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This project was previously a part of the project: National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation.
The Swedish National Forest Inventory (NFI) has the task of describing the state and changes of Sweden's forests. The inventory gathers basic information on forests, forest stand conditions and vegetation. Regularly monitored variables are: forest state, injuries, growth, logging operations, new forest stand, and environmental assessment. There is a close collaboration between the NFI and the Swedish Forest Soil Inventory (SFSI).
This project has been divided into two new projects: The Swedish Forest Soil Inventory and the Swedish National Forest Inventory.
The Swedish National Forest Inventory has the task of describing the state and changes in Sweden's forests. The inventory gathers basic information on forests, soils and vegetation. It includes most aspects concerning soils, for example: soil types, soil chemistry including organic matter, water conditions and content of stones and boulders. Acidification, nitrogen deposition and the contribution by soils to climate change are some of the current issues dealt with. Regularly reported variables are: forest state, injuries, and growth, logging operations, new forest stand, and environmental assessment. Invented variables on permanent sampling plots include: position in the landscape, field vegetation, site conditions, soil sampling, assesment of soil characteristics, chemical analysis of soil in O-, B-, BC- and C-horizons.
Annual measurements of physical, chemical, and biological variables are taken in small to medium sized, mostly minimally disturbed lakes, situated across the country. Of the 108 lakes that are part of the Trend Station Lake monitoring programme, 20 are situated in AMAP area. The main aim of the monitoring programme is to document long-term changes related to global or regional change and human-generated stressors. To complement the Trend Station Lake monitoring programme, national lake surveys provide spatial data needed to determine regional patterns, and coupled with time-series data, changes in surface water quality. The National Lake Survey (the Surveillance Stations, re-sampled stations) programme for lake water quality, started in 2007 and results in data of all Swedish lake conditions. Each year some 800 new lakes are sampled to determine chemical and physical conditions; lakes are resampled at 6 year intevals. 4824 lakes are sampled in the country during a six-year sampling cycle, with 1270 situated in AMAP area. The variables included in the Trend Station Lake monitoring programme include water chemistry, fish, phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and benthic invertebrates, whilst the National Lake Survey is focused solely on chemical and physical parameters.
At present, Sweden has 4 integrated monitoring (IM) sites that are part of a European network on integrated monitoring with an extensive measurement program. One of these sites, Gammtratten, situated in central Västerbotten, monitors several variables. This program is part of the International Cooperative Programme (ICP) on Integrated Monitoring (IM) of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems In Sweden there are three IM-sites, out of which Gammtratten in northern Sweden is one. The IM program at Gammtratten is performed by a consortium including IVL, SGU and SLU-EA. Basically there are three types of monitoring at the IM-sites, viz. Climatic, Chemical and Biological observations. Below is a list of the different analysis programs Air Concentration: SO2, NO2 Bulk deposition: pH, Cond, NO3-N, NH4-N, SO4-S, CL, Ca, Mg, Na, K, (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, MetylHg, Cr, Ni, Co, V, As) Throughfall: pH, Cond, NO3-N, NH4-N, SO4-S, CL, Ca, Mg, Na, K, (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, MetylHg, Cr, Ni, Co, V, As) Soil water: pH, Cond, tot-N, org-N, NO3-N, NH4-N, Tot-P, PO4-P, DOC, SO4-S, CL, Alk, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al, Al-tot, Al-org, Al-inorg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, MetylHg, Cr, Ni, Co, V, As Groundwater: All years: pH, Cond, Si, NO3-N+NO2-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, TOC, SO4-S, CL, Alk/acidity, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and some years also Hg, Metyl-Hg, Cr, Ni, Co, V, As Stream water: All years pH, Cond, NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, TOC, SO4-S, CL, Alk/acidity, tot-N, tot-C, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al, Fe, Mn, runoff volume and some years also Hg, Metyl-Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and labile Al. Soil chemistry: pH in water extracts, exchange acidity, exchangeable Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al, Mn, and Fe, base saturation and total content of C, N, P, S, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg Litter fall: Amount of litter (dw per unit area), total P, C, N, and S, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Al, Mn, Fe and during special years also Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg Litter decomp.: Dry weight loss from standard needles of Scots pine Soil respiration: CO2 -evolution per hour at 20oC, pH, Pb, Cd, Hg in OF-layer Understorey veg.: Field vegetation: Species, coverage, fertility, trees: speecies, coordinates, dbh, heiight, vitality. Down logs and stumps: species, dbh, degree of decomposition Needle chemistry: Total-P, tot-C, tot-N, and tot-S, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, arginin Biomass: Biomass, tot-C, tot-N, tot-P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B Forest injuries: Needle loss, dicolouring of needles, other injuries, tree class Simulated water balance: Precipitation, Evaporation, Runoff, Soil water, Snow Network type: integrated monitoring
The sample plot-based national forest inventory (RIS-RT) has been a continuous activity at SLU (and the forest research organizations existing before SLU) since 1923. All Sweden is included except the subalpine birch forest along the mountain chain. The national forest inventory is part of Sweden’s official statistics and is maintained by the Department of Forest Resource Management (SLU-FRM). The sampling strategy combines random and fixed plots and covers the country every 5 years. Each year around 10 000 sample plots are field surveyed nationwide. Approximately 200 variables are recorded for each plot.
At present, Sweden has 4 integrated monitoring (IM) sites that are part of a European network on integrated monitoring with an extensive measurement program. One of these sites, Gammtratten, situated in central Västerbotten, monitors several variables (Table 4, #3.2). SGU conducts groundwater sampling at 3 of the sites. In total, 18 stations are sampled 4 times per year. A program for comprehensive information on the state of forests in Europe was launched 1985 in response to acid deposition and fear of forest decline. The program was named the European ICP-Forest Program (International Co-operative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests operating under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, Table 6, #5). ICP-Forest monitors forest conditions in Europe and operates at two levels of intensity. Level I is a systematic 16 km by 16 km transnational grid having around 6 000 observation plots in Europe. Level II is comprised of around 800 sites in selected forests throughout Europe with more intense observations. The Level I measurements consist of three parts: crown condition assessment, soil condition assessment, and foliar survey. The crown condition assessment includes the degree of defoliation, discoloring, and damage visible on trees. The soil condition assessment addresses possible nutrient imbalances caused by, e.g. acid deposition. The foliar survey assesses foliar nutrient concentrations, because changes in environmental conditions may affect foliar nutrient concentrations. The Swedish contribution is made by the national forest inventory (SLU-FRM), which estimates the degree of crown defoliation and discoloring on 700 permanent plots around the country. The Swedish Forest Agency (SST) organizes the Level II observational plots. They manage a program with more than 200 permanent plots throughout Sweden, on which they estimate forest vitality (several measures), forest growth, soil chemistry, and field vegetation. Of these plots, 100 are connected to the international network, and 20 are north of 60°N. Foliage chemistry is determined on 100 plots, deposition and soil water chemistry on 50 plots, air quality on 25 plots, and climate on 14 plots. The sampling intensity varies from once in 5 years to once per hour depending
The total column amount of ozone and other trace gases are measured with mm-wave instruments, FT-IR and DOAS spectrometers, at IRF in Kiruna (Table 6, #8.1). With the sun or moon as infrared light sources, FT-IR spectrometers can quantify the total column amounts of many important trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere. At present the following species are retrieved from the Kiruna data: O3 (ozone), ClONO2, HNO3, HCl, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC- 22, NO2, N2O, NO, HF, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CH4, CO, COF2, H2O, HCN, HO2NO2, NH3, N2, and OCS. Together with Russian and Finnish institutes at the same latitude, IRF studies the stratospheric ozone and its dependence on polar atmospheric circulation and precipitation of charged particles. The ground-based instruments are also used to validate satellite measurements of vertical ozone distribution (Odin, SAGE III, and GOME). Aerosols and thin clouds are measured at IRF in Kiruna. For example, researchers use Lidars (Light Detection and Ranging) to measure polar stratospheric and noctilucent clouds. Winds and structures are measured with ESRAD MST radar at IRF in Kiruna. At IRF in Kiruna measurements are used to assess the physical and chemical state of the stratosphere and upper troposphere and the impact of changes on the global climate. Particle precipitation is measured by relative ionospheric opacity meters (riometers) at IRF in Kiruna. Riometers measure the absorption of cosmic noise at 30 and 38 MHz and provide information about particles with energies larger than 10 keV. The electron density of the ionosphere is measured by ionosonds and digisondes at IRF in Kiruna.
Deposition measurements are mainly made in forest injury observation plots laid out by the Swedish Forestry Agency (SST). The observations made are: Air Chemistry: SO2, NO2, NH3, O3 Soil Water Chemistry: pH, Alk, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe, ooAl, oAl, Al-tot, TOC Deposition open field precipitation: H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn Deposition in forest throughfall: H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn A notorious problem in deposition assessments is dry deposition on forest canopies. If throughfall is sampled below the canopy it will consist not only of dry and wet deposition, but also of canopy leakage, i.e. exudates and diffusion of substances from within the leaves. However, it has been argued that throughfall sampling, even if not free from problems, may add information to the normal wet deposition sampling. IVL operates a throughfall sampling network comprised of 10 forest sites for sampling, from which monthly samples are analyzed for pH, SO4, NO3, NH4, Kjeldahl-N, Cl, K, Ca, Na, Mg, TOC, conductivity, alkalinity, and amount of throughfall.
Calculating deposition in a grid over Sweden showed the lack of information on deposition at high altitude. SMHI applied the meso scale MATCH model to calculate the deposition field and the matched model is called MATCH-Sweden. The result is found at http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=5640&l=sv The observations made at these stations are: Particles in air: SO4-S, NO3-N, NH4-N, Cl, Na, Ca, Mg, K Gase:s NH3-N, HNO3-N, SO2-S Deposition open field precipitation: H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K Deposition in forest throughfall: H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K To integrate the relatively few deposition measurement sites, SMHI has adopted the Mesoscale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry Model (MATCH) that uses emission data, meteorological data, routines for chemical processes, and a transport model to calculate long-range transport and deposition of air pollutants (Table 4, #1.5). Time series of gridded data over Sweden for deposition of different inorganic chemical compounds calculated with the MATCH-Sweden model are available at SMHI (Appendix, Table 11). When the MATCH-Sweden model was first tested, the deposition network lacked high elevation sites. Hence, a monitoring program for deposition at higher elevations (Table 4, #1.9) was started. It consists of 4 sites in high elevation forests along the Swedish mountain ridge, where NO3, NH4, NH3, HNO3, SO2, SO4, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, pH, conductivity, and amount of precipitation are analyzed on monthly accumulated precipitation samples.
Investigations within many areas of biosciences and geosciences are carried out at the station. The emphasis of staff research is on plant ecology and meteorology. The main objectives of the ecological projects are to study the dynamics of plant populations and to identify the controlling factors at their latitudinal and altitudinal limits. The meteorological projects deal with recent climate changes in the region, and also with local variations of the microclimate in subalpine and alpine ecosystems.
The Faculty of Forestry at SLU has two research stations with experimental forests, two experimental forests with permanent staff, three without permanent staff and a large number of long-term field trials. These facilities are spread over the country.
Effects of UV-B radiation on microbial communities in Kongsfjorden in relation to metal and dissolved organic matter availabillity.
The study aims to optimise the used of landscape data as satellite images, aerial photos, maps, weather data when assessing conditions contributing to accidental risks. So far the study has focused on slope processes along the railway between Kiruna and Riksgränsen (Norwegian border).