrost soils is measured with high accuracy and high temporal resolution at our two sites close to Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Using these continuous data we quantify energy balance components and deduce heat transfer processes such as conductive heat flux, generation of heat from phase transitions, and migration of water vapor.

Water flux Geology Soils Geophysics Spatial trends Modelling Arctic Permafrost Temporal trends Energy flux
26. Succession of benthic communities in polar environments, benthic resilience in polar environments: A comparison

Succession of communities and individual growth of benthic invertebrates are more or less unknown in polar waters, but nevertheless are the basic parameters of understanding the benthic sub-ecosystem, delivering data for modelling and prediction of the system´s development. Three localities, two in the Antarctic and one in the Arctic, the Kongsfjord in Spitsbergen, have been choosen as investigation localities. Hard and soft substrates, which will be sampled in regular intervalls during the duration of the project, will be deployed at different depths. The analysis includes species composition, species growth and, with respect to soft substrates, sediment parameters.

Biological effects Biology Benthic communities Benthic invertebrates Marine benthos Biodiversity Arctic Ecosystems
27. Snow algae in Svalbard

This project (of Humboldt University of Berlin) is a long-study of the ecology and physiology of Arctic snow algae in Ny Ålesund region (Krossfjorden, Blomstrandhalvøya and Prins Karls-Forland). The main objectives are: - Characterision of snow algae fields and probe collections - Physiological characterision of single algae cells at different stages of development (e.g. by dielectric single cell spectroscopy, immuno-fluroescence microscopy and element analysis) - Cultivation in home laboratories.

Biology Biodiversity Arctic Snow algae
28. Determination of heavy metals in aerosols and deposition

Total deposition sampling is performed at Ny-Ålesund to study atmospheric fluxes of heavy metals to the Arctic. In addition wet only deposition sampling is carried out with an automatic precipitation sampler. The samples are analysed at the home laboratory for tracer elements for seaspray components, earthcrust weathered material and anthropogenic elements by atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). One aim of our study is to distinguish element distribution between the dissolved and particulate phase. In addition to the element analyses the concentration of anions is determined by ionchromatography. In 1996 an automatically operating aerosol sampler was installed, which is combined with the automatic precipitation sampler to study element washout from aerosol particles via rain and snow.

Aerosols Heavy metals Long-range transport Contaminant transport Deposition Samples Emissions Arctic Atmosphere
29. SAMMOA-FTIR

The FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) has been established as a powerful tool for measurements of atmospheric trace gases. Using the sun or moon as light source, between 20-30 trace gases of the tropo- and stratosphere can be detected by their absorption features. The analysis of the spectra allow to retrieve the total zenith columns of the trace gases. The aim of the SAMMOA project is to study the stratospheric ozon depletion during the summer time period. While the processes during winter/spring are investigated in detail the summertime ozone loss has not been studied so far. Therefore FTIR solar absorption measurements of ozone and related species are to be done on much more observation days beside the routine observations within the NDSC

Atmospheric processes Ozone FTIR Trace gases Climate variability stratosphere Climate NDSC Climate change Arctic Summertime ozone loss SAMMOA Atmosphere
30. DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases (NDSC)

Quasi-continuous observation of several atmospheric species are performed by measuring the absorption of visible and near ultraviolet sunlight scattered from the sky or in direct moonlight. Column abundance of molecules such as ozone, NO2, OClO, NO3, BrO, HCHO and IO are derived by means of a Differential Optical Absorption (DOAS) algorithm and a radiative transfer model. These activities are part of calibration and validation studies of different satellite experiments (GOME, SAGE III, SCIAMACHY). Since 1999 the instrument is part of the Network of the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). The instrument has been installed in 1995 as the second UV/vis instrument from the Institute of Environmental Physics. One similar setup in Bremen is continuously running with the exception of short maintenance breaks since 1993.

Atmospheric processes Ozone Trace gases Climate variability Climate NDSC Climate change Arctic DOAS Atmosphere Satellite validation
31. Effects of UV-radiation on macroalgae of the Kongsfjorden

Photoinhibition of photosynthesis by UV radiation, the formation of UV-screening pigments, DNA damage by UV radiation as well as DNA repair mechanisms will be determined in marine macroalgae of the Kongsfjord. Moreover, algae from different water depths will be transplanted by divers into areas with opposite light climate or covered by UV-screening filters and their physiological reactions tested. Additionally, the susceptability of the unicellular algal spores to UV-radiation will be tested. The results will allow insights into the effect of UV and photosynthetically active radiation on the zonation of macrocalgae and on the structure of phytobenthic communities. The data will be used to model the effects of increased of UV-radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion on the Kongsfjord phytobenthic communities.

Biological effects Ozone Biology DNA UV radiation Phytobenthic communities Marine macroalgae Exposure Arctic Algae
32. Seismological "Very Broad Band" Station (VBB-Station)

The new seismological broad band station KBS at Ny-Ålesund replaces a former WWSSN station operated by the Institute for Solid Earth Physics of the University of Bergen. Both instrumentation and data acquisition of the old station were inadequate to meet all the demands for highest data quality for today's modern seismological research. The high technical standard of the new stations instrumentation now fulfils all the requirements of a modern broad band station. Therefore this station is integrated into the international Global Seismological Network, GSN, for monitoring the world-wide seismic activity. Special interests focus on regional seismicity at and around Svalbard itself and along the ridges in the arctic ocean. KBS is an open station, e.g., any interested scientist or international organization os allowed to retrieve data of special interest. Data are routinely processed and stored at the IRIS Data Management Center in Seattle. Copies are also available at the Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ).

Geology Seismology Geophysics Arctic
33. UV-A/UV-B measurements

The changes in the stratospheric ozone layer due to anthropogen emissions lead to an increasing insolation of sunlight in the UV-B range (280nm - 320nm) on ground. One of the major objects of UV-B measurements is to detect long-term trends. The most interesting areas corresponding to ozone depletion are Antarctica and more recently the region around the northern pole. In interdisciplinary cooperation the data are also basis for research in the effects of increasing UV-B doses on plankton, algae, and other organisms. Since 1998 additional measurements of UV-A radiation (320-400nm) are done.

UV-B Biological effects Ozone trend measurements UV radiation Climate Climate change Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends UV-a
34. Trace gas measurements by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (NDSC)

The FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) has been established as a powerful tool for measurements of atmospheric trace gases. Using the sun or moon as light source, between 20-30 trace gases of the tropo- and stratosphere can be detected by their absorption features. The analysis of the spectra allows to retrieve the total zenith columns of the trace gases. For a few trace gases the pressure broadening of the lines allows to get additionally some information on the vertical concentration profiles. Some important trace gases cannot be detected in the IR but in the UV/VIS. This makes it useful to record the whole spectral region from the IR from about 700/cm (14 µm) to the UV at 33000/cm (300 nm).

Atmospheric processes Ozone OH concentrations Arctic haze Trace gases Climate variability Climate Climate change Arctic Atmosphere Satellite validation
35. Microwave observations of stratospheric trace species in Ny-Ålesund

Microwave radiometers are part of the standard instrumentation at primary NDSC stations and are due to their long-term stability and self calibrating technique especially useful for monitoring purposes. Altitude profiles are retrieved from the shape of the pressure broadened thermally induced emission line of the observed species. The instruments for the observation of stratospheric ozone, chlorine monoxide and water vapour at the Koldewey Station in Ny-Ålesund were developed at the University of Bremen and upgrades and improvements are regularly carried out. The instruments have been automated during recent years and ozone and water vapour observation on Spitsbergen are carried out all year round. Chlorine monoxide is only observed in late winter and early spring, when enhanced concentrations in the lower stratosphere are to be expected. Routine operation and maintenance are done by the station engineer. Data analysis is carried out at the University of Bremen.

Atmospheric processes Ozone Climate variability Climate Chlorine monoxide Climate change Arctic Water vapour Atmosphere Satellite validation
36. Effects of atmospheric aerosol on climate, measured by sun and star photometer

In recent years, much attention has been directed towards understandig the effects of aerosols on a variety of processes in the earth atmosphere. Aerosols play an integral role in limiting visibility, they serve as nuclei for the formation of fog and cloud droplets, they affect the earth radiative budget, and thus climate, both directly and indirectly, and they inhibit the propagation of electromagnetic radiation. The Arctic aerosols, especially Arctic Haze and tropospheric ice crystals possible have important climatic and ecological and global change implications. Since 1991 Sun photometer observations of the polar atmopheric aerosol have been performed at the Koldewey Station in Ny-Aalesund, Spitzbergen. In order to complete the coverage and quality of measurements during the polar night a high sensitive Star photometer is installed since January 1996. Both measurements, the daylight Sun photometer measurements and night Star photometer measurements will be continued.

Aerosols Atmospheric processes Arctic haze Climate variability Long-range transport Climate Climate change Arctic Tropospheric ice crystals Atmosphere
37. Radiation measurements in framework of the Surface Radiation Network - BSRN

The Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) is a cooperative network of surface radiation budget. Measurement stations operated by various national agencies and universities under the guiding principle set out by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Presently about 15 stations have been established, one of them is Ny-Ålesund. The concept for a Baseline Surface Radiation Network has developed from the needs of both the climate change and satellite validation communities. The aims of the programme are the monitoring of long-term trends in radiation fluxes at the surface and the providing validation data for satellite determinations of the surface radiation budget. The BSRN station Ny-Aalesund was installed in summer 1992 and is regularly operating since August 1992.

Atmospheric processes Ozone UV radiation Climate variability Climate Climate change Arctic Atmosphere Satellite validation
38. Determination of stratospheric aerosols by balloon borne sensors

Stratospheric aerosols like Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) or volcanic aerosols are investigated by different types of balloon borne sensors in co-operation with the University of Nagoya, Japan, and the University of Wisconsin, Laramie, Wisconsin. The sensors flown are dedicated optilca particle counters (OPC) or backscatter sondes (BKS), respectively.

aerosols Atmospheric processes Ozone polar stratospheric clouds Geophysics Climate variability Climate Climate change balloon sonde optical particle counter Arctic PSCs Atmosphere
39. Contributions to the THESEO 2000 / SOLVE campaign

In preparation to the launch of the SAGE III experiment in March 2001, NASA and the European Union performed the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 campaign, which had three components: (i) an aircraft campaign using the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 airplanes out of Kiruna/Sweden, (ii) launches of large stratospheric research balloons from Kiruna, (iii) validation exercises for the commissioning phase of SAGE III. The German Arctic research station Koldewey in Ny-Ålesund/Spitsbergen contributed to (i), (ii), and (iii) by performing measurements of stratospheric components like ozone, trace gases, aerosols (PSCs), temperature and winds. The main observation periods were from December 1999 to March 2000.

Atmospheric processes Ozone UV radiation Climate variability Climate Climate change Arctic Atmosphere
40. Investigations of tropospheric aerosols by lidar

A tropospheric lidar system with a Nd:YAG-Laser was installed at the Koldewey-Station in 1998. It operates at a laser wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm with detection at 532 nm polarised and depolarised, and at Raman wavelengths like 607nm (nitrogen). It records profiles of aerosol content, aerosol depolarisation and aerosol extinction. During polar night the profils reach from the ground up to the tropopause level, while during polar day background light reduces the altitude range. The main goal of the investigations is to determine the climate impact of arctic aerosol. Analysis of the climate impact will be performed by a high resolution regional model run at the Alfred Wegener Institute (HIRHAM). The lidar system is capable to obtain water vapour profiles in the troposphere. Water vapour profiles are crucial for the understanding of the formation of aerosols. The water vapour profiles are also used for the validation of profiles measured by the CHAMP satellite from 2001 onwards.

aerosols Atmospheric processes Arctic haze Geophysics tropospheric aerosols Climate variability Long-range transport Climate ASTAR Climate change Arctic Local pollution water vapour Atmosphere troposphere water vapor