Russia: projects/activities

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Directory entires that have specified Russia as one of the geographic regions for the project/activity and are included in the AMAP, ENVINET, SAON and SEARCH directories. Note that the list of regions is not hierarchical, and there is no relation between regions (e.g. a record tagged with Nunavut may not be tagged with Canada). To see the full list of regions, see the regions list. To browse the catalog based on the originating country (leady party), see the list of countries.

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Displaying: 1 - 20 of 32 Next
1. Marine coastal observations

Monitoring and forecast of the sea and atmosphere state in the coastal area, support of safety of navigation and marine activities. Main gaps: Initial data before 1977 have not been digitized.

Atmosphere Oceanography
2. Ecogeochemical mapping of the eastern Barents Region (Barents Ecogeochemistry)

Geochemical mapping project based on multimaterial and -elemental method covering the NW Russia and adjacent areas of Finland and Norway. NW-Russia is of strategic importance not only for Europe but also for the sosio-economic development of the whole Russia for its richness in natural resources. Their use must be based on environmentally acceptable principles. In addition, within the area exist numerous industrial centres whose environmental impacts are unknown. The information produced by the project is significant for the future development of the area and remedial measures of the environment. The project lead by the applicant, will be carried out in 1999-2003 in cooperation with Russian and Norwegian partners.

Geology PCBs Soils Catchment studies Mapping Heavy metals Radioactivity PAHs Long-range transport Acidification Pollution sources Contaminant transport Mining Radionuclides Arctic Local pollution GIS Geochemistry Dioxins/furans Data management Sediments
3. Monitoring of the Atlantic salmon stocks of the Teno (Tana) and Näätämö (Neidenelva) river systems, northernmost Fennoscandia.

Monitoring of the salmon stocksof the Teno and Näätämö river systems is based on long term data collection on juvenile salmon production, biological characteristics of the spawning stock, origin of salmon (wild/reared) and statistics on fishery and catches. Information on other fish species than salmon is also available.

Biological effects Biology Populations Hydrography Catchment studies Fish Indigenous people Acidification Spatial trends Modelling Biodiversity Arctic Reproduction Diet Temporal trends Ecosystems
4. Overview of the State of the Arctic Hydrometeorological Observation Networks

In the context of the tasks SAON SG steering group, the topology of the Arctic hydrometeorological observation network can be presented in the following concise form: 1. Agrometeorological; 2. Actinometric; 3. Aerological (radiosounding); 4. Water balance; 5. Hydrological on rivers; 6. Hydrometeorological on lakes; 7. Glaciological; 8. Meteorological; 9. Marine hydrometeorological (in the coastal zone, river estuaries, open areas including marine vessel and expeditionary); 10. Avalanche; 11. Ozone measuring; 12. Heat balance; 13. Atmospheric electricity; 14. Water, soil and snow surface evaporation; 15. Chemical composition of water and air. Observation network data are operationally transferred to Roshydromet’s data telecommunication network except for those indicated in items 4, 7,12-15. The main networks in terms of the number of observation points and volume of information obtained are meteorological, marine hydrometeorological, river hydrological, aerological and actinometric ones. Meteorological observations are considered as the main type of observations. To establish a common database and control timely and complete collection and distribution of information, a catalog of meteorological bulletins is being created to be the plan of hydrometeorological information transfer from the sources to Roshydromet’s data telecommunication network to distribute among information recipients The catalog of meteorological observations is maintained by State Institution “Hydrometeorological Center” and State Institution “Main Radio-Meterological Center”. Electronic version of the catalogs of meteorological bulletins is maintained by State Institution “Main Radio-Meterological Center” and located on the Internet site The catalog of meteorological bulletins contains the following information: − Name of Roshydromet’s subordinate Federal State Institution and observation point to input data into the automated data system; − shortened title of the hydrometeorological bulletin in proper format; − observation data coded form; − hours of observation; − data transfer check time; − number of observation points taking part in one bulletin; − lists of five-digit indices for observation points. Changes are entered into the catalogs of meteorological bulletins quarterly. WMO’s WWW is considered as the main foreign information consumer. The lists of WMO correspondent stations are given in WMO publications # 9, vol. C, part 1 (Catalog of Meteorological Observations), vol. A (Observation Stations). 2. SAON is expected to stimulate the process of improving configuration and completeness of the circumpolar region monitoring system as a potential tool for international consolidation of the opportunities available in the functioning of observation networks in order to improve national standards quality and ensure more complete compliance of the Arctic research strategies proposed to socioeconomic needs and interests of Arctic countries 3. The catalog of points and main observations is given in Table 1 (see Fig. 1). The maximum development of the Russian hydrometeorological observations in the Arctic was reached in early 1980s, when information was received from 110 stations. In subsequent years, the number of stations decreased more than twice (Fig. 2). The current level of observations is determined by the functioning of a network consisting of 49 points two of which are automatic weather stations. Three points are temporarily removed from operation. In short term, 8 automatic stations are expected to be opened; while in medium and long term, the number of manned observation points will increase up to 52-54, and the number of automatic ones – up to 20-25. For the manned network, the meteorological program includes a set of eight-hour observations of: atmosphere pressure, wind parameters, air and soil temperature, relative humidity, weather phenomena, cloud height, visual range, precipitation, while for automatic weather stations – a set of reduced 4-hour observations. The marine hydrometeorological program includes coastal observation of temperature, water salinity (density), sea-level variations, heave, ice distribution (and thickness) as well as meteorological parameters under the change of observation conditions from hourly to ten-day observations. The river hydrological program is quite similar to the marine one. It does not include observations of water density, however, they can be included for the stations having a special status, measurement of water discharge, alluvia and chemical composition of water. The programs will include hourly and ten-day observations. The aerological program will include 1-2 –hour measurements of: atmosphere pressure and wind parameters on selected isobaric surfaces. Actinometric observations include measurement of 5 components of atmosphere radiation balance in case of the full program and measurement of total radiation under a reduced program. Network type: The main networks in terms of the number of observation points and volume of information obtained are meteorological, marine hydrometeorological, river hydrological, aerological and actinometric ones.

Oceanography Atmosphere Ecosystems
5. Permafrost observational networks in Russia

Lack of consistent spatially representative and sufficiently long time series characterizing the state of permafrost and its dynamics under changing climatic conditions necessitates improvement and further development of observational networks. The purpose of this section is to provide an insight into the permafrost networks available in the Russian part of the Artic. Data characterizing the state and dynamics of Russian permafrost in the past several decades come from three independent sources. The first source of data is soil temperature observations up to 3.2 m. depth conducted at selected meteorological stations. These conventional measurements are not specifically targeted at studying permafrost parameters. Two other networks, authorized under the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and its associated organizations, have been developed for monitoring permafrost temperature and seasonal thaw depth. Temperature observations in the boreholes are conducted under the framework of the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) project. Another source is the data from the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) project. Here we give brief description of these networks and results obtained so far for Russian permafrost regions. Main gaps: Although soil temperatures are measured at many of the Russian stations, observations in permafrost regions are sparse and do not capture the whole range of permafrost variability due to difference in climatic and biophysiographical conditions. • Evaluation of the soil temperature regime and dynamics through correlations with air temperatures is not an option, since only a small part of total variability is explained. • Other networks and measurements are needed to evaluate the dynamics of permafrost.

6. Monitoring of Biodiversity in the Arctic

Briefly and schematically, data on the availability of monitoring information on seabirds nesting in the Russian Arctic are given in the Table. It should be noted that the less favorable situation with monitoring of nesting sea birds is in the central Russian Arctic and its high-latitude regions where colonies exist of Arctic and high-Arctic type. No monitoring is being conducted there, and no systematic observations were made before. The situation is a little bit better with facultativecolonial disperse nesting species, they are rarely the subjects of long-term research and monitoring programs. The situation is better with the Arctic peripheral zones, i.e. White-Barents Seas and Bering-Far East sectors. There are areas covered by long-term observations, but they are often those that are out of the Arctic region according to CAFF definition (Onega Bay, Taui Bay, Commander Islands). Unfortunately, the most representative sea bird monitoring series in the CAFF area, collected in Kandalaksha and Wrangel Island reserves, were interrupted and/or disturbed in the 1990s (in terms of continuity of methods of material collection).

7. Observation of Greenhouse Gases using Aircraft and Tower Network in Siberia

Cooperation with: ・Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk, Russia ・Permafrost Institute, Yakutsk, Russia ・Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow, Russia ・Institute of Microbiology, Moscow, Russia

Climate Pollution sources Atmosphere
8. Network of terrestrial meteorological observations

Monitoring and forecast of the atmosphere state and climate change. Main gaps: Initial historical data from specific stations have not been digitized It is needed to control and recover gaps in historical data from specific stations.

9. Human Health National Social-hygienic monitoring system

To establish and maintain the state-owned national system of monitoring, analysis, assessment and support of decision making in the area of environmental and public health with focus on management of health risk factors such as environmental pollution, infections, food and water quality etc. The system has been enforced by the federal governmental Decree Feb. 2. 2006 # 60. It comprises all administrative units (republics, oblasts (counties), autonomous okrugs, cities and some municipalities of Russian Federation including those located in the arctic region. Main gaps: The health and demographic data link exclusively to administrative provinces of Russia which are not always applicable to geographical and climatic regions such as arctic. Network type: Service of Protection Consumers’ Right and Human Wellbeing, Federal Service of Hydrometeorology, laboratories accredited for contaminant measurements, regional/city administration health committees, hospitals Regional and City based observations

Human health
10. Aerological observation network

Monitoring and forecast of the atmosphere state and climate change. Main gaps: Initial historical data before 1961 from specific stations have not been digitized. A part of metadata have not been digitized

11. Network of voluntary marine meteorological observations

Incidental hydrometeorological observations along vessel routes. Monitoring and forecast of the surface layer atmosphere state, hydrometeorological support of safety of navigation and marine activities.

12. Network of hydrological stations located on rivers and channels

Monitoring and forecast of the state of water streams and hydrological hazards, assessment of water resources. Main gaps: Initial data before 1984 have not been digitized.

13. Oceanographic observations

Monitoring and forecast of the sea and ocean state, support of safety of navigation and marine activities. Main gaps: Additional control is needed for historical data, especially with regard to hydrochemical parameters.

Oceanography Atmosphere
14. International Network of Permafrost Observatories (INPO)

Coastal Module of GOOS

15. The Arctic sea ice ecosystem in recent environmental changes

Biological materials obtained in the central Arctic Ocean at the FSU “North Pole stations” in 1975-1981 have shown that the multi-year ice and ice/water interface is of rich and diverse biotop inhabited by the large number of diatoms and invertebrate animals. Two main matter fluxes in the sea ice ecosystem may be distinguished: (1) the inflow of biogenous elements from water into the ice interior where they are assimilated by the microflora during photosynthesis (summer stage), and (2) the outflow – from ice to water - of the organic matter accumulated in the summer due to photosynthesis (winter stage). Accumulation of organic matter within the sea ice interior during the process of photosynthesis may be considered as an energy depot for organisms of the whole trophic network of the arctic sea ice ecosystem. Recent data from the SHEBA Ice Camp drifted within the Beaufort Gyre 1997-1998 have shown that: (1) sea ice diatoms are very scarce by species and numbers; (2) fresh water green algae are dominated by numbers and distributed within the whole sea ice thickness; (3) invertebrate animals within the sea ice interior are not indicated; (4) invertebrate animals from the ice/water interface are scarce by species and numbers; (5) concentrations of chlorophyll and nutrients in the sea ice are significantly lower of the average concentrations measured before in this region for the same period of time. Remarkable accumulation of the organic mater within the sea ice interior were not indicated.

Biological effects taxonomy Biology Sea ice Climate change Arctic Ocean Ice Biodiversity Arctic production sea ice biota
16. Population ecology of arctic geese in relation to natural predation pressure

In order to manage populations of migratory geese a better understanding of the mechanisms that determine the size of these populations is needed. The objective of this project is to investigate such mechanisms, within the framework of the entire population of Dark-bellied Brent Geese, that winters in western Europe, and breeds in northern Siberia. The final objective of this project is to help predict future numbers of geese that will winter in western Europe in order to be able to forecast levels of agricultural damage caused by geese. Though hunting is an important factor determining the size of most goose populations, this is not a focal point in this project. Therefore this project focuses on a virtually non-hunted subspecies, viz. the Dark-bellied Brent Goose. Research activities Field work has been carried out in the Pyasina-delta in northern Taymyr, Russia during six consecutive summers from 1990 - 1995 in order to cover two complete lemming cycles. The project focuses the one hand on natural predators (like arctic foxes, Snowy Owls, Glaucous Gulls and Herring Gulls, and even Polar Bears) as a regulatory mechanism for the Dark-bellied Brent Geese, a virtually non-hunted subspecies. Lemming cycles have an important effect on the abundance and behaviour of most of these predators, and measuring lemming density forms an integral part of this study. On the other hand weather conditions, as well as the body condition of the geese themselves are being studied, because those factors are in themselves extremely important predictors of breeding success.

Biology Populations lemmings Biodiversity geese Food webs predation Reproduction breeding sucess Ecosystems
17. Bewick's Swan ecology of migration and reproduction in the Pechora Delta, Russia

International cooperative research program (field work in 1992-1996) on Bewick's Swans, on ecological limitations in the annual cycle, mainly during periods of high energy expenditure, i.e. breeding and migration. Relates to feeding ecology (both terrestrial and aquatic (pondweed tubers) vegetation, annual variation in climatic conditions. Aims at: 1. understanding limiting factors for population size (production of young and survival) 2. understanding migratory behaviour in this large species 3. protecting crucial areas for breeding, moulting and migrating for this vulnerable swan population Research activities: - Field expeditions (2-5 months) to the Arctic, covering the entire breeding season, including moult and pre-migratory fattening - Running a ringing project with over 1,000 individually marked birds - Data analysis and publications

Biology Populations breeding success survival swans Biodiversity Reproduction migration behaviour
18. Tundra

Overall objective is to obtain net fluxes for carbon and freshwater water from an Arctic catchment under base-case and global change scenarios. Objective of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam is to study the temporal and patial variability in floodplain sediment balance over the last 2000 years. Research activities: Selected areas in the Usa basin will be studied in detail, both in the zones of continuous and discontiunous permafrost. Fieldwork was and will be conducted in the summers of 1998 and 1999. At selected field sites, the present day processes of river erosion and deposition will be evaluated and the natural evolution and variation of amount and rate of erosion and deposition will be determined for the last 2000 years.

Pathways erosion sediment balance Soils Hydrography Catchment studies carbon flux Climate variability freshwater flux Discharges Spatial trends Climate change Geochemistry Sediments Temporal trends
19. Permafrost in the Usa Basin: distribution, characterisation, dynamics and effects on infrastructure

- To support the further development of a geocryological database for the Usa Basin (East-European Russian Arctic), including key characteristics of permafrost such as distribution, coverage, temperature, active layer, etc. - To create GIS-based permafrost maps at the scale of 1:1,000,000 for the entire Usa Basin and at 1:100,000 for selected key sites. - To reconstruct the history of permafrost dynamics at key sites in the region over the last thousands of years using palaeoecological analysis and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits, and over the last few decades using remote sensing imagery and/or monitoring (base case scenario). - To predict permafrost dynamics at key sites in the region under future conditions of climate change (20-100 yrs), using a 1-dimensional permafrost model (future global change scenario). - To assess the effects of permafrost dynamics under base case and global change scenarios on urban, industrial and transportation infrastructure in the Usa Basin. Research activities Based on several representative sites, late Holocene permafrost dynamics will be characterized using palaeoecological techniques. Variability in permafrost conditions over the last few decades will be studied based on the available data from long-term monitoring station records and from a time series of remote sensing images (optional). Mathematical modelling of permafrost dynamics will be carried out for at least two sites and a forecast of permafrost degradation in the area under anticipated climate warming will be developed. The likely effects of permafrost degradation upon regional infrastructure (inhabited localities, heat and power engineering, coal and ore mines, oil and gas extracting complex, pipelines and railways) will be analyzed using a GIS approach. GIS data layers on permafrost dynamics and infrastructure will be compared in order to delimitate high risk areas based on existing infrastructure and anticipated permafrost degradation. Hereafter, the created GIS may serve as a basis for more detailed forecasting of permafrost dynamics under both natural and anthropogenic climate changes in lowland and alpine areas of the East-European Russian Arctic.

geocryology Geology palaeoecology Soils Catchment studies Mapping Geophysics Climate variability Climate Spatial trends Environmental management Climate change Modelling Ice GIS Permafrost Oil and Gas Temporal trends permafrost dynamics infrastructure
20. 'NAR-2000' expedition

The 'NAR-2000' expedition was performed during August-September 2000. The overall programme of work includes: - monitoring of pollution in air, waters and bottom sediments of freshwater lakes, soils and terrestrial vegetation - soil/botanical studies - visual and remote sensing (aerial photos and video surveys) studies of damage to soil and vegetation cover. Samples of river water and bottom sediments from 25 freshwater bodies and samples from 16 terrestrial sites in the area of the Varandey and Toravey oil fields were taken for chemical analyses.

Biological effects Organochlorines PCBs Soils Catchment studies Heavy metals PAHs Pollution sources phenols Petroleum hydrocarbons Forest damage soil damage Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Sediments Atmosphere Oil and Gas Temporal trends detergents