The AMAP Project Directory (AMAP PD) is a catalog of projects and activities that contribute to assessment and monitoring in the Arctic. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), is a working group under the Arctic Council, tasked with monitoring and asessing pollution, climate change, human health and to provide scientific advice as a basis for policy making.
The directory, which is continously updated, documents national and international projects and programmes that contribute to the overall AMAP programme, and provides information on data access as well as a gateway for the AMAP Thematic Data Centres.
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1) To perform simulation scenarios for the 21st century, including global warming scenarios, of potential radioactive spreading from sources in the Russian Arctic coastal zone and its impact on Barents, Greenland and Norwegian Seas and the Arctic Ocean; 2) To update the environmental and pollution data base of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP); 3) To assess, select and define the most probable simulation scenarios for accidental releases of radionuclides; 4) To implement a Generic Model System (GMS) consisting of several nested models designed to simulate radionuclides transport through rivers, in the Kara sea and in the Arctic ocean / North Atlantic; 5) To carry out simulation studies for the selected "release" scenarios of radionuclides, using various atmospheric forcing scenarios; 6) Assess the impact on potential radioactive spreading from sources as input to risk management.
To assess potential levels of radionuclides input into the Kara sea from existing and potential sources of technogenic radioactivity, located on the land in the Ob- and Yenisey rivers watersheds. Specific Objectives * To reveal and estimate a) most hazardous technogenic sources of radioactive contamination in the Ob- and Yenisey watersheds and b) the most possible and dangerous natural and technogenic (antrophogenic) situations (in the regions of these sources) that may result in release of radionuclides into the environment and may lead to significant changes in the radioactive contamination of the Kara sea * To estimate parameters of radionuclides (potential amount, composition, types etc.) under release to the environment from chosen sources as a result of accidents as well as during migration from the sources to the Kara sea through river systems * To set up a dedicated Database and a Geographic Information System (GIS) for modelling transport of radionuclides from the land-based sources to the Kara sea * To develop and create a dedicated model tool for simulation of radionuclides transport from land-based sources through Ob- and Yenisey river systems to the Kara sea
The overall objective of MAIA is to develop an inexpensive, reliable system based on coastal sea-level data for monitoring the inflows of Atlantic Water to the northern seas. Available observation systems, including stan-dard tidal stations, will be used to obtain transport estimates with a time resolution of less than a week and show that the method is generic and can be applied to a similar monitoring of other regions.
In 1994, analyses of sediments and fish from Lake Ellasjøen on Bear Island revealed a surprising scenario. The analytical results indicated some of the highest values of the contaminants PCB and DDT in freshwater sediments and fish ever found in the Arctic. The 1994 results were based on limited amounts of samples. During 1996 and 1997 there were carried out new sampling and analyses of several samples. These results verify the results found in 1994. Since the POP-patterns found deviate considerably from the typical patterns expected for local contamination, no local source can be assumed to be responsible for the high POP values found. Thus, the questions that need to be addressed include the source of these contaminants, the transport pathways that deliver these contaminants to this site, total deposition and finally contaminant fate including biological uptake and effects. Previous investigations from the early 80’s on high volume air samples carried out at Bear Island revealed several long-range transport episodes from Eastern Europe. The overall objective of this project is to contribute significant new information to the understanding of contaminant pathways in the Arctic hydrosphere and to provide a better understanding of contaminant focusing in a sensitive polar environment. This will be accomplished through the development of a comprehensive mass balance study of the atmospheric loadings of PCBs and other contaminants to the Lake Ellasjøen watershed to determine the seasonal importance of atmospheric deposition on a remote polar island. Further, effort will be directed at assessing the relative importance of various source regions of contaminants to the island through an evaluation of contaminant signatures and back trajectories of pollution events.
The aim of the project is to detrmine the content of organic contaminants in sea ice (including dirty ice), sea water (particulate and dissolved), snow, ice algae and phytoplankton collected in the marginal ice zone of the Barents Sea and in Fram Strait, and to calculate bioconcentration factors from the abiotic compartments to the lowest trophic levels of the food chain. Silicate measurements were included in the Fram Strait as water mass tracer. The Barents Sea represents an area influence mainly by first year ice with sea ice formed in the area and or in the Kara Sea, and and strongly influenced by the inflowing two branches of water of Atlantic origin. Samples were collected on a transect along the ice edge and at two transects into the ice. The stations across the Fram Strait were taken in regions affected by water masses and sea ice from differents regions and age. In the western sector, the upper water column was influenced by the inflowing west Spitsbergen current of Atlantic origin and mainly with first-second year ice, while the easter station was influenced by outflowing water from the Arctic Ocean and multiyear sea ice of more eastern origin.
To investigate the impacts of Russia's military and civilian nuclear activities in the Kola Bay and adjacent areas of the northwest Arctic coast of Russia.
To see whether the features in the annual cycle of mercury is a local phenomena for Alert in the Canadian Arctic or also apply to larger ares in the Arctic. To quantify the concentrations/depositions of biological available mercury (reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury) in the Arctic environment during polar sunrise
Our knowledge of mercury fluxes on a global scale is still incomplete. Estimates indicate that Europe and North America contribute less than about 25 % to the global anthropogenic emissions of the element to the atmosphere. The majority of the remaining emissions originate from combustion of fossil fuels, particularly in the Asian countries including China, India, and South and North Korea. Even less and very controversial information is available on emissions of mercury from natural sources, including volatilization of the element from terrestrial and aquatic surfaces. In general, it is assumed that natural emissions of the element are about 3000 t/year, thus contributing more 60 % to the total global emissions of mercury. However, much work needs to be done in order to verify the above estimate.
The project aims to describe the environmental status of marine sediments in van Mijenfjorden. This to provide baseline data of contaminants and biodiversity, as well as for monitoring of eventual contamination from industrial activities (coal mining).
(1) Collate information relating to the environmental transfer and fate of selected radionuclides through aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic. (2) Identify reference Arctic biota that can be used to evaluate potential dose rates to biota in different terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments (3) Model the uptake of a suite of radionuclides, both natural and anthropogenic to reference Arctic biota (4) Develop a reference set of dose models for reference Arctic biota (5) Compile data on dose-effects relationships and assessments of potential radiological consequences for reference Arctic biota (6) Integrate assessments of environmental impact from radionuclides with those for other contaminants.
Investigation of benthic faunal communities for: taxon distribution/ biodiversity mapping; examination of effects of glacial and physical disturbance on community structure; relation between faunal structure and sediment contaminants.
The project aims to carry out an environmental assessment of the marine environment close to the three main settlements in the Isfjorden complex; Barentsburg, Longyearbyen and Pyramiden. The study comprises analyses of sediment geochemistry and soft-bottom benthic fauna. Attention is given to distinguishing atmospheric transport of contaminants from those arising from local sources.
Our projects will investigate the effects of radioactive wastes on marine ecosystems. Two marine ecosystems have been chosen for projects: 1) the dumping site for low level radioactive waste in the north-east Atlantic and 2) the western part of the Barents Sea. The data on the radioecology of North Sea and Baltic Sea obtained in our long-time monitoring programmes will serve as a basis for the interpretation of the project´s results.
Assess the effects of POP mixtures present in the food on the endocrine system of marine mammals. Effects of these mixtures on steroid synthesis in adrenals and gonads will be studied in vitro. Further, hormone mimicking effects of contaminant mixtures will be studied. Contaminant receptor binding and responses of the contaminant-receptor complex are studied using estrogen/androgen receptor binding assays in combination with reporte gene assays.
The general objective is to assess time trends and deposition loads of mercury and persistent organic pollutants from long-range atmospheric transport in Arctic environments (Greenland and north Swedish mountains) using lake sediments. The specific aims are: 1. Mercury - Study pre-industrial and industrial temporal changes in Hg concentrations in sediment records of remote lakes in Greenland and north Swedish mountains. - Address the hypothesis of 'cold condensation' (the progressive re-volatilization in relatively warm locations and subsequent condensation and deposition in cooler environments) of mercury, using a series of lake sediment cores along climate gradients: in Greenland from the inland ice sheet towards the coast and in the Swedish mountains from high altitudes down to the boreal forest. 2. POPs - Make a screening to establish which persistent organic pollutants are present in recent lake sediments in remote sites in Greenland and the north Swedish mountains. Besides PCBs, HCH, DDT and other pesticides, there are new environmental threats such as brominated flame retardants, such as PDBEs, which are of particular interest. The increasing use of PBDE and other brominated compounds may lead to increasing concentrations in the Arctic environment. However, very little is known about the levels of PBDEs as well as other POPs in sediments from the Arctic. - Analyse test series of selected POPs using a lake sediment core to assess temporal trends and a number of surface sediment samples from different lakes to assess spatial variability in concentrations and cumulative fluxes of POPs in Greenland and Swedish mountain lakes. - The main purpose of this pilot study of POPs is to determine the concentrations of selected POPs in sediments from Greenland and the northern Swedish mountains and to assess how useful lake sediments are for studying temporal and spatial pollution loads of POPs in Arctic environments.
The major aim in AMAP is to monitor the levels of anthropogenic contaminants in all major compartments of the Arctic environment, and assess the environmental conditions in the area. This core programme will provide the Danish/Greenlandic authorities with data which make it possible to take part in the international AMAP programme under the Arctic Council. In order to monitor the levels of anthropogenic pollutants, samples will be collected and analysed. The measured components will include heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in order to allow for spatial and temporal trends in Arctic biota. The program has taken in consideration the recommended importance of persistent organic pollutants and mercury and the importance of the marine food chain. The core program focuses on areas with high population density or areas with high levels of pollutants in the environment.
Our broad area of enquiry is the role of polar regions in the global energy and water cycles, and the atmospheric, oceanic and sea ice processes that determine that role. The primary importance of our investigation is to show how these polar processes relate to global climate.
Research in the NOAA OAR Arctic Research Office Activities Supported by Base Funds in FY2000 Joint IARC/CIFAR Research In FY2000, the NOAA Arctic Research Office developed a partnership with the National Science Foundation and the International Arctic Research Center at the University of Alaska to conduct a research program focused on climate variability and on persistent contaminants in the Arctic. This partnership resulted from a unique confluence of mutual interest and unexpected funding that NSF chose to obligate through NOAA because of NOAA's on-going joint programs at the University of Alaska. NSF anticipates establishing its own institutional arrangement with the University of Alaska in the future. The research initiated in FY2000 focused on 5 climate themes and 1 contaminant theme, with several specific topics associated with each: A. detection of contemporary climate change in the Arctic changes in sea ice role of shallow tundra lakes in climate comparison of Arctic warming in the 1920s and the present variability in the polar atmosphere dynamics of the Arctic Oscillation downscaling model output for Arctic change detection long-term climate trends in northern Alaska and adjacent Seas B. Arctic paleoclimate reconstructions drilling in the Bering land bridge Arctic treeline investigation Mt. Logan ice core test models to simulate millennial-scale variability C. Atmosphere-ice-land-ocean interactions and feedbacks impact of Arctic sea ice variability on the atmosphere model-based study of aerosol intrusions into the Arctic international intercomparison of Arctic regional climate models reconstruction of Arctic ocean circulation intercomparison of Arctic ocean models Arctic freshwater budget variation in the Arctic vortex role of Arctic ocean in climate variability Arctic Oscillation and variability of the upper ocean D. Arctic atmospheric chemistry assessment of UV variability in the Arctic Arctic UV, aerosol, and ozone aerosols in the Finnish Arctic inhomogeneities of the Arctic atmosphere aerosol-cloud interactions and feedbacks Arctic haze variability E. Impacts and consequences of global climate change on biota and ecosystems in the Arctic linking optical signals to functional changes in Arctic ecosystems marine ecosystem response to Arctic climate changes faunal succession in high Arctic ecosystems long-term biophysical observations in the Bering Sea cryoturbation-ecosystem interactions predicting carbon dioxide flux from soil organic matter F. Contaminant Sources, Transport, Pathways, Impacts using apex marine predators to monitor climate and contamination change trends in atmospheric deposition of contaminants assessment of data on persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic paleorecords of atmospheric deposition derived from peat bog cores toxicological effects of bio-accumulated pollutants Under these themes, 45 research projects were initiated that will continue into 2001. The support for these projects totals $8 million over two years, of which only $1 million comes from NOAA. This tremendous leverage cannot be expected to continue; however the Arctic Research Office will continue its interactions with the International Arctic Research Center and seek collaborative efforts whenever possible. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment The United States has agreed to lead the other seven Arctic countries to undertake an Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). This assessment will culminate in 2002 with a peer-reviewed report on the state of knowledge of climate variability and change in the Arctic, a set of possible climate change scenarios, and an analysis of the impacts on ecosystems, infrastructure, and socio-economic systems that might result from the various climate change scenarios. NOAA and NSF will provide support in FY2000, with the ARO providing early support and leadership for planning the ACIA. Scientific Planning and Diversity The Arctic Research Office will support scientific planning, information dissemination, and NOAA's diversity goals through workshops and other activities. An international conference on Arctic Pollution, Biomarkers, and Human Health will be held in May, 2000. The conference is being organized by the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, with co-sponsorship by NSF and the Arctic Research Office. Research planning activities are being supported that will lead to future program activities related to climate variability and change and to impacts from contamination of the Arctic. The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is being planned on an interagency basis, with the Arctic Research Office providing input for NOAA. An Alaskan Contaminants Program (ACP) is under development, with leadership coming from organizations within the state of Alaska. To accelerate the flow of minorities into scientific fields of interest to NOAA, the Arctic Research Office will undertake an effort in conjunction with Alaskan Native organizations that will encourage young Native students to obtain degrees in scientific fields. Outlook to FY2001 The Arctic Research Office will use resources available on FY2001 to begin implementation of the interagency Arctic climate science plan "Study of Environmental Arctic Change" (SEARCH). The NOAA/ARO role in SEARCH will involve long-term observations of the ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere, improved computer-based modeling of climate with an emphasis on the Arctic, and diagnostic analysis and assessment of climate data and information from the Arctic. Funds available in FY2001 will permit planning and limited prototype observation and modeling activities. The role of the NOAA/ARO in the Alaska Contaminants Program will become during the last half of FY2000, and some initial activities may be undertaken in FY2001. In addition, the NOAA/ARO will continue its partial sponsorship of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, being pursued on an international basis with the involvement of all 8 Arctic countries. It is anticipated that the ARO will provide support to experts to produce portions of the draft state-of-knowledge report during FY2001 and conduct one or more review workshops.
Our central geophysical objective is to determine how sea ice and the polar oceans respond to and influence the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere. Our primary technical objective is to determine how best to incorporate satellite measurements in an ice/ocean model.
To develop a long-range (ca. 30-day) AUV to deploy under the Arctic pack ice to measure and monitor ocean variables.