The full list of projects contains the entire database hosted on this portal, across the available directories. The projects and activities (across all directories/catalogs) are also available by country of origin, by geographical region, or by directory.
The main objective is resource monitoring of commercially important populations and non commercial species, West Greenland (several fish species and shrimps). Network type: ship survey
The main objective is resource monitoring of commercially important populations and non commercial species, East Greenland (several fish species and shrimps). Network type: ship survey
The main objective is resource monitoring (primarily Greenland Halibut). Surveys and sampling from the commercial fishery
The main objective is resource monitoring (primarily Greenland Halibut). Network type: Surveys and sampling from the commercial fishery
The main objective is to provide management advice for harvested species (large whales, narwhale and beluga, walrus). The surveys are conducted from fixed winged twin engine aircrafts with 2-4 observers, that systematically survey for marine mammals in the prime habitats in Greenland. Surveys are conducted as strip census, line transect, photographic survey or independent observer surveys. Target species and areas shift between years but it is attempted to maintain a 5-6 survey cycle in the areas with the largest hunting pressure (i.e. West Greenland). For East Greenland a survey cycle of 10 or more years will be maintained.
Is updated every day during the season, 2002-2007
Temperature, Salinity, pH, Oxygen, Hydrogensulphide, Phosphate, Total-Phosphorous, Nitrite, Nitrate, Ammonium, Total-Nitrogen, Alkalinity, Silicon, PON, POC, and Chlorophyll-a Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, Bacterial plankton, Zoobentos, Phytobentos, Seal, Sea Eagle, Amphipod, Sedimentation, Primary production, Klorophyll
The Seal and Sea Eagle subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.6) monitors marine top consumers as indicator species to assess harmful effects of environmental toxics. Hopefully, in the long run, the program will show that these species have natural reproduction, health, and population. At present the subprogram has no sampling network. In the Bothnian Bay, the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM) monitors grey seals, ringed seals, and European sea eagles. These observations will show the state and trends of population size, development, and health of seals and of reproduction, population size, and development of European sea eagles. The aim of early warning is to detect changes in reproduction, health, survival, and population trends that may result from changes in the marine environment.
The Integrated Coastal Fish Monitoring subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.5) documents the composition of the stationary fish community as well as the growth, general health situation, and reproduction success of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and burbot (Lota lota) as indicators of environmental toxics. Fish from one site close to Umeå is sent to Gothenburg University for analysis of biochemical, physiological, histological and pathogenic variables in perch.
The Free Water Body subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.4) aims to describe the effects of primarily overfertilization by means of hydrographical, chemical, and biological methods. One part of the program collects samples as frequently as 18 to 25 times per year at a few sea and coastal stations. Another part collects samples only once per year, during winter, to map the extent of areas with low oxygen content and the size of the nutrient pool, which gives the prerequisites for algal bloom in spring.
Metals and Organic Environmental Pollutants subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.3) will report mainly on environmental toxics in biota in the large sea basins, of which the Bothnian Bay and the Gulf of Bothnia are the farthest north. Sea mussels, fish, and bird eggs are collected and analyzed for the content of metals and organic toxics. The material is then stored at the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM) for possible later retrospective analyses.
The subprogram, Macro Fauna Soft Bottoms, contains trend and aerial monitoring of soft-bottom fauna in the Gulf of Bothnia. It is conducted by Umeå Marin Research Center (UmU-M) and includes basic sediment investigation and assessment of oxygen concentration in bottom waters. The aim is to observe if, and in what way, the structure of the bottom macro fauna changes. Changes may indicate over-fertilization and oxygen stagnation. Embryogenes of Amphipod (Monoporeia affinis and Pontoporeia femorata) and its environment is studied at 7 sites in Baltic Proper and 5 sites in Gulf of Bothnia as an indicator species of bottom sediment quality.
Since 2007, SLU has conducted daily phenology observations on forest trees (birch, Scots pine, and Norway spruce) during the spring at four sites in northern Sweden (Fig. 5, Table 5, ##7.2, 8.2, 13.2, and 14.2) In addition, the phenology of 15 plant species is observed at two sites and of birch at one site, all at Abisko (Table 5, #1.11, and 1.12).
At present, Sweden has 4 integrated monitoring (IM) sites that are part of a European network on integrated monitoring with an extensive measurement program. One of these sites, Gammtratten, situated in central Västerbotten, monitors several variables (Table 4, #3.2). SGU conducts groundwater sampling at 3 of the sites. In total, 18 stations are sampled 4 times per year. A program for comprehensive information on the state of forests in Europe was launched 1985 in response to acid deposition and fear of forest decline. The program was named the European ICP-Forest Program (International Co-operative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests operating under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, Table 6, #5). ICP-Forest monitors forest conditions in Europe and operates at two levels of intensity. Level I is a systematic 16 km by 16 km transnational grid having around 6 000 observation plots in Europe. Level II is comprised of around 800 sites in selected forests throughout Europe with more intense observations. The Level I measurements consist of three parts: crown condition assessment, soil condition assessment, and foliar survey. The crown condition assessment includes the degree of defoliation, discoloring, and damage visible on trees. The soil condition assessment addresses possible nutrient imbalances caused by, e.g. acid deposition. The foliar survey assesses foliar nutrient concentrations, because changes in environmental conditions may affect foliar nutrient concentrations. The Swedish contribution is made by the national forest inventory (SLU-FRM), which estimates the degree of crown defoliation and discoloring on 700 permanent plots around the country. The Swedish Forest Agency (SST) organizes the Level II observational plots. They manage a program with more than 200 permanent plots throughout Sweden, on which they estimate forest vitality (several measures), forest growth, soil chemistry, and field vegetation. Of these plots, 100 are connected to the international network, and 20 are north of 60°N. Foliage chemistry is determined on 100 plots, deposition and soil water chemistry on 50 plots, air quality on 25 plots, and climate on 14 plots. The sampling intensity varies from once in 5 years to once per hour depending
Bird populations are monitored as part of SEPA’s “Landscape” program. The Swedish bird census project determines, once per year, the species and number of birds at about 500 sites throughout the country (Table 4, #5.2). The Department of Zooecology, Lund University, organizes this census. Ottenby Bird Observatory on Öland is responsible for bird counting and ringing of small birds at Ottenby (Table 4, #5.3), a key location for migrating birds. From August to November the number and species of migrating birds are counted at Falsterbo in southern Sweden. The Department of Zoo-ecology, Lund University, organizes the census (Table 4, #5.4). Falsterbo is a key location for migrating birds of prey. The Swedish sea-bird inventory is taken place at about 100 sites where these birds spend their winter. Number and species are estimated in January of each year in the internationally coordinated program. The Department of Zoo-ecology, Lund University, conducts the Swedish part (Table 4, #5.5).
Census on small mammals (voles, lemmings, and shrews) are conducted twice per year at 3 sites along the mountain chain (Table 4, #2.2) and at 2 sites in the forest landscape (Table 4, #3.3). Part of the material collected is sent to the environmental sample bank at the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM). The Department of Ecology, Environment, and Geosciences (UmU-EMG) at Umeå University is in charge of the program and analyzes the data.
Samples in moose (Table 4, #3.4) from Norrbotten and Jämtland counties (and 3 counties in southern Sweden) have been analyzed every autumn since 1996. The Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM) organizes this work and stores some of the material, and the Swedish Veterinary Institute (SVA) performs chemical analyses on some of the tissues. Hunting associations organize much of the field sampling. Analyses: As, Cs, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, V, Zn. 2007 screening of organic compounds Sites: Norrbotten, Jämtland, Western Götaland, Jönköping, and Kronoberg Counties Intensity: Each autumn since 1980 (Grimsö), else from 1996
An alternative for metal deposition measurements is to analyze their abundance in mosses since metals bind strongly to cation exchange sites in them. The concentration of metals in mosses would therefore act as an index for metal deposition. It is also assumed that uptake of most water and dissolved substances comes directly from precipitation; even if it has been shown that capillary transport of dissolved metals may be substantial. A national inventory of metals in mosses takes place at 5-year intervals (Table 4, #1.11). The two-to-three last years growth is identified and collected for chemical analysis ICP-AES and ICP-MS (As, Cd, Hg) Metals are adsorbed by mosses and metal concentration in mosses are therefore seen as a proxy for metal deposition. Moss species: Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens Analyzed metals: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, Zn Sampling sites: More than 700 sites over Sweden Time period: 1/5 years, first report 1975 and last reported 2005.
The tree limit has been monitored since 1915 at some sites in the Swedish mountains. The Department of Ecology, Environment, and Geosciences (EMG) at Umeå University, and Jämtland and Dalarna county boards monitored about 300 sites along the Scandinavian mountain chain for upper elevation trees taller than 2 m (Öberg, 2007).
At present SEPA’s program on wetlands is mainly a follow-up on wetland states, e.g. hydrological intactness and biodiversity. On the other hand, wetlands are part of the national inventory of landscape, NILS (see above). Wetland status is embraced by reporting obligations according to the EU Habitat Directive, and SEPA now uses high-resolution satellite data for operational monitoring.