The purpose is to quantify deposition (mainly of sulphur and nitrogen), and to illustrate effects in the soil, for example possible acidification. The aim of the network is to describe the current situation, regional differences, trends over time, and the effects of acid deposition. The atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen are the main causes of current acidification of ecosystems. Acidification results in substantial pH reduction in soil, groundwater, lakes and water courses. Deposition is investigated as precipitation studies in open field areas (bulk precipitation) and by throughfall studies in nearby forest stands. For sulphur and chloride, throughfall monitoring is useful for determination of total deposition. In areas, or during periods with low sulphur deposition, internal circulation in vegetation might influence results from throughfall measurements significantly. For nitrogen and base cations (mainly potassium and manganese) canopy interaction is important. Air concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, and ozone are measured at some locations. The observations made are: (i) air chemistry (SO2, NO2, NH3, O3); (ii) soil water chemistry (pH, Alk, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe, ooAl, oAl, Al-tot, total organic carbon); (iii) deposition in open field (precipitation, H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn); (iv) deposition in forest (throughfall, H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn). For nitrogen and base cations (mainly potassium and manganese) canopy interaction is important. Soil solution chemistry in the forest stands is used as indicator of soil conditions.
acidity, alkalinity,condictivity, eutrophication, Air Chemistry (SO2, NO2, NH3, O3), Soil Water Chemistry (pH, Alk, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe, ooAl, oAl, Al-tot, TOC), Deposition open field (Precipitation, H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn), Deposition in forest (Throughfall, H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn).
This Throughfall Monitoring Network covers more than 100 locations from southern to northern Sweden. Of these eight stations are above the polar circle and measurements are proceed: Gammelgården (X: 7336900, Y: 1838100), Myrberg (X:7337900, Y: 1718100), Stockfors (X: 7310300, Y: 1734000), Brattfors (X: 7157400, Y: 1627900), Högbränna (X: 7257830, Y: 1606750), Bäcksjö (X: 7103400, Y: 1723700), Ammarnäs (X: 7316500, Y:1523000 ), Holmsvatten (X: 7169150, Y: 1751500).
Methods have been the same throughout the period, and are now part of standard methods for this kind of monitoring programmes within the EC. Measurements according to ICP Forest, analyse methods according to EMEPs/ICP Forest recommendations
Swedish EPA. The list of purchased bodies is on the IVL link : http://www.krondroppsnatet.ivl.se/innehall/krondroppsnatet.4.2f3a7b311a7c8064438000623553.html
Fifty Swedish locations are included in an European network for throughfall monitoring, from which data is reported to the EC (FIMCI in the Netherlands)