The objectives of this project are A) to determine coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), brominated diphenyl ethers (BDPEs), chlorophenolic compounds and chloroparaffins in air from arctic monitoring stations; and B) to search for other "new" chemicals in the arctic environment, not currently monitored by Canada's Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) but of potential concern based on known persistence, extent of usage and toxicology.
Other chemicals - New chemicals (chemicals in current use or not currently monitored) include coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), brominated diphenyl ethers (BDPEs), chlorophenolic compounds, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), modern agrochemicals, pesticide photoproducts and enantiomers, haloacetic acids (HAAs) and synthetic musks.
- Alert, Nunavut, Canada and Dunai, Russia 1994 - monthly air samples (pooled weekly samples) received from archive for analysis in all three laboratories; - Pangnirtung, Nunavut 1992 and 1996 - five beluga blubber samples for brominated- and chlorinated-DPE analysis at the Freshwater Institute; - West Hudson Bay 1995 - plankton; Resolute Bay 1993 - arctic cod; and East Hudson Bay 1995 - beluga muktuk. This previously reported information (e.g. Muir, D.C.G. 1997. In: Synopsis of Research Conducted under the 1995/96 and 1996/97 Northern Contaminants Program, Environmental Studies No. 74, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, 215-221) was compiled to study new pesticides; - Two locations in Labrador and three locations in Ungava Bay/Hudson Strait region of northern Quebec 1998 - 44 ringed seal blubber samples; - Baffin Bay and Kane Basin (SHEBA and NOW cruises) - seawater; - Canadian archipelago (JOIS cruise) 1997 - three seawater samples for HAA analysis at NWRI; - Canadian Arctic Archipelago at 53 locations (JOIS cruises) 1997, 1998 - sediment cores and grab samples, a subset of which was analyzed for SCCPs, chlorinated phenols/anisoles and CDPE/BDPEs.
Small volumes of samples collected during routine monitoring at Alert and Dunai are archived at the Meteorological Service of Canada.
Analytical and QA/QC responsibilities were divided among the three laboratories as follows: Bidleman - PCNs and pesticide enantiomers; Alaee/Muir - BDPEs and other brominated flame retardants, currently used pesticides and HAAs; and Stern - chlorophenols, BDPE/CDPEs and SCCPs. All three laboratories participate in the Northern Contaminants Program QA/QC program. All sampling and analytical methods are described or referenced in Bidleman et al. (1999) above, and brief summary follows. - SCCPs - The full method is described in Muir et al. (1999). - CDPEs and BDPEs - Following dichloromethane elution from a 3% deactivated silica gel column, samples were analyzed by high resolution electron ionization mass spectrometry. Analytical, surrogate-spiking and performance standards, as well as U.S. EPA 8290 QA/QC protocols, were employed as described in Bidleman et al. (1999). - PCNs and coplanar PCBs - After preparation on alumina-silica columns and further separation on columns of silica-activated carbon, samples were analyzed by GC-negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-NIMS) using different GC columns for routine analysis and detailed examination of penta- and hexachloronaphthalenes. QA/QC procedures included PCN quantification against Halowax 1014, a commercial PCN mixture, and single-congener standards for quantification of PCBs. 13C-labelled PCB congeners and internal standards were also employed (Harner et al. 1998). - Pesticides - The archived plankton, arctic cod and beluga muktuk samples had been previously analyzed at the Freshwater Institute by GC-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) using 60 m x 0.25 mm i.d. DB-5 columns. Confirmation was by exact retention time matching with authentic standards. Ringed seal blubber samples were analyzed at the NWRI laboratory for endosulfan isomers using a 30 m x 0.25 mm DB-5 column and a DB-1 column for confirmation. Samples were also analyzed for PCBs and a suite of current use compounds, as described in Bidleman et al. (1999). - HAAs - HAAs in concentrated seawater samples were derivatized to fluoroanilide HAAs which were then analyzed by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode.
Analytical QA/QC procedures for each group of analytes are listed above with methods and procedures.
Please refer to the Canadian National AMAP Implementation Plan for details.
Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Northern Contaminants Program. Environment Canada, Canada's federal environmental agency.
- "Northern Contaminants Air Monitoring: Organochlorine Measurements" Pierrette Blanchard, Meteorological Service of Canada; - Finnish/Swedish collaborative air monitoring project studying chlordane enantiomers at Pallas