Arctic, Circumpolar: projects/activities

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Directory entires that have specified Arctic, Circumpolar as one of the geographic regions for the project/activity and are included in the AMAP, ENVINET, SAON and SEARCH directories. Note that the list of regions is not hierarchical, and there is no relation between regions (e.g. a record tagged with Nunavut may not be tagged with Canada). To see the full list of regions, see the regions list. To browse the catalog based on the originating country (leady party), see the list of countries.

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Displaying: 61 - 80 of 80
61. Descartes

Objectives 1. To develop the measurement technique further, providing more accurate measurements and extend the method to a larger number of trace species 2. To monitor the presence of CFC:s and other longlived anthropogenic tracers in the stratosphere 3. To use long-lived anthropogenic species as tracers of atmospheric motion, in particular for comparison with atmospheric models Reserarchers: Descartes is a joint research programme currently involving N.R.P Harris and J.A. Pyle, Centre for Atmospheric Science at the Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, U.K., and Hans Nilsson and Johan Arvelius, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden

Atmospheric processes Ozone Geophysics Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Emissions Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
62. CHAracterisation of OClO Spectrometer for Antarctica: Evaluation measurements inside the Arctic Polar Vortex (CHAOS_A)

The purpose of the CHAOS_A project is to perform measurements under "Antarctic conditions" during the polar vortex period with the new assembled spectrometer in order to perform tasks that cannot be achieved at low latitudes namely OClO detection. Therefore the campaign focus more in technical aspects than scientific ones. The period of observation may be short to achieve results of scientific interest and those will depend on the meteorology of the stratosphere (position of the polar vortex relative to the station, temperatures at the lower stratosphere, etc). The OClO results will be compared with those obtained by the NILU (Andoya) and Heidelberg U.

PSC Atmospheric processes BrO UV radiation UV-Vis spectrometer NO2 Arctic Temperature profiles. Atmosphere OClO
63. Quantitative Understanding of Ozone losses by Bipolar Investigations (QUOBI)

By launching several hundred ozonesondes at many Arctic and sub-Arctic stations, one of them Ny-Ålesund, the stratospheric chemical ozone loss will be determined. The launches of all stations will be coordinated by analysis of trajectory calculations based on analysis and forecast wind fields. The aim is to get as many ozone sounding pairs as possible, each of them linked by trajectories in space and time. A statistical description of the ozone differences given by the first and the second measurement of individual sonde pairs will yield the chemical ozone loss with spatial and time resolution.

64. Measurements of atmospheric mercury species during Arctic springtime

The major goal of the process study between April 15 and May 15, 2003 is to obtain quantified information on reaction path-ways, products and net deposition of mercury during Arctic sunrise.

Heavy metals mercury deposition Contaminant transport Emissions Arctic Geochemistry Atmosphere
65. Satellite validation for SAGE III (contribution to VINTERSOL/SOLVE-2)

In december 2001 the SAGE III experiment was successfully launched. The NASA science team of the SAGE III experiment has announced the Koldewey-Station in Ny-Aalesund as "anchor site" for validation, especially for such parameters as optical depth, aerosol extinction profiles and ozone profiles. Because of time coincidence NASA apprechiates support for the prospected validation activities for ENVISAT. This should be also considered as contribution to the NASA accepted project "Ground based Validation of SAGE III by the NDSC Primary Station at Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen" for SOLVE-2.

Ozone Climate variability SAGE III Climate change Arctic satellite validation
66. Long-duration balloon flights from Spitzbergen

The Italian Space Agency (ASI), in cooperation with CNR, would like to develop a balloon launch site at Ny-Ålesund. The polar stratospheric air circulation pattern can make it possible to perform Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Flights. The balloons would circumnavigate the northern Polar Regions collecting data in astrophysics, aeronomy, as well as other atmospheric, cosmic and biological sciences. The location on Svalbard is interesting for LDB flights because of : o easy access and transportation of equipment /material/personnel o well established infrastructures/support organization o the flight would occur over mostly unmanned areas o the recovery of the payload could easily happen on the land Currently two experiments are being built as LDB payloads in anticipation of launching from Ny-Ålesund in 2004 and 2005. These are astro-physics experiments to observe the galactic and cosmic microwave radiation. This facility would accommodate science teams from both Italy and around the world.

aeronomy Arctic astrophysics Atmosphere
67. Validation of SAGE III satellite data

SAGE III was successfully launched on 10. Dec. 2001 on a Russian M3 rocket. It provides accurate data of aerosols, water vapour, ozone, and other key parameters of the earth's atmosphere. The science team of the SAGE III experiment at NASA has nominated the Koldewey-Station as an anchor site to contribute within the Data Validation Plan as part of the Operational Surface Networks. Data directly relevant to the SAGE III validation are aerosol measurements by photometers and lidar, as well as temperature measurements and ozone profiling by balloon borne sondes, lidar and microwave radiometer. Data will be provided quasi online for immediate validation tasks.

Atmospheric processes ozone UV radiation trace gases Geophysics Climate variability Climate Climate change aerosol water vapour Data management Atmosphere water vapor satellite validation
68. Contributions to the THESEO 2000 / SOLVE campaign

In preparation to the launch of the SAGE III experiment in March 2001, NASA and the European Union performed the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 campaign, which had three components: (i) an aircraft campaign using the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 airplanes out of Kiruna/Sweden, (ii) launches of large stratospheric research balloons from Kiruna, (iii) validation exercises for the commissioning phase of SAGE III. The German Arctic research station Koldewey in Ny-Ålesund/Spitsbergen contributed to (i), (ii), and (iii) by performing measurements of stratospheric components like ozone, trace gases, aerosols (PSCs), temperature and winds. The main observation periods were from December 1999 to March 2000.

Atmospheric processes Ozone UV radiation Climate variability Climate Climate change Arctic Atmosphere
69. Submarine Operational And Research Environmental Database (SOARED)

The Submarine Operational And Research Environmental Database (SOARED)is comprised of a fixed relational environmental database using unclassified data collected during the Science Ice Exercises (SCICEX) during the past several years. It also includes publicly accessible gridded historical sound velocity, temperature and salinity data from 1900 from the US National Oceanographic Data Center. This project is a demonstration system to show ways to retrieve and analyze sound velocity, temperature and salinity profiles, bathymetry and ice thickness data using a mouse-driven GIS-based query.

Shelf seas Hydrography Mapping Spatial trends Sea ice Climate change Ice Oceanography Arctic GIS Data management Ocean currents Temporal trends
70. Arctic Social Science Data Center (ASDC)

A proposal has been submitted to the National Science Foundation titled: For Support of the Arctic Social Science Data Center at NSIDC, OPP-0119836.

Arctic social science Arctic Data management
71. Lake Myvatn and the River Laxá

The aim is to monitor the Lake Myvatn and the river Laxá ecosystem for (1) detecting trends, (2) detecting background variability in the system, (3) assess the efficiency of management measures, (4) observe perturbations in order to generate hypotheses about causal relationships.

Biological effects Biology Populations Catchment studies Fish Spatial trends Environmental management Mining Waterbirds Modelling Biodiversity Arctic Local pollution Food webs Sediments Diet Temporal trends Ecosystems
72. Polar microbial ecology

Ecology of bacterioplankton and bacterioneuston in the polar seas, distribution, number, in situ heterotrophic activity, involvement in natural purification processes from oil pollution.

Biological effects heterotrophic bacteria oil biodegradation. number distribution Sea ice Environmental management Contaminant transport Petroleum hydrocarbons Arctic activity Polar seas
73. Global Emission Inventory for Hg

Our knowledge of mercury fluxes on a global scale is still incomplete. Estimates indicate that Europe and North America contribute less than about 25 % to the global anthropogenic emissions of the element to the atmosphere. The majority of the remaining emissions originate from combustion of fossil fuels, particularly in the Asian countries including China, India, and South and North Korea. Even less and very controversial information is available on emissions of mercury from natural sources, including volatilization of the element from terrestrial and aquatic surfaces. In general, it is assumed that natural emissions of the element are about 3000 t/year, thus contributing more 60 % to the total global emissions of mercury. However, much work needs to be done in order to verify the above estimate.

anthropogenic sources Sources mercury Emissions Arctic
74. Environmental Protection from Ionising Contaminants in the Arctic (EPIC)

(1) Collate information relating to the environmental transfer and fate of selected radionuclides through aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic. (2) Identify reference Arctic biota that can be used to evaluate potential dose rates to biota in different terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments (3) Model the uptake of a suite of radionuclides, both natural and anthropogenic to reference Arctic biota (4) Develop a reference set of dose models for reference Arctic biota (5) Compile data on dose-effects relationships and assessments of potential radiological consequences for reference Arctic biota (6) Integrate assessments of environmental impact from radionuclides with those for other contaminants.

Pathways Biological effects Radioactivity Radionuclides Modelling Arctic
75. The P450 enzyme system of the Arctic charr as a biomarker of POP contamination in Arctic aquatic environments

Validate the hepatic P450 enzyme system as a biomarker of levels and effects of POPs in Arctic, aquatic environments, using the anadromous (sea-migratory) Arctic charr as an indicator species.

Biological effects Biomarker Organochlorines PCBs Fish PAHs Environmental management Petroleum hydrocarbons Exposure Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Oil and Gas
76. Xenobiotic impact on Arctic charr: Nutritional modulation and physiological consequences

The objectives are to test the hypothesis that the tissue re-distribution of PCB are linked to the metabolic status of the Arctic charr and that the tissue re-distribution of PCB associated with fasting will decrease the overall performance characeristics of the Arctic charr.

Biological effects Organochlorines PCBs Fish Exposure Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
77. A 30-Year Sea Ice Data Set from Satellite Microwave Radiometers

The project consists of two parts: the generation of a data set of sea ice extents and areas, and associated scientific analyses. The objective of the first part is to produce a 30-year, research quality sea ice data set for climate change studies. The data set will build on an existing 18-year data set derived from satellite passive-microwave observations and currently archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, CO. We will extend this data set by using historical data from the 1970's from the National Ice Center and new data from DMSP Special Sensor Microwave Imagers and the upcoming EOS-PM Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer. These data sets will be cross-calibrated to ensure a consistent 30-year data set following methods developed earlier and based on matching the geophysical parameters during periods of sensor overlap. The principal products will be Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents and areas, derived from sea ice concentration maps. The second part of the proposal will center on the analysis and use of the 30-year data set. The science objectives are (1) to define and explain the hemispheric, regional, seasonal, and interannual variabilities and trends of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers and (2) to understand any observed hemispheric asymmetries in global sea ice changes. Hemispheric sea ice cover asymmetries have been found in the existing 18-year record and have also been suggested from some model experiments simulating future conditions assuming a gradual increase in atmospheric CO2. We will examine the proposed 30-year record to determine the degree and nature of the hemispheric asymmetry in it and to place the sea ice observations in the context of other climate variables through comparisons with simulations from the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and Hadley Centre climate models.

Climate variability Climate Sea ice Arctic SEARCH
78. Inuvik Regional Human Contaminants Monitoring Program

The objective of the study is to establish baseline levels of specific heavy metal and organochlorine contaminants in the blood of women and their newborns, from communities in the Inuvik Region. The study examines traditional food consumption as a possible contaminant exposure pathway, while measuring organochlorines and metals in maternal and cord blood, as well as mercury levels in maternal hair. Collection of data from this region will complete the Northwest Territories/Nunavut database on maternal and cord blood. There were 104 women participating in this study from Inuvialuit, Gwich'in and non-native backgrounds. The results are similar to existing data from other regions in the Canadian north and confirm the importance of traditional foods among women of reproductive age. Exposure levels to contaminants were generally within guideline levels with only a few exceptions. Communication of results to the communities will continue until June 2000. Objectives: 1.To obtain regional values for the concentrations of organochlorine and metal contaminants in maternal and umbilical cord blood samples, and the concentration of mercury in hair samples from pregnant women in the Inuvik region. 2.To assess exposure to these contaminants through the frequency of traditional/country food intake and certain other lifestyle factors. 3.To describe any relationship between contaminant levels in blood and hair samples and frequency of consumption of traditional/country foods and selected lifestyle factors.

Human health
79. Effects and Trends of POPs on Polar Bears

LONG TERM: Determine the effects, at the individual and population level, of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their metabolites in the polar bear; determine trend of POPs in the Arctic marine environment using polar bear tissues as a biomonitor. SHORT TERM: a. Determine 10-year temporal trends of POPs in the Hudson Bay Sub-Arctic Ecosystem from 1990-1989 by analysis of archived polar bear biopsy samples, including changes in enantiomeric composition of -HCH and chlordane compounds and ratio of -HCH/-HCH (cross-referenced to separate proposal on HCHs). b. Determine if there is selective tissue distribution of the enantiomers of chiral contaminants in polar bears, which may influence target organ toxicity, by analysis of archived polar bear samples. c. Determine the endocrine disrupting effect of POPs on testosterone and PCB metabolite profiles by in vitro metabolism studies using polar bear liver microsomes. d. In collaboration with CWS P&N Region, the Norwegian Polar Institute and the Norwegian Veterinary Institute, determine the immunotoxic effects of PCBs and other organochlorines in polar bears throughout a gradient of exposure (Hudson Bay, low; Svalbard, high). e. Determine the effects of hydroxy-PCBs on circulating thyroid hormone and vitamin A concentrations.

Biological effects Organochlorines PCBs Long-range transport Spatial trends Pollution sources Terrestrial mammals Polar bear Exposure Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Dioxins/furans Temporal trends Marine mammals
80. AMAP Human Health Data Centre

The objectives of the centre are: - to provide access to data from recent human health monitoring and research activities conducted as part of the AMAP national implementation plans. - to provide a means to ensure treatment of data in a consistent manner, uniform statistical analysis etc., including application of objective quality assurance procedures. - to begin the process of establishing a long-term archive of relevant Arctic monitoring data for use in future assessments of temporal trends etc. - to meet the ministerial request from the Alta Conference to include human health data in the AMAP thematic data centres.

Populations Heavy metals Indigenous people Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Data management Temporal trends Human health Human intake