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Objective 1: Proof of the possibility to estimate temperatures from meteor decay times using co-located, simultaneous meteor observations on two, well separated frequencies (32.55 MHz/SKiYMET radar and 53.5 MHz/ALWIN MST radar) without the assumption of a predetermined temperature gradient. The second method for determining temperature height profiles uses the direct measurement of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient in conjunction with pressure data to estimate temperatures. Pressure data from empirical models are often too unreliable, therefore pressure data derived from rocket-borne falling spheres measurements could be used for a reliable temperature determination. Objective 2: Proof of the method using co-located meteor radar measurements and falling sphere soundings conducted in 2002 at Andenes (69N) during the MaCWAVE campaign. It should be possible to estimate meteor temperature profiles in a height range between 82 km and about 94 km.
During the past years, atmospheric research in high latitudes has been focussed on processes causing ozone loss in the polar winter lower stratosphere1). Recent research efforts also dealt with regions up to the lower mesosphere, and studied the effects of charged particle precipitation on NO and ozone2)-5). However, the measurement techniques and hence the database for studying such processes in this altitude range are very limited. The Airborne SUbmillimeter Radiometer ASUR6),7) of the Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen has recently been equipped with a high-resolution spectrometer that will enable the retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone up to an altitude of about 65 - 70 km. Its measurement capabilities comprise also several other species of interest, especially NO. This makes the measurement technique particularly suitable for upper stratospheric/lower mesospheric studies. The lidar at ALOMAR is capable of measuring highly resolved vertical profiles of ozone up to an altitude of 60 km, thus giving the rare opportunity for intercomparison and validation studies in an altitude range reaching from the lower stratosphere to the lower mesosphere. Therefore we propose to perform simultaneous ozone measurements of the ASUR instrument with the ALOMAR lidar, supported by launches of ozone sondes.
The upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are strongly affected by the appearance of gravity waves with different scales. Due to the exponential decrease of the density with the altitude, the upward propagation of these waves is associated with an increase in their amplitudes. Associated with the wave breaking and with deposit of momentum and energy in the background flow, the dynamical and thermal structure at upper stratospheric and mesospheric heights are essentially influenced. However, their sources and the quantitative aspects of these processes are poorly understood at present. Here we are focussing on the investigation of long periodic gravity waves with periods of several hours and horizontal wavelengths of more than hundred kilometres. In contrast to the pure internal gravity waves, these waves are called inertio-gravity waves due to their influence by the rotation of the Earth, described by the Coriolis effect or by the inertial frequency.
Waves play a major role for the momentum and energy transport in the middle atmosphere [Fritts and van Zandt, 1993] by modifying the local temperature field as well as the general circulation when the waves reach the saturation level and break [Holton, 1983; Fritts, 1984]. The MACWAVE rocket campaign is investigating the wave field in polar latitudes during summer and winter. To learn more about the horizontal structure of the wave field, it is important to measure at more than one station. For the monitoring of the vertical transport by the waves, measurements over a large height range are necessary. The combination of lidars, radiosondes and falling spheres will cover the region from the ground up to approximately 105 km. When comparing data, it is important to take into account the different measurement principles and integration times. The rocket will show small scale variations whereas the lidar permits a continuous monitoring of the temperature and wave situation
These investigations confirm the fact that in the stratosphere the ozone is considerably influenced by dynamical processes and it is a good indicator of them. In this context the main objectives of the proposed study are: 1) to investigate the possible relationship between stratospheric ozone perturbations and the temperature enhancement in the upper mesosphere, observed by Shepherd et al. (2001); 2) to examine whether changes in ozone, concomitant with the phenomenon, take place and how and when they would be manifested; and 3) to investigate the stratospheric ozone behaviour during the equinox atmospheric transition in the North Hemisphere, for better understanding of the middle atmosphere dynamics.