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FUVIRC will serve ecosystem research, human health research and atmospheric chemistry research by providing UV monitoring data and guidance (i.e. calibration of instruments, maintenance of field test sites), research facilities (laboratories and accommodation), instruments and equipment.
The main objective of the facility is to enhance the international scientific co-operation at the seven Finnish research stations and to offer a very attractive and unique place for multidisciplinary environmental and atmospheric research in the most arctic region of the European Union. Factors such as, arctic-subarctic and alpine-subalpine environment, northern populations, arctic winters with snow, changes in the Earth's electromagnetic environment due to external disturbances and exceptionally long series of observations of many ecological and atmospheric variables should interest new users.
The possibility of restoring the salmon stocks in the Tuloma system is assessed by collecting background information on the river system: present fish fauna, habitat quality, migratory routes etc. Planning the restoration including technical and management aspects is under way.
1. To establish, on the basis of common methods, a periodic inventory of damage caused to forests, in particular by atmospheric pollution. 2. To establish or extend, in a co-ordinated and harmonious way, the network of observation plots required to draw up that inventory. 3. To conduct intensive, continuous surveillance of forestry ecosystems. 4. To establish or extend, in a co-ordinated and harmonious way, a network of permanent observation plots required for such intensive, continuous surveillance.
The aim is to observe long term effects of land use practices on waters. Monitoring concerns specific locations, where diffuse loads of nutrient or pollutants of agricultural and forestry origin poses a significant risk on water quality. Monitoring includes biological and physio-chemical elements. The program is part of monitoring according to the Water Framework Directive. It is coordinated by Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE).
Vascular plants and mosses are also terrestrial bioindicators for radioactive fallout, The summer fodder of reindeer consist of 200- 300 vascular plants . Therefore vascular plants are an important link in the foodchain plants - reindeer/game - man. STUK has several permanent plant sampling sites, usually in the vicinity of the lichen plots. Only a few of of them are included in Finnish NIP. The results obtained are gammanuclide or occasionally also 90Sr concentrations, Bq/kg.
Monitoring of the salmon stocksof the Teno and Näätämö river systems is based on long term data collection on juvenile salmon production, biological characteristics of the spawning stock, origin of salmon (wild/reared) and statistics on fishery and catches. Information on other fish species than salmon is also available.
Monitoring of the water quality reflecting long-range transboundary air pollution including acidifying compounds, metals and POPs, and climatic change. Part of the sites are also including in biological monitoring. Monitoring sites are the most upland lakes and they are not under any significant human impact. Information is distributed to the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Monitoring is managed by Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE).
Lichens are the best terrestrial bioindicators for radioactive fallout and also the most important link in foodchain lichen - reindeer - man. Generally, Fenced permanent sampling plots are used to study the biological half-life of 137Cs in lichen. However, some of the STUKs sampling plots are unfenced which are subjected to grazing by reindeer. Start year: early 60's as a project of the Radiochemistry Department of University in Helsinki. Stuk's participation since 1975. Data are collected from 1961, 1980, 1982 or 1986, continuously every 3-5 years. Data processing/work-up and data archiving/reporting work are conducted from 1961, 1980, 1982. Continous data sets from 1986 to 2010.
Monitoring aims to follow certain pollutant concentrations and their changes in fish tissue and sediment. Both inland lakes, one river and coastal areas are sampled. Lapland monitoring site is Lake Inarijärvi. Project is managed by Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE).
Atmosphere monitoring, cryosphere monitoring, atmosphere-biosphere interaction. In situ monitoring with automatic and manual systems (e.g. synoptic meteorological observations since 1908), measurements with ground-based reference systems of space-borne remote sensing instruments Network type: In situ monitoring with automatic and manual systems (e.g. synoptic meteorological observations since 1908), measurements with ground-based reference systems of space-borne remote sensing instruments
SMEAR I –station (Station for Measuring Ecosystem – Atmosphere Relations) was built in 1991-1992 at the side of Värriö Subarctic Research Station to monitor the pollution originating from Kola Peninsula. Continuous measurements of trace gases, aerosols, photosynthesis growth of Scots pines and meteorology have been carried on by the University of Helsinki since 1992. The station is located at the northern border of Salla municipality, some 6 km’s from the Russian border and built on top of a 390 m high forested hill. A 16 meter high weather mast is mounted next to the measurement cabin. The closest source area for air pollutants are the mining and metallurgical industry at the Kola Peninsula with the most important point sources being Nikel, Montcegorsk and Zapolyarny, respectively. In addition to the measurements carried on by the University of Helsinki, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has been measuring both sulphates and heavy metals using filter sampling techniques. Also, respiration and photosynthesis of the soil has been measured campaign wise in the vicinity of the station. Trace gases have been measured at four different levels (2, 6.5, 9 and 15 m) above the ground until recently the three highest sampling levels were taken off. The sulphur dioxide concentration is measured with a pulsed fluorescence analyzer. Nitrogen oxides (most importantly NO and NO2) are measured with an analyzer that is based on chemiluminescence and ozone is measured with a photometric analyzer. Total aerosol concentration has been measured since 1991 and the particle size distribution since 1997. The cut-off diameter of the size distribution measurements was changed from 8 nm to 3 nm in 2003. The total concentration is measured using CPC (Condensation Particle Counter) and the size distribution with DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) system. Photosynthesis of Scots pines is measured from living twigs using chambers placed on top of the trees. Also, the growth in width and length are measured. A wide range of meteorological parameters are measured at five different levels (2, 4, 6.6, 9, 15 ja 16 m). Network type: Automatic and manual monitoring of atmosphere and biosphere (incl. SMEAR I –station and synoptic weather observations) as well as tracking and monitoring wide range of flora and fauna (e.g. game, insects and berries).
The national program of intensive forest monitoring is managed by the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla). In 2011 five of the 18 Finnish intensive monitoring plots situated in Finnish Lapland (Fig. 5.1.: Sevettijärvi, Pallasjärvi and three plots in Kivalo). Finnish national intensive forest monitoring network is part of pan-European ICP Forests network of ca. 800 plots (http://icp-forests.net/page/level-ii). ICP Forests (the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) operates under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. These intensive monitoring plots were established in co-operation of ICP Forests and European Commission in mid 1990’s. European Commission co-financed forest monitoring under forest monitoring regulations until the end of 2006 when the Forest Focus regulation (EC No 2152 / 2003) expired. During 2009-2011 part of these intensive forest monitoring plots were included in Life+-project called “FutMon” (Further Development and Implementation of an EU-level Forest Monitoring System: http://www.futmon.org/). Monitoring is carried out following the manual of ICP Forests (http://icp-forests.net/page/icp-forests-manual) and the monitoring data is submitted once a year to the ICP Forests database in Hamburg. Every year Programme Coordinating Centre of ICP Forests publishes technical and executive reports on the condition of forests in Europe. ICP Forests monitoring activities provide information also for a number of criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management as defined by the Forest Europe Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe. Network type: National nation-wide monitoring
The monitoring is focused on risk assessment of LRTAP -type substances in terrestrial foodchains of the Boreal and subarctic environment. The concentration levels in precipitation, in the soil humus and in the indicator species (e.g. red woodants, common shrew) are studied annually in the seven areas locating in the Southern, Middle and Northern Finland. Possible gradients and changes in concentration levels between the Southern and Northern environments will be a part of the base data for risk assessment and pollution development in Finland.
Objectives: To determine the temporal and spatial trends and accumulation rates of heavy metals and persistent organic contamineants and to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals. Summary: Heavy metal and persistent organic contaminant concentrations and accumulation rate are measured in Pb-210 dated sediment cores of small lakes in different areas of Finnish Lapland.