New Persistent Chemicals in the Arctic Environment

Updated 2000-06-08

The objectives of this project are A) to determine coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), brominated diphenyl ethers (BDPEs), chlorophenolic compounds and chloroparaffins in air from arctic monitoring stations; and B) to search for other "new" chemicals in the arctic environment, not currently monitored by Canada's Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) but of potential concern based on known persistence, extent of usage and toxicology.

This is a National Implementation Plan (NIP) project
Comments and additional information:

"New" chemicals are those which are currently used and/or not included in monitoring programs. Substances being investigated (and their sources) include BDPEs (flame retardants), PCNs and coplanar PCBs (in dielectric fluids and formed as combustion by-products), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, industrial applications), chlorophenols (wood preservatives), modern agrochemicals, pesticide photoproducts and enantiomers, haloacetic acids (HAAs) and synthetic musks (fragrance ingredients in detergents and cosmetics). Some musk compounds are regarded as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic.

Time frame

Status
Ongoing
Project time span
1998 - 2001
Data collection
1994 - 2001
Data processing
1998 - 2001
Data reporting
1998 - 2001

Contact information

Contact person
Terry F. Bidleman
Address
Meteorological Service of Canada, 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview, Ontario, Canada M3H 5T4
Phone
+1 416 739 5730
Fax
+1 416 739 5708
Email
ac.cg.ce@nameldib.yrret
Other project contacts
Dr. Mehran Alaee National Water Research Institute, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7R 4A6 T +1 905 336 4752 F +1 905 336 6430 mehran.alaee@cciw.ca Dr. Gary Stern Freshwater Institute, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 501 University Cres., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N6 T +1 204 984 6761 F +1 204 984 2403 sterng@dfo-mpo.gc.ca Dr. Derek Muir National Water Research Institute, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7R 4A6 T +1 905 319 6921 F +1 905 336 6430 derek.muir@cciw.ca

Parameters and Media

Parameter groups measured/observed/modelled
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
Media sampled/studied/modelled
Air/aerosol
Algae (algae, phytoplankton)
Marine fish
Marine mammals
Marine sediments
Seawater/suspended particulate matter
Additional information or further specification of types of data / information collected, species / tissues / organs sampled, etc.

Other chemicals - New chemicals (chemicals in current use or not currently monitored) include coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), brominated diphenyl ethers (BDPEs), chlorophenolic compounds, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), modern agrochemicals, pesticide photoproducts and enantiomers, haloacetic acids (HAAs) and synthetic musks.

Geography

Regions studied
Canada
Canadia, Arctic Islands
Lena delta
Russia
Stations or areas where observations are made

- Alert, Nunavut, Canada and Dunai, Russia 1994 - monthly air samples (pooled weekly samples) received from archive for analysis in all three laboratories; - Pangnirtung, Nunavut 1992 and 1996 - five beluga blubber samples for brominated- and chlorinated-DPE analysis at the Freshwater Institute; - West Hudson Bay 1995 - plankton; Resolute Bay 1993 - arctic cod; and East Hudson Bay 1995 - beluga muktuk. This previously reported information (e.g. Muir, D.C.G. 1997. In: Synopsis of Research Conducted under the 1995/96 and 1996/97 Northern Contaminants Program, Environmental Studies No. 74, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, 215-221) was compiled to study new pesticides; - Two locations in Labrador and three locations in Ungava Bay/Hudson Strait region of northern Quebec 1998 - 44 ringed seal blubber samples; - Baffin Bay and Kane Basin (SHEBA and NOW cruises) - seawater; - Canadian archipelago (JOIS cruise) 1997 - three seawater samples for HAA analysis at NWRI; - Canadian Arctic Archipelago at 53 locations (JOIS cruises) 1997, 1998 - sediment cores and grab samples, a subset of which was analyzed for SCCPs, chlorinated phenols/anisoles and CDPE/BDPEs.

Data availability

Are data archived or planned to be archived at an AMAP Thematic Data Centre?
no
If no (or only part of data are reported to a TDC), where and how are (other) data stored?
The data will be provided upon request to the relevant AMAP assessment chapter authors/drafters, assuming a similar data ownership agreement will be adopted for the second AMAP assessment as was used for the first. Also, a number of publications has been generated from the data. Please see the list of key references.
References to key publications (or planned publications) and data reports
Bidleman, T.F., D.C.G. Muir, and G.A. Stern. 1999. New persistent chemicals in the arctic environment. In: Synopsis of Research Conducted under the 1998/99 Northern Contaminants Program, Environmental Studies No. 76, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, 17-25. Harner, T., H. Kylin, T.F. Bidleman, C. Halsall, W.M.J. Strachan, L.A. Barrie and P. Fellin. 1998. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar PCBs in arctic air. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32, 3257-3265. Helm, P.A., L.M.M. Jantunen, T.F. Bidleman and F.L. Dorman. 1999. Complete separation of isomeric penta- and hexachloronaphthalenes by capillary gas chromatography. J. High Resol. Chromatog. In press. Muir, D.C.G., T.F. Bidleman and G.A. Stern. 1999. New persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals in arctic air, water/snow and biota. In: Synopsis of Research Conducted under the 1997/98 Northern Contaminants Program, Environmental Studies No. 75, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, 165-169. Scott, B.F. and M. Alaee. 1998. Determination of haloacetic acids from aqueous samples collected from the Canadian environment using an insitu derivatization technique. Water Qual. Res. J. Canada. 33, 279-293. Stern, G.A. and R. Addison. 1999. Temporal trends of organochlorines in southeastern Baffin beluga and Holeman ringed seal. In: Synopsis of Research Conducted under the 1998/99 Northern Contaminants Program, Environmental Studies No. 76, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, 203-212. Tomy, G.T., G.A. Stern, W.L. Lockhart and D.C.G. Muir. 1999. Occurrence of C10-C13 polychlorinated n-alkanes in Canadian midlatitude and arctic lake sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 2858-2863.
Samples/specimens archived in specimen banks?
No
Specimen banking information

Small volumes of samples collected during routine monitoring at Alert and Dunai are archived at the Meteorological Service of Canada.

Methods & Procedures

Procedures and methodology used for, e.g., sampling and sample storage, sample pretreatment, extraction and analysis, including which laboratories are involved, references to methods employed, etc.

Analytical and QA/QC responsibilities were divided among the three laboratories as follows: Bidleman - PCNs and pesticide enantiomers; Alaee/Muir - BDPEs and other brominated flame retardants, currently used pesticides and HAAs; and Stern - chlorophenols, BDPE/CDPEs and SCCPs. All three laboratories participate in the Northern Contaminants Program QA/QC program. All sampling and analytical methods are described or referenced in Bidleman et al. (1999) above, and brief summary follows. - SCCPs - The full method is described in Muir et al. (1999). - CDPEs and BDPEs - Following dichloromethane elution from a 3% deactivated silica gel column, samples were analyzed by high resolution electron ionization mass spectrometry. Analytical, surrogate-spiking and performance standards, as well as U.S. EPA 8290 QA/QC protocols, were employed as described in Bidleman et al. (1999). - PCNs and coplanar PCBs - After preparation on alumina-silica columns and further separation on columns of silica-activated carbon, samples were analyzed by GC-negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-NIMS) using different GC columns for routine analysis and detailed examination of penta- and hexachloronaphthalenes. QA/QC procedures included PCN quantification against Halowax 1014, a commercial PCN mixture, and single-congener standards for quantification of PCBs. 13C-labelled PCB congeners and internal standards were also employed (Harner et al. 1998). - Pesticides - The archived plankton, arctic cod and beluga muktuk samples had been previously analyzed at the Freshwater Institute by GC-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) using 60 m x 0.25 mm i.d. DB-5 columns. Confirmation was by exact retention time matching with authentic standards. Ringed seal blubber samples were analyzed at the NWRI laboratory for endosulfan isomers using a 30 m x 0.25 mm DB-5 column and a DB-1 column for confirmation. Samples were also analyzed for PCBs and a suite of current use compounds, as described in Bidleman et al. (1999). - HAAs - HAAs in concentrated seawater samples were derivatized to fluoroanilide HAAs which were then analyzed by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode.

QA/QC Information (what QA/QC procedures are implemented, laboratories involvment in QA/QC activities, model verification/validation routines, etc.)

Analytical QA/QC procedures for each group of analytes are listed above with methods and procedures.

Additional Information

Is this a bi- AND multi-lateral project (i.e. a project involving cooperation between different countries)?
Yes
Other institutes involved in the project

Please refer to the Canadian National AMAP Implementation Plan for details.

Is this project reporting to other organizations/programmes?

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Northern Contaminants Program. Environment Canada, Canada's federal environmental agency.

Other related projects

- "Northern Contaminants Air Monitoring: Organochlorine Measurements" Pierrette Blanchard, Meteorological Service of Canada; - Finnish/Swedish collaborative air monitoring project studying chlordane enantiomers at Pallas

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