Arctic, Circumpolar: projects/activities

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Directory entires that have specified Arctic, Circumpolar as one of the geographic regions for the project/activity and are included in the AMAP, ENVINET, SAON and SEARCH directories. Note that the list of regions is not hierarchical, and there is no relation between regions (e.g. a record tagged with Nunavut may not be tagged with Canada). To see the full list of regions, see the regions list. To browse the catalog based on the originating country (leady party), see the list of countries.

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Displaying: 1 - 20 of 80 Next
1. Quantifying and reducing uncertainty in model calculations of global pollution fate

The main objective of the project is to describe quantitatively with model calculations the global distribution behaviour of persistent organic contaminants, and to establish credibility in the results of these simulations.

Arctic Contaminant transport Exposure Long-range transport Modelling PCBs Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Pesticides Pollution sources Spatial trends Temporal trends
2. INTERACTIONS

Important progress has been made in recent decades to describe and understand how arctic terrestrial vertebrate interact, especially concerning predator-prey interactions. Indirect interactions between different prey species modulated by shared predators (e.g. Arctic fox) are believed to have important impacts on the structure and/or dynamics of some communities. Yet, our understanding of these types of interactions is still fragmentary. To fill that gap, we will build on ongoing projects exploring related questions in Canada (Marie-Andrée Giroux, Nicolas Lecomte, Joël Bêty) and Greenland (Olivier Gilg, Niels M. Schmidt), while taking advantage of existing networks (ADSN in North America and “Interactions” program in Greenland and Eurasia). The aim of the project is to promote the implementation of several common protocols that will (1) improve each collaborator’s knowledge at the site level and, more importantly, that will (2) be merged across sites and years to improve our understanding of the functioning and the influence of indirect interactions on arctic vertebrate communities in general.

Five types of data have been identified (by the 5 initiators of the project already mentioned above) as being mandatories to answer questions related to this topic. These data sets will be collected using 5 specific protocols described in the following chapters:

  1. Monitor predation pressure using artificial nests
  2. Monitor real predation pressure on Calidris nests using Tiny Tags
  3. Observations of predators and lemmings (3b: fox scats DNA barcoding)
  4. Assessing lemming (or “rodent”) relative abundance using different methods
  5. Assessing “herbivores” (excl. rodents) relative abundance using “faeces transects”
Arctic Biodiversity Biological effects Biology Climate change Diet Ecosystems Environmental management Food webs Modelling Populations Reproduction Spatial trends Temporal trends Terrestrial mammals
3. FUVIRC-Finnish Ultraviolet International Research Centre

FUVIRC will serve ecosystem research, human health research and atmospheric chemistry research by providing UV monitoring data and guidance (i.e. calibration of instruments, maintenance of field test sites), research facilities (laboratories and accommodation), instruments and equipment.

Arctic Atmosphere Biodiversity Biological effects Biology Climate change Ecosystems Forest damage Geophysics Human health ozone Populations Reindeer Temporal trends UV radiation
4. LAPBIAT-Lapland Atmosphere-Biosphere facility

The main objective of the facility is to enhance the international scientific co-operation at the seven Finnish research stations and to offer a very attractive and unique place for multidisciplinary environmental and atmospheric research in the most arctic region of the European Union. Factors such as, arctic-subarctic and alpine-subalpine environment, northern populations, arctic winters with snow, changes in the Earth's electromagnetic environment due to external disturbances and exceptionally long series of observations of many ecological and atmospheric variables should interest new users.

Arctic Atmosphere Atmospheric processes Biodiversity Biological effects Biology Climate Climate change Climate variability Data management Ecosystems Emissions Environmental management Exposure Geophysics Human health Local pollution Long-range transport Modelling ozone Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Populations Reindeer Spatial trends Temporal trends UV radiation
5. Circumpolar Health Observatory [CircHOB] (CircHOB)

CircHOB is an international collaborative health information system, involved in systematic, standardized, and consistent data collection and analysis. It is population-based, and produces data for all northern regions in all circumpolar countries CircHOB’s purpose is to monitor trends and patterns in health status, health determinants, and health care, provides quantitative evidence for planning and evaluation of health programs and services. It is on-going and sustainable with periodic updates Main gaps: Data on health-related behaviours, attitudes, and practices currently available from health surveys done in various circumpolar countries and regions are not directly comparable, due to differences in the construction of variables, sampling techniques, and contextual meanings of underlying concepts. Substantial international comparative research is needed before such data can be presented. Network type: CircHOB is a flagship project of the Arctic Human Health Expert Group of the Sustainable Development Working Group of the Arctic Council, formed in 2009. CircHOB is a program within the Institute for Circumpolar Health Research Data Center [www.ichr.ca] CircHOB extracts relevant data from existing data sources managed by different groups and agencies in different countries, including: • National population registries, censuses and intercensal estimates • Vital statistics • Mortality/morbidity/health care utilization databases • National/regional health surveys • Statistical reports CircHOB does NOT involve access to individual-level health records nor do any such records cross national borders. It involves the preparation of tables of aggregate data only. Most data are available from websites of national statistical agencies, health ministries, etc. Many but not all sites are available in English and language proficiency in all circumpolar languages [eg. Russian, Finnish, Icelandic] is essential. Some data require special tabulations produced by host agencies

Human health
6. WMO SURFACE SYNOPTIC AND CLIMATOLOGICAL OBSERVING STATIONS OPERATED BY ITS MEMBERS IN THE ARCTIC AND THE AMAP AREAS

1. The WMO facilitates worldwide cooperation in the establishment of networks of stations for the making of meteorological observations as well as hydrological and other geophysical observations related to meteorology. Observing stations are operated by WMO Members according to agreed standards and recommended practices described in the WMO Regulatory Material, such as Technical regulations, WMO-No. 49 and its Annexes.

2. The WMO requirements for observational data are generally divided into three categories: global, regional and national. For example, surface synoptic stations are expected to report every six hours for global exchange and every three hours for regional exchange, however with higher frequency on bilateral and multilateral arrangements. The details of the observational programmes provided by all stations operated by WMO Members are given in the WMO Observing Systems Capability Analysis and Review Tool (OSCAR) and available on the WMO website at https://oscar.wmo.int/OSCAR/index.html#/.

3. The approved operational procedures and practices are given in the regularly updated Manual on the Global Observing System (WMO-No. 544), and the Manual on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WMO-No. 1160) available also on the WMO website at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/OSY/Manuals_GOS.html and http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/wigos/documents/WIGOS-RM/1160_en.pdf, respectively.

4. Under the Global Observing System of the World Weather Watch Programme, WMO Members operating stations in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) area (essentially includes the terrestrial and marine areas north of the Arctic Circle (66°32N), and north of 62°N in Asia and 60°N in North America, modified to include the marine areas north of the Aleutian chain, Hudson Bay, and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean including the Labrador Sea), contribute to the implementation of the observational programme by operating 336 surface Regional Basic Synoptic and 156 Regional Basic Climatological stations. A detailed infomration is available through WMO OSCAR: https://oscar.wmo.int/OSCAR/index.html#/. 

Atmosphere Climate
7. European Monitoring and Evaluation Prgramme - EMEP

The main objective of EMEP is to provide governments with information of the deposition and concentration of air pollutants, as well as the quantity and significance of the long-range transmission of air pollutants and their fluxes across boundaries (UNECE, 2004a). The EMEP observations include measurements of species linked to acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidants, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and particulate matter.

 

 

acidification eurtrophication ozone POPs heavy metals short lived climate forcers
8. US Circum Arctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network (CARMA) (CARMA)

To focus on the status of most of the large migratory Rangifer (caribou/reindeer) herds.

Ecosystems
9. Stofnun Vilhjálms Stefánssonar ‐ The Stefansson Arctic Institute, SAI (SAI)

The Stefansson Arctic Institute is an Icelandic governmental (Ministry for the Environment) research institute with focus on the Arctic region, also involved in public dissemination of research, exhibits, and international collaboration on northern human dimension issues, social and cultural change and human development, economic development and interdisciplinary aspects of human‐environmental relations in the Circumpolar Arctic and Northern North Atlantic. The institute is involved in a range of research and information dissemination projects and programmes. The institute was responsible for leading and hosting the project secretariat and publishing the Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR), the first comprehensive scientific assessment of human welfare, social development and cultural change in the circumpolar Arctic, and the follow-up projects Arctic Social Indicators (ASI-I, and ASI-II) 2006-2010. The Institute leads the work on the second AHDR (2010-2014); and follow-up work to the ASI projects includes the implementation of an Arctic Social Indicators monitoring system with a piloting of a monitoring system in the Inuvialuit region of Canada, North West Territories. The ASI indicators work is also being applied in community case studies on the Alaska North Slope Borough, as well as the North-Atlantic region, Yamal-Nenets, Sakha-Yakutia, and Nunavut. Main gaps: Not specified Network type: ‐ Thematic observations ‐ Community based observations

Human health
10. International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA)

The main mission of the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) is coordination of atmospheric data collection at existing and newly established intensive Arctic atmospheric observatories. Data of interest to the IASOA consortium include measurements of standard meteorology, greenhouse gases, atmospheric radiation, clouds, pollutants, chemistry, aerosols, and surface energy balances. These measurements support studies of Arctic climate change attribution (why things are changing), not just trends (how things are changing). IASOA is responsive to growing evidence that the earth system may be approaching environmentally critical thresholds within decadal time scales. The information from IASOA will not only enhance scientific understanding but will also support decisions by the global community regarding climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Main gaps: Not all observatories are members of established global networks such as GAW and BSRN. It is recommended that IASOA observatories that are not members of these global networks be evaluated for potential membership and that roadblocks to membership be investigated. Other types of measurement gaps include, but are not limited to: (1) Radar-lidar pairs at each observatory to assess cloud properties; (2) Flux towers at each observatory for methane and CO2 fluxes; (3) Aerosol measurements at each observatory; and (4) Surface and upper air ozone measurements at each observatory. Network type: Predominantly atmospheric measurements.

Atmosphere Climate
11. National deposition monitoring, Northern Finland

Monitoring of direct deposition. Project is run by Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI).

Atmospheric processes Heavy metals Long-range transport Acidification Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
12. Institute of Oceanography and Marine Geophysics (OGS)

OGS conducts scientific activities within the fields of Earth Sciences and Polar Science in the Arctic, primarily but not exclusively, in the sea with the vessel OGS-Explora. Current OGS activities in the Arctic include a) Pergamon, EU COST Action: European network for study and long-term monitoring of permafrost, gas hydrates and release of methane in the Arctic and climate change impacts; b) IBCAO (International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean) to develop a digital bathymetric database to the north of 64°. OGS is the Editorial Board and provides multibeam data; c) Research activities in the frame of PNRA (Italian Antarctic and Arctic National Research Programme) through several projects devoted to paleoceanographic study of the thermohaline circulation on the Eirik Drift (Greenland and study of paleoclimate in the Barents Sea using geological and geophysical data from the International Polar Year EGLACOM cruise of OGS Explora. CORIBAR international project (IT, DE, ES, N, DK) will provided in the next 1-2 years new data for the last item, through MEBO drilling on board RV Maria S. Merian.

Oceanography Ecosystems
13. Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) (ENEA)

Within the Unit for Environment and Energy Modeling (UTMEA), the Laboratory Earth Observations and Analyses within UTMEA (UTMEA-TER) carries out long-term observations of stratospheric chemistry and mesosphere in Greenland, Thule station. Stratospheric processes (evolution in atmospheric temperature, ozone depletion) and chemistry are monitored and investigated by stratospheric lidar as well as spectrometers, in strong cooperation with INGV and DMI. Since 1990 numerous measurement campaigns have been carried out, also on the international level (EASOE, SESAME, THESEO, ESMOS/Arctic. ENEA’s Diagnostics and Metrology Laboratory (UTAPRAD-DIM) has been participating in polar campaigns since the late 1990's. In particular, it has developed the laser spectrofluorimeter CASPER (patented) and prototypes of different lidar fluorosensor: for ships, underwater remotely operated vehicles and patented miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. These instruments participated in 3 oceanographic cruises (2006, 2007 and 2008) at Svalbard, on board of the "Oceania" in the context of a collaboration with the Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Their use is also envisaged under the Italian-Canadian CLIMAT (complementary use of lidar to improve bio-optical models derived from satellite system in the St. Lawrence).

Oceanography Atmosphere
14. International Circumpolar Surveillance System (ICS) (ICS)

to establish a network of hospital and public health laboratories throughout the Arctic which would allow collection and sharing of uniform laboratory and epidemiological data between Arctic countries that will describe the prevalence of infectious diseases of concern to Arctic residents and assist in the formulation of prevention and control strategies. Main gaps: Currently the sytem only monitors invasive bacterial diseases and tuberculosis but has the potential to be expanded to other countries and could be adapted to monitor other human health issues of concern to Arctic countries.

Human health
15. GRENE (Green Network of Excellence) (GRENE)

1. Priority Research Theme (1) Clarification of the mechanism of the Arctic amplification. (2) The role of Arctic in the global climate change and future projection. (3) Evaluation on the influence of the Arctic Environmental Change to the weather in the Japan area and fishery. (4) Future projection of the sea ice distribution in relation to the evaluation Arctic route. 2. Basic infrastructure (1) Arctic research cruises by Japanese and foreign ships/ice breaker. (2) Cloud radar system. (3) Data archive system. 3. Establishment of “Japan Consortium for Arctic Environment Research” 4. Budget size: 650, 000, 000 Japanese Yen per year. (appox. 8 million USD per year) Network type: research programme

Hydrography Climate Sea ice Oceanography Atmosphere
16. Spain general summary

Our objective in present SAON meeting was to know more about SAON activities and plannings to coordinate and promote guidelines criteria for observations in the ARctic Present Spain Research in Arctic is performed mainly for universities and scientific institutions , down the responsability of the Science Department with the support of several national institutions including the Defense Department and Foreign Affairs Institutions are coordinated by the National Polar Committee. The National Scientific Program finance the activities in the polar zones Although our main scientific activities are in Antarctica the activity of Spain in Arctic is rapidly increasing following the fact that Arctic research is a priority task in our Science Program At present we have detected 16 scientific groups working activelly in the differnts fields of Arctic topics (glaciology, meteorology, permafrost, high atmosphere, ecology, physical oceanography, marine geology and biology) These activities are mainly performed in cooperation with Arctic countries Institutions via institutional or researchers contacts About our media to work in Arctic ocean Spain has at present two multiporposes oceanographic research ships In the last years our Ocanographic ship Hesperides has developed two campaigns in The area of Greenland and Svalvars Island in the fields of marine Geology , marine biology and physical oceanography For next summer Hesperides will perform a third oceanographic campaign close to the Atlantic coast of Greenland Other national institutions have been working in marine biology campaigns including fisheries stock evolution Spain has a National Centre of Polar Data were all researchers must enter their raw data gathered in the polar campaigns We considerer , at present , our interest to cooperate inside SAON board, considering that besides other possible cooperation to SAON tasks could be a cooperation with our Polar Data Centre

Geology Oceanography Atmosphere Ecosystems
17. Monitoring of contaminants in atmosphere and biota in Greenland

Temporal trend monitoring of contaminants in atmosphere and biota in Greenland. Modelling the atmospheric transport pathways and deposition of contaminants in the Arctic as well as determination of climate related parameters.

Atmosphere Ecosystems
18. Monitoring component of solar radiation in the Arctic

The World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) was established by the order of WMO in the Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (Saint Petersburg) in 1964 to centrally collect and provide solar radiation data from the world actinometric network stations. Main gaps: Actually the acquisition of data from some Arctic stations, including Russian ones, is paused due to reconstruction of national actinometric networks. The network included in the international data exchange is sparse. Network type: • Collection of actinometric data from National Meteorological Administrations and other organizations • Processing and control of operational information • Scientific and methodological interaction with NHMS’ • Publication and distribution of bulletins “Solar Radiation and Radiation Balance. World Network”, including data access through the WRDC server http://wrdc.mgo.rssi.ru • Service of users of information on solar radiation • Analysis of historical data • Creation of metadata base

19. International Arctic Human Biomonitoring – Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) (International Arctic Human Biomonitoring)

The network was established to assess the implications and impacts of pollution and contaminants on the health of Arctic residents. The biomonitoring program monitors concentrations of contaminants in human tissues in the eight circumpolar nations and assesses spatial and temporal patterns/trends and potential health effects at present and future levels. Where available, contaminant guidelines are used to evaluate risk to populations/communities. AMAP has been designed to have roots in the national programs of participating countries. Main gaps: Trend data of legacy POPs and metals is available, though some communities have only two sampling periods, further monitoing is planned; measurements of tissue concentrations of emerging contaminants and personal care products is just starting and needs to be continued; health effects research needs to be expanded to other regions with high exposure (e.g., arctic Russia). Network type: - Thematical observations: Contaminant concentrations and health effects data - Field stations: None, community / population based research. - Community based observations: Participation of community health workers and community residents for data collection through tissue samples - Coordination: Human Health Assessment Group (HHAG) was created bringing together leading researchers and research coordinators from eight circumpolar countries; AMAP Ring Test (QA/QC program) coordinates and standardizes laboratories for analyzing biomonitoring samples.

Human health
20. Lidar Arctic Monitoring of the Atmosphere (LAMA)

Station realizes optical active remote sensing using multiwavelength elastic and Raman scattering lidar. It gives a view to the atmospheric stratification and aerosol concentration. By spatial and time localization of the higher aerosol concentration evidence there is possible determination of source of aerosol origin using HYSPLIT backward trajectory model. Station is also member of AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) within NASA and performing observation of solar radiation for determination of atmospheric optical properties.

Atmosphere