Throughfall Monitoring Network in Sweden

Updated 2011-03-07

The purpose is to quantify deposition (mainly of sulphur and nitrogen), and to illustrate effects in the soil, for example possible acidification. The aim of the network is to describe the current situation, regional differences, trends over time, and the effects of acid deposition. The atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen are the main causes of current acidification of ecosystems. Acidification results in substantial pH reduction in soil, groundwater, lakes and water courses. Deposition is investigated as precipitation studies in open field areas (bulk precipitation) and by throughfall studies in nearby forest stands. For sulphur and chloride, throughfall monitoring is useful for determination of total deposition. In areas, or during periods with low sulphur deposition, internal circulation in vegetation might influence results from throughfall measurements significantly. For nitrogen and base cations (mainly potassium and manganese) canopy interaction is important. Air concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, and ozone are measured at some locations. The observations made are: (i) air chemistry (SO2, NO2, NH3, O3); (ii) soil water chemistry (pH, Alk, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe, ooAl, oAl, Al-tot, total organic carbon); (iii) deposition in open field (precipitation, H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn); (iv) deposition in forest (throughfall, H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn). For nitrogen and base cations (mainly potassium and manganese) canopy interaction is important. Soil solution chemistry in the forest stands is used as indicator of soil conditions.

This is not a National Implementation Plan (NIP) project
Comments and additional information:

Deposition measurements are mainly made in forest injury observation plots laid out by the Swedish Forestry Agency (SST). The difference between throughfall measurements and bulk deposition from open field areas represent the amount of dry deposition.

Time frame

Project time span
1985 - 2099
Data collection
1985 - 2011
Data processing
1985 - 2011
Data reporting
1986 - 2010

Contact information

Contact person
Karin Sjöberg
Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) Box 47086 402 58 Göteborg Sweden
phone: +4631 725 62 45
fax: +4631 725 62 90
Other project contacts
Gunilla Pihl-Karlsson Tel: +4631 725 62 08 Fax: +4631 725 62 90 E-mail: and Jonas Rodhe Swedish Environmental Protection Agency S-106 48 Stockholm, Sweden, Phone: +4610 698 1307 e-mail:; and Niklas Ricklund Phone: 4610-698 1056, Fax: +4610-698 1600 E-post: and also Anna Jonsson Phone: +4610 698 16 27, Fax: +4610 698 15 85 E-mail:

Parameters and Media

Parameter groups measured/observed/modelled
Acidification parameters
Heavy metals
Other metals/elements
Media sampled/studied/modelled
Additional information or further specification of types of data / information collected, species / tissues / organs sampled, etc.

acidity, alkalinity,condictivity, eutrophication, Air Chemistry (SO2, NO2, NH3, O3), Soil Water Chemistry (pH, Alk, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe, ooAl, oAl, Al-tot, TOC), Deposition open field (Precipitation, H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn), Deposition in forest (Throughfall, H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn).


Regions studied
Arctic, Circumpolar
Stations or areas where observations are made

This Throughfall Monitoring Network covers more than 100 locations from southern to northern Sweden. Of these eight stations are above the polar circle and measurements are proceed: Gammelgården (X: 7336900, Y: 1838100), Myrberg (X:7337900, Y: 1718100), Stockfors (X: 7310300, Y: 1734000), Brattfors (X: 7157400, Y: 1627900), Högbränna (X: 7257830, Y: 1606750), Bäcksjö (X: 7103400, Y: 1723700), Ammarnäs (X: 7316500, Y:1523000 ), Holmsvatten (X: 7169150, Y: 1751500).

Data availability

Are data archived or planned to be archived at an AMAP Thematic Data Centre?
If no (or only part of data are reported to a TDC), where and how are (other) data stored?
The data are available on IVL website in excel files and pivots tables: (In swedish only). The data are also available on Swedish EPA website of:; Contact the Throughfall Monitoring Network in Sweden, The Swedish Environmental Research Institute Contact person is Gunilla Pihl-Karlsson, E-mail:
References to key publications (or planned publications) and data reports
Swedish Environmental Research Institute's (IVL), webbsite: Reports are also available on Swedish EPA website:
Samples/specimens archived in specimen banks?

Methods & Procedures

Procedures and methodology used for, e.g., sampling and sample storage, sample pretreatment, extraction and analysis, including which laboratories are involved, references to methods employed, etc.

Methods have been the same throughout the period, and are now part of standard methods for this kind of monitoring programmes within the EC. Measurements according to ICP Forest, analyse methods according to EMEPs/ICP Forest recommendations

Additional Information

Is this a bi- AND multi-lateral project (i.e. a project involving cooperation between different countries)?
Other institutes involved in the project

Swedish EPA. The list of purchased bodies is on the IVL link :

Is this project reporting to other organizations/programmes?

Fifty Swedish locations are included in an European network for throughfall monitoring, from which data is reported to the EC (FIMCI in the Netherlands)

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