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Stationary systematic observations of pollution in atmospheric air and precipitation. During 2000, observations of contaminant levels in atmospheric air in the cities of Murmansk, Nickel, Monchegorsk, Salekhard and Norilsk were conducted. Monitoring of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation was continued at the above locations and also at Yaniskosky (Kola peninsula) and Pinega (Arkhangelsk region) under the EMEP programme framework. Observations of CO2 were continued at the Teriberk station. Observations of the chemical content of atmospheric precipitation were carried out at 5 stations in the Arctic network of stationary observations: in the Krasnoshelye settlement area (Kola peninsula), Naryan-Mar (Pechora river area), Dikson Island, Turuhansk (Yenisey river area), and Kusyur settlement area (Lena river). Under a joint Russian-Canadian-AMAP project, monitoring of POPs and (from 2001) mercury in air at the Amderma site is conducted.
The 'Karex - Pechora' expedition marine investigations by the research vessel 'Ivan Petrov' in the Kara and Pechora seas in August 2000, and by the research vessel 'Hydrolog' during September-October 2000. During August 2000 samples of marine water, suspended and bottom sediments at 30 oceanographic stations were analyses for contaminants. At 8 stations, hydrobiological investigations included sampling of benthic organisms, plankton and fish, for studies of bioaccumulation and transformation of contaminants.
The 'Lena-2000' expedition was performed in the area of the mouth of the Lena river and the shelf of the eastern part of the Laptev Sea during August 2000. Samples of river and marine water, suspended and bottom sediments were taken at 30 hydrological stations to study the mechanisms of contaminant transport by river water.
The expedition by vessel 'Nikolai Kolomeets'included sampling of marine water, bottom sediments, benthos and plankton for studies of accumulation and transformation of OCs and estimation of related toxic effects on aqueous biocenoses. The marine studies took place during the period July-October 2000 in areas of the Pechora, Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas.
The expedition 'Arctic-2000' included climatic, hydrometeorological and hydrochemical studies in the eastern part of the Central Arctic Basin, during the period July-August 2000.
Brief: Assessment of the significance of aquatic food chains as a pathways of exposure of indigenous peoples to PTS, assessment of the relative importance of local and distant sources, and the role of atmospheric and riverine transport of PTS in Northern Russia. Project rationale and objectives: (1) To assess levels of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS) in the environment in selected areas of the Russian North, their biomagnification in aquatic and terrestrial food chains, and contamination of traditional (country) foods that are important components of the diet of indigenous peoples. (2) To assess exposure of indigenous peoples in the Russian North to PTS, and the human health impacts of pollution from local and remote sources, as a basis for actions to reduce the risks associated with these exposures. (3) To inform indigenous peoples about contamination by PTS of their environment and traditional food sources, and empower them to take appropriate remedial actions to reduce health risks. (4) To enhance the position of the Russian Federation in international negotiations to reduce the use of PTS, and to empower the Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON) to participate actively and fully in these negotiations. Project activities to achieve outcomes: (1) Inventory of local pollution sources in the vicinities of selected indigenous communities. (2) Survey of levels and fluxes of PTS in riverine and coastal marine environment important for indigenous peoples living in these environments and using them for their subsistence; and assessment of fluxes of PTS to these environments via selected rivers and the atmosphere. (3) Dietary surveys of selected indigenous communities. (4) Study of biomagnification, based on measurements of selected PTS in representative species in food chains important for the traditional diet of indigenous populations. (5) Survey and comparative assessment of pollution levels of the indigenous and general population in selected areas. (6) Dissemination of results to all relevant stakeholders.