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Directory entires that have specified Greenland as one of the geographic regions for the project/activity and are included in the AMAP, ENVINET, SAON and SEARCH directories. Note that the list of regions is not hierarchical, and there is no relation between regions (e.g. a record tagged with Nunavut may not be tagged with Canada). To see the full list of regions, see the regions list. To browse the catalog based on the originating country (leady party), see the list of countries.
It is also possible to browse and query the full list of projects.
The USCG contributes to ocean and sea ice observa¬tions through a number of activities. First, USCG supports Arctic research through its icebreaking operations. Assets include three polar class icebreak¬ers, of which HEALY operates in the Arctic, POLAR SEA has recently completed drydock work, and POLAR STAR is in caretaker status pending an Administration decision on how the US can best meet polar icebreaking requirements. USCG carries out the annual International Ice Patrol (IIP). The activities of the IIP are governed by treaty and US law to encompass only those ice regions of the North Atlantic Ocean through which the major trans-Atlantic shipping lanes pass. There remain other areas of ice danger where shipping must exercise extreme caution. Information concerning ice conditions is collected primarily by air surveillance flights and from ships operating in the ice area. All iceberg data, together with ocean current and wind data, are entered into a computer model that predicts iceberg drift. Every 12 hours, the predicted iceberg locations are used to estimate the limit of all known ice. This limit, along with a few of the more critical predicted iceberg locations, is broadcast as an “Ice Bulletin” from radio stations around the US, Canada, Europe and over the Worldwide Web for the benefit of all vessels crossing the north Atlantic. In addition to the Ice Bulletin, a radio facsimile chart of the area, depicting the limits of all known ice, is broadcast twice daily. USCG has begun the Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) program to prepare for increased maritime activity as climate changes provide greater access to the Arctic. Understanding the Arctic Maritime Do¬main is part of a DOD and DHS effort to improve Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) by developing an effective understanding of the global maritime domain and supporting effective decision-making as outlined in the National Strategy for Maritime Security. MDA includes both environmental condi¬tions and human activities that could affect maritime safety, security, the economy or environment. As MDA is expanded to the Arctic, there are likely overlaps in resource needs and sensors that could apply to both MDA/ADA and AON, and coordina¬tion of their activities will be mutually beneficial. The IIP works closely with the National Ice Center (NIC), a multi-agency operational center operated by the US Navy, NASA, NOAA and the USCG. The NIC mission is to provide the highest quality strategic and tactical ice services tailored to meet the operational requirements of Federal agencies. The NIC also coordinates and represents the many funding agencies and partners of the US Interagency Arctic Buoy Program (IABP). NIC also funds the coordinator of the program, and NSF supports IABP data management and coordination at the University of Washington. US buoy contributions to the IABP are funded by NOAA and the Office of Naval Research (ONR). NSF supports the fabrication and deployment of drifting ice mass balance buoys by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), US Army Corps of Engineers.
Both NOAA and NASA operate satellites with cover¬age of the Arctic region. The major observations and products are: 1. Daily, near real-time plots of surface, cloud, and radiative properties from AVHRR; 2. Near real-time MODIS and AVHRR polar winds; 3. Daily, near real-time plots of clear sky, low-level temperature inversions from MODIS; 4. Daily profile plots of Arctic temperature, humid-ity and winds; 5. Near-daily plots of surface winds over open water; and 6. Surface temperatures for land, sea and sea ice.
NASA and NSF support the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net), a series of automatic weather stations that monitor conditions on the ice sheet.
Connect public health laboratories and institutes throughout the circumpolar north for the purposes of monitor infectious diseases of concern. Main gaps: russia
As with several other data types, lake level data are recorded by both local authorities as well as at national level. NERI is operating a database, from which data from lakes may be available upon request.
The GTN-H is a joint effort of the World Meteorological Organization / Climate and Water Department (WMO/CLW), the GCOS, and the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS12), co-sponsored by WMO, UNESCO, ICSU, UNEP and FAO. GTN-H represents the observational arm of the Group on Earth Observations / Integrated Global Water Cycle Observations Theme (GEO/IGWCO). The following hydrological variables have been identified as essential for the GTN-H13 network: Precipitation, river discharge, groundwater, water vapour, lake level/ area, isotopic composition, soil moisture, water use, snow cover, glaciers and ice caps, evapotranspiration, water quality/ biogeochemical fluxes. For most of the variables a global network is defined and a contact established. The Global Precipitation Climate Centre (GPCC) based at German Meteorological Institute/Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD) and operating under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), as well as Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), based at the Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde (Federal Institute of Hydrology, BfG) in Koblenz, Germany, and operating under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), are both parts of the GTN-H Panel and represent their respective networks on precipitation and river discharge. DMI contributes to GPCC with precipitation data, and NERI is reporting to GRDC under GTN-R (see paragraph 4.3).
NERI is reporting to the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), based at the Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde (Federal Institute of Hydrology, BfG) in Koblenz, Germany, and operating under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). GTN-R is a GRDC contribution to the Implementation Plan for the Global Observing System for Climate and to GTN-H. Denmark is reporting 14 stations as shown in Table 5
The National Environmental Research Institute has the overall responsibility for surveillance of the Danish waters. Surveillance of fjords and coastal waters is carried our by the regional authorities, while NERI is responsible for mapping the open waters. All of the surveys are part of the Danish nationwide monitoring programme NOVANA All marine NOVANA data (regional and state) are collected annually in the national marine database, MADS, by NERI. For further reading and data see http://mads.dmu.dk . The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research carries out yearly surveys in Danish waters, primarily in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Relevant oceanographic parameters are measured and recorded for these areas. Furthermore, DMI is involved in the following projects: • Measurements of water transports across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge • Monitoring of the oceanographic conditions along West Greenland • Monitoring of the oceanographic conditions around the Faroe Islands.
In Denmark an extensive national network of tide gauges are operated jointly by DMI, the Royal Danish Administration for Navigation and Hydrography, local authorities and the Danish Coastal Authority. The network consists of 81 automatic stations. In Greenland a tide gauge station is operated by National Survey and Cadastre (KMS). Data are available from the responsible bodies.
Upper-air temperature Homogenized upper-air temperature analyses: extended MSU-equivalent temperature record, new record for upper-troposphere and lower-stratosphere temperature using data from radio occultation, temperature analyses obtained from reanalyses. Water vapour Total column water vapour over the ocean and over land, tropospheric and lower stratospheric profiles of water vapour. Ozone Profiles and total column of ozone.
The ASAP in its present form began in the mid1980s. The programme objective is to record profile data from the upper air strata in ocean areas using automated sounding systems carried on board merchant ships plying regular ocean routes. Several national meteorological services operate ASAP units and the collected data are made available in real time via GTS. ASAP data are archived alongside other radio sounding data by many national meteorological services. ASAP is an important contribution to both the WWW and GCOS. Today most of the soundings are from the North Atlantic and north-west Pacific, but the programme is expanding to other ocean basins through a new, co-operative World-wide Recurring ASAP Project (WRAP). Denmark operates two ASAP units mounted on ships plying fixed routes from Denmark to Greenland. The European meteorological cooperation EUMETNET started a special E-ASAP programme in December 2000. The programme aims at joint operation of the ASAP programmes under the European meteorological institutes.
DMI runs radio sounding stations at the following six locations: Tórshavn (the Faroe Islands), Danmarkshavn, Illoqqortoormiit, Tasiilaq, Narsarsuaq and Aasiaat (Greenland). Two soundings are made every day at these stations. A monthly summary (CLIMAT TEMP) from all stations is prepared and transmitted routinely on the GTS.
For national purposes, more data concerning precipitation is needed than can be provided from the overall surface climatological and meteorological network described above. In Denmark the precipitation observation network consists of approximately 350 stations. Roughly 100 of these provide data on precipitation intensity on an ongoing basis. They are jointly operated by DMI and The Water Pollution Committee of the Society of Danish Engineers (Spildevandskomitéen - SVK). The remaining 250 stations collect daily values of precipitation, and data from these are electronically transmitted to DMI on a daily basis. On the Faroe Islands a network of 7 precipitation station observe daily precipitation. Information on precipitation can also be obtained from weather radar data. In Denmark, DMI runs a network of four weather radars which provides 100% coverage of Danish land areas and coastal marine areas. The network s geographical coverage is unsurpassed, and hence provides detailed information about precipitation on national and local scales. By calibrating radar data against point measurements of precipitation the latest scientific results show a high absolute accuracy.
Denmark has a network for the collection of sea temperatures at 13 coastal stations around Denmark. The stations are operated by DMI, the Royal Danish Administration for Navigation and Hydrography, the Danish Coastal Authority, and local authorities respectively. Data are available from each of the responsible bodies. Furthermore, sea surface temperatures are monitored using satellites, and DMI prepares daily maps for the North Sea and Baltic Sea areas.
Over the years, DMI has established a number of very long climatological series with differing periods of information representing Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The long daily time series include: precipitation, temperature, atmospheric pressure and cloud cover for a number of Danish locations as well as precipitation and temperatures for two Greenland Stations 1874-2007 The long monthly time series include: temperatures, precipitation, atmospheric pressure, cloud cover and snow for stations in Denmark, Greenland and on the Faroe Islands The long annual time series include: temperature for a number of stations in Denmark, Greenland and on the Faroe Islands (1873-2007), as well as temperatures, precipitation, hours of sunshine and cloud cover given as national averages for Denmark All the above mentioned datasets are freely available through the annual updates of DMI Technical Reports at www.dmi.dk
DMI is responsible for the systematic surveillance of sea ice conditions in the Greenland waters. Observations concerning ice conditions have been collected for approximately 125 years and an extensive volume of data is available in a graphic format as monthly summaries, ice maps etc. Since 1959 special emphasis has been on the waters south of Cape Farewell (the southern tip of Greenland) in order to improve navigation safety in what is an important navigation area. Ice maps containing detailed information on the relevant ice conditions are prepared several times a week. The most recent maps are available in vector graphic format. Since 2000 weekly summaries of the ice conditions for all Greenland waters have been prepared. These summaries, which are based on satellite data, are generated semi-automatically and are primarily intended for climatological analyses as the energy radiation from the sea is highly dependent on whether it is covered with ice or not.
Solar Ultraviolet (UV) radiation at different wavelengths is measured by DMI at two stations in Greenland, namely Pittuffik and Kangerlussuaq. In addition, DMI performs weekly ozone soundings at Illoqqortoormiut as well as sporadic ozone soundings at Pituffik during the winter months.
DMI operates and receives data from a network of approximately 100 automatic meteorological stations in Denmark, Greenland and on the Faroe Islands. Measurements are made in accordance with the WMO recommendations. As of 2001 a special dedicated network of (manual) stations for climatological observations has been discontinued, due to the convergence between the different network technologies. The objectives behind this decision are to eliminate human errors, to benefit from potential savings due to this rationalisation, and to reach a higher observation frequency. Climatological data are now obtained from the automatic network described above. Climatological data are collected to define the climate in Denmark, Greenland and on the Faroe Islands and to create a national database for a wide range of enquiries and research activities. Climatological work mostly consists of preparing annual and monthly statistics, including calculation of averages, percentiles and standard deviations. Substantial recorded data are needed to establish reliable averages and trends. In 2008 the daily inflow of data from Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands was 100,000 observations, and the central database at DMI currently contains more than 300,000,000 observations. Some of the recorded data are from as early as 1872. A monthly summary is prepared for the three stations in Denmark, one on the Faroe Islands and eight in Greenland using the CLIMAT format. These data are routinely submitted via the GTS. Radiation is measured as 10- minute mean values of global radiation at the DMI operated weather station.
As part of the GAW programme, Denmark contributes to the Global Ozone Observing System (GO3OS) with three stations in Greenland and one in Denmark. The stations in Greenland are: Kangerlussuaq, Pituffik and Illoqqortoormiut The station in Denmark is located in Copenhagen The stations in Greenland are primary and secondary stations in the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) that is supported by the International Ozone Commission.
Only one GUAN station is designated for Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands and it is situated in Narsarsuaq (WMO nr. 6186), Greenland. The station is run by DMI and is operated in accordance with the required standard.