Mechanisms of fluvial transport and sediment supply to Arctic river channels with various hydrological regimes (SW Spitsbergen) (ARCTFLUX)

Updated 2016-06-22

Fluvial transport, its dynamics and structure, constitute a good indicator of the condition of the natural environment in various climatic zones. Analysis of fluvial transport components allows for precise determination of the rate and directions of transformations of geosystems of any importance. In the polar zone, very sensitive to global changes, it seems expedient to identify the mechanisms and structure of fluvial transport, particularly in the conditions of the observed glacier retreat, the main alimentation source of proglacial rivers. Studies carried out in the zone revealed difficulties in determination of fluvial transport structure, particularly the actual bedload of gravel-bed rivers based on direct measurements, resulting from: short measurement series, lack of standardization of research methods and measurement equipment, and strategy of selection of study objects and sampling. The research project presented concerns determination of mechanisms of fluvial transport and sediment supply to Arctic gravel-bed river channels. The mechanisms reflect the processes of adaptation of proglacial rivers of the Arctic zone to changing environmental conditions, and indicate the dominant directions of transformations of paraglacial geosystems of various importance. For studies on Arctic geosystems, the region of the south Bellsund (SW Spitsbergen) was selected due to extensive knowledge on its hydro-meteorological and glacial-geomorphological conditions, and long-term measurement series carried out by the research station of the MCSU, among others within the framework of the international monitoring network: SEDIBUD (IAG) and Small-CATCHMENT program. For detailed studies, rivers with various hydrological regimes were selected, functioning at the forefield of the Scott and Renard Glaciers. The Scott River glacial catchment and glacier-free catchments of the Reindeer Stream and the Wydrzyca Stream (with a snow-permafrost hydrological regime) meet the selection criteria for representative test catchments analyzed for the following programs: SEDIFLUX, SEDIBUD, and POP.

Comments and additional information:

The study involved a comparison of the results of field measurements from 2012 and 2013 performed in the Scott Glacier catchment (10.1 km2) located in NW Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Spitsbergen). The variability of bedload transport rates and its relation to the dissolved and suspended load was analysed in two cross-sections located in the mouth section of a proglacial gravel-bed river. Bedload flux was measured by means of two 4-module sets of River Bedload Traps (RBT) constructed by the author. Over the research period, a total of 487 samples of material transported on the channel bed were collected, as well as 482 water samples for the determination of dissolved and suspended load. The measurements showed spatial and temporal variability of bedload flux and the remaining components (solutions, suspensions) corresponding to changes in water discharge. The assessment of sediment supply to a proglacial river was performed by means of a Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) survey. The paper compares results of field surveys (from 2010 and 2013). In both cases, the measurements involved the application of the 3D laser scanning technology. The measurements were performed by means of a medium-range stationary Leica Scan Station C10 laser scanner. Complex measurements of the valley bottom were performed from interrelated measurement sites. At each of the sites, a point cloud was obtained constituting a model space composed of 5 M pt. Their integration resulted in obtaining a Digital Surface Model (DSM) with an accuracy of ± 0.9 cm. The accuracy of the model permitted precise measurements of parameters of the discussed landforms. The paper presents a comparison of high accuracy TLS-based DEM's aimed at the evaluation of current changes in the morphology of selected subsystems of a glacial catchment through (i) the identification of the primary sources of sediment distribution, (ii) assessment of the spatiotemporal variability of land relief and sediment volume, and (iii) assessment of the role of particular subsystems in sediment distribution. It permitted balancing spatial quantitative and qualitative changes in nine square-shaped test areas (100 m2) located within two subsystems of the catchment in cascade arrangement. In the valley floor subsystem, the survey covered: 1) the marginal zone, 2) glacier terminus, 3) intramarginal outwash plain, 4) extramarginal outwash plain, 5) alluvial fan (mainstream) and 6) alluvial fan (distribution channels). In the slope subsystem, the survey covered: 7) the erosional-depositional slope in the gorge through terminal moraines, and 8) solifluction slope. One additional test field covering both subsystems was located in the vicinity of the mouth of the main right-bank tributary – 9) the Reindeer Stream. Three zones differing in terms of spatiotemporal dynamics of geomorphic processes were distinguished within the two analysed catchment subsystems. In the valley floor subsystem, these included: (i) the zone of basic supply (distribution throughout the melting season) and (ii) the redeposition zone (distribution particularly during floods), and in the slope subsystem: (iii) zone of periodical supply (distribution mainly in periods of increased precipitation and rapid increases in temperature in summer and during snow avalanches in winter). The glacier and the landforms of the channel and valley floor, as well as slope sediments transported as a result of mass wasting processes and activity of the active permafrost layer, constitute important sources of sediment supply.

  • The implementation of a complementary research strategy developed for the purposes of research on temporal-spatial variability of bedload flux and sediment supply in a small glacial catchment, integrating: i) traditionally applied measurement methods with z ii) innovative topographic measurement tools (TLS/GPS RTK), iii) developed for the purposes of the implementation of specific research tasks (photo-georeference method), and iv) system of continuous monitoring of bedload flux (RBT), permitted complete assessment of the course of modern geomorphic processes responsible for the development of the geosystems of glacial and periglacial catchments, both in the scope of quantitative and qualitative assessment of springs and routes of sediment transfer, as well as an insight into the mechanism of its transport in surface drainage networks.
  • The catchment of the proglacial Scott River can be an example of the functioning of a fluvial system at the forefield of glaciers with positive ablation balance in the conditions of rapid retreat of valley glaciers in the Arctic zone, observed in the second half of the 20th century.
  • Geomorphic processes in the catchment are controlled by climatic factors with both global and regional character (weather, occurrence of extreme events), and local factors (e.g. structural conditions, sediment lithology). They contribute to the development of the relief of valley floors and channel morphology.
  • In the conditions of rapid glacier retreat, the primary factors responsible for the modern development of the relief of floors of proglacial valleys include structurally determined morphometric parameters of the catchment, and particularly the inclination and width of the valley floor. The development and modern functioning of the main outflow routes were also determined by palaeogeographical factors, and particularly former extreme events during which currently periodically used systems of palaeochannels developed.
  • The greatest seasonal changes in the bottom relief occur in the period of snow cover ablation, and are determined by the bottom exposition and inclination. After the retreat of the snow cover from the valley floor, the channel system stabilises and retains the same position until the end of the summer season. In this period, considerable geomorphic changes only occur during floods with thermal-precipitation genesis, as a result of intensive redeposition of bedload and relocation of bottom and channel landforms.
  • The method of continuous measurement of bedload flux applied in the project, involving the application of a set of proportionately distributed and anchored in the river bed RBT devices, permitted the verification of current knowledge on the transport rate of the load in proglacial and periglacial rivers.
  • The analysis showed high temporal and spatial variability of bedload flux. The volume of bedload in particular measurement profiles varied from values approximate to zero to several kilograms per day, and in cross profiles it exceeded one and a half thousand kilograms per day. The variability of bedload flux was characteristic of both of the studied measurement profiles, and was manifested in both the variability of transport rate recorded in consecutive years and variable dynamics in the course of particular seasons.
  • During the melt season, periods with various intensity of transport processes can be distinguished, resulting from the differentiation of sources and intensity of sediment supply to the channel. The comparison of the volume of bedload transport in the same discharge conditions in both periods shows that at the end of the melt season, considerably lower values are recorded, and initiating transport requires substantially higher threshold values of discharge parameters.
  • The determining role of floods in bedload transport was confirmed. The highest daily values recorded in consecutive seasons constituted up to 70% of the total bedload supplied by a given measurement profile.
  • Spatial variability of bedload flux was evidenced, manifested in a disproportion of loads transported in particular cross sections and in measurement profiles. In analogical measurement periods, lower discharges of transported bedload were recorded in the measurement profile closing the catchment below the alluvial fan. This suggests the predominance of aggradation processes within the fan. Uneven distribution and variability of transport rate within measurement profiles suggests the relocation of transport routes. Migrations of the current and transport routes at variable bedload resulted in changes in the channel geometry, and during floods also the morphology of the valley floor.
  • The overview of the total transport of solid particles (suspensions and bedload documents a considerable discrepancy of results obtained by means of TLS and determined based on sampling in the Scott River. Even with the assumption that the measurement period constituted approximately 1/3 of the hydrologically active period, differences in the estimation of the phenomenon suggest that the role of the following should be considered to a greater degree: i) the beginning and end of the period of hydrological activity; ii) washing out of sediment covers as a result of snow cover ablation in periods preceding the initiation of runoff from the glacier, iii) runoff under the snow cover – both at the beginning of hydrological spring (Bartoszewski 1998) and in winter, iv) role of winter snowmelts, and v) floods in the period of hydrological autumn.
  • The disproportion of mechanical denudation indices obtained by means of direct measurements in the Scott River channel in relation to TLS measurements is largely caused by the lack of measurements at the end of the hydrologically active period (end of August and September). The occurrence of considerable precipitation in the period (3-day precipitation observed in 2013 amounted to 43.5 mm, i.e. were by 1/3 higher than mean multiannuals throughout the measurement period). Aggradation on the alluvial fan, caused by this single flood, was estimated by the TLS method for 150% of the estimated annual volume of erosion of the same area. This example suggests that both spatial and temporal extrapolation of measurement results from short measurement series should be treated with high caution.
  • In the case of measurements of particular components of fluvial transport, based on direct point sampling (of water to determine both suspension load and bedload), the estimated bedload is a very rough approximation. Conclusions on the scale of mechanical denudation for the entire area closed with the measurement profile (or the entire catchment), and comparison of the obtained results with other areas should be approached with caution, particularly if the compared data were obtained with the application of various measurement methods, and differ in the length of the measurement series and sampling frequency. The study showed that unitary indices of mechanical denudation should be only referred to the alimentation area which in the Scott catchment is particularly constituted by the alluvial subsystem (10% of the area of the catchment).

Time frame

Status
Completed
Project time span
2012 - 2015
Data collection
2012 - 2013
Data processing
2013 - 2015
Data reporting
2013 - 2016

Contact information

Contact person
Waldemar Kociuba
Address

Dr. Waldemar Kociuba

Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University
Al. Kraśnicka 2 CD
20-718 Lublin
Poland

Phone
+48 81 537 68 53
Fax
+48 81 537 68 62
Email
lp.nilbul.scmu.atzcop@abuicok.ramedlaw

Parameters and Media

Parameter groups measured/observed/modelled
Climate change effects
Media sampled/studied/modelled
Air/aerosol
Freshwater sediments
River/lake: suspended particulate matter
Additional information or further specification of types of data / information collected, species / tissues / organs sampled, etc.

 

 

Geography

Regions studied
Svalbard
Other areas

The experimental field study was carried out in the gravel-bed Scott River with glacial alimentation regime, located in the NW part of the Wedel-Jarlsberg Land (Spitsbergen), in the vicinity of Calypsobyen. The first-order catchment area is about 10 km2, with almost 40% covered with intensively melting valley-type Scott Glacier. Rapid changes in the location of the glacier terminus have been observed since the end of the Little Ice Age. The currently observed recession and downwearing of the glacier terminus were interrupted in the 1960’s, when a rapid surge of the glacier was recorded in the form of push moraines. 

Data availability

References to key publications (or planned publications) and data reports

Journal articles:

 

Rachlewicz, G., Zwoliński, Z., Kociuba, W., Stawska, M., in press 2016. Field testing of three bedload samplers’ efficiency in a gravel-bed river, Spitsbergen, Geomorphology,
doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.06.001

 

Kociuba W., Krząstek P., Superson J., PrePub2016. Combining GPS-RTK and rephotographic methodologies for the assessment of transformations of the ephemeral landforms of the near foreland of a valley glacier (Scottbreen, Svalbard), Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, DOI: 10.1127/zfg_suppl/2016/00231

 

Kociuba W., Janicki G., 2015. Changeability of movable bed-surface particles in natural, gravel-bed channels and its relation to bedload grain size distribution (Scott River, Svalbard). Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 97 (3), 507–521. doi:10.1111/geoa.12090.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/geoa.12090/full

 

Kociuba W., Janicki G., 2014. Continuous measurements of bedload transport rates in a small glacial river catchment in the summer season (Spitsbergen). Geomorphology, 212, 58-71. 

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X13002626

 

Kociuba W., Kubisz W., Zagórski P., 2014. Use of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for monitoring and modelling of geomorphic processes and phenomena at a small and medium spatial scale in Polar environment (Scott River — Spitsbergen). Geomorphology, 212, 84-96.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X13000755

 

Kociuba, W., 2014. Application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning in the assessment of the role of small debris flow in river sediment supply in the cold climate environment. Annales UMCS B 69, 1, 79-91.

http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/umcsgeo.2014.69.issue-1/v10066-012-0039-y/v10066-012-0039-y.xml?rskey=qjbgVA&result=4

 

Kociuba W., Janicki G., Siwek K., 2014. Variability of sediment transport in the Scott River catchment (Svalbard) during the hydrologically active season of 2009, Quaestiones Geographicae 33, 1, 39-49.

http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/quageo.2014.33.issue-1/quageo-2014-0011/quageo-2014-0011.xml?format=INT

 

Lehmann S., Kociuba W., Franczak Ł., Gajek G., Łęczyński L., Kozak K., Szopińska M., Ruman M., Polkowska Ż., 2014. Studies on the presence and spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants in the glacial basin of Scott Glacier in the face of climate change (Fiord Bellsund, Spitsbergen) [in:] AIP Conference Proceedings 1618, 301 (2014), doi: 10.1063/1.4897733

http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/10.1063/1.4897733

 

Monography:

 

Waldemar Kociuba, 2015. Mechanizm i dynamika dostawy rumowiska oraz transportu fluwialnego w zlewni glacjalnej [The mechanism and dynamics of sediment supply and fluvial transport in a glacial catchment]. Wydawnictwo UMCS, Lublin: 151 pp. ISBN 978-83-7784-769-5

 

Chapters:

 

Kociuba, W., in press 2016. Measurements of bedload flux in a high Arctic environment [in:] A.A. Beylich, J.C. Dixon, Z. Zwoliński (Eds.), Source-to-sink-fluxes in undisturbed cold environments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 116-132

Kociuba, W., 2016. Effective Method for Continuous Measurement of Bedload Transport Rates by Means of River Bedload Trap (RBT) in a Small Glacial High Arctic Gravel-Bed River. [in:] GeoPlanet: Earth Planetary Scien., P. Rowiński, A. Marion (Eds): Hydrodynamic and Mass Transport at Freshwater Aquatic Interfaces, Springer. pp. 279-292. ISBN 978-3-319-27749-3

 

Kociuba W., 2015. Geometrical parameters of TLS-based DEM acquisition for a small Arctic catchment (Svalbard SW) [in:] Geomorphometry for Geosciences, Jasiewicz J., Zwoliński Zb., Mitasova H., Hengl T. (eds), 2015. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań - Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, International Society for Geomorphometry, Poznań, 61-64. ISBN ISBN 978-83-7986-059-3

 

Kociuba, W., Janicki, G., 2015. Spatiotemporal variability of the channel pattern of High Arctic proglacial rivers. In: Duncan N. (ed.): Fluvial Geomorphology and Riparian Vegetation: Environmental Importance, Functions and Effects on Climate Change. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, pp. 53-80. ISBN: 978-1-63482-462-0

 

Kociuba W., 2014. Bedload transport in a High Arctic gravel-bed river (Scott River, Svalbard SW) [in:] K. Migała, P. Owczarek, M. Kasprzak, M.C. Strzelecki (eds.),  New perspectives in polar research. Institute of Geography and Regional Development, University of Wrocław, Wyd. I-BiS, Wrocław: 231-246.(2015) ISBN 978−83−62673−47−6

 

Lehmann S., Kociuba W., Gajek G., Franczak Ł., Polkowska Ż., 2014. Dynamics of changes in the concentration levels of organic pollutants in the proglacial waters of the Scott River (Spitsbergen, SW Svalbard). [in:] K. Migała, P. Owczarek, M. Kasprzak, M.C. Strzelecki (eds.), New perspectives in polar research. Institute of Geography and Regional Development, University of Wrocław, I-BiS, Wrocław: 111-121. (2015) ISBN 978−83−62673−47−6

 

Kosek K., Lehmann S., Gajek G., Kociuba W., Franczak Ł., Polkowska Ż., 2014. Morphometric parameters of the Renardbrenn as an important factors determining the spatial distribution of chemical compounds on the glacier surface. [in:] K. Migała, P. Owczarek, M. Kasprzak, M.C. Strzelecki (eds.), New perspectives in polar research, Institute of Geography and Regional Development, University of Wrocław, I-BiS, Wrocław: 97-109. (2015) ISBN 978−83−62673−47−6

 

Kociuba W., Janicki G., 2013. Fluvial Processes, [in:] P. Zagórski, M. Harasimiuk, J. Rodzik (eds.), The Geographical Environment of NW Part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Spitsbergen, Svalbard), Wydawnictwo UMCS, Lublin, 192-211.

http://geografia.umcs.lublin.pl/wyprawy/publikacje/monografia/chapter_5_4.pdf

 

Kociuba W., Janicki G., Siwek K. Gluza  A., 2012. Bedload transport as an indicator of contemporary transformations of arctic fluvial systems [in:] D. de Wrachien, C.A. Brebbia, S. Mambretti (Eds.), Monitoring, Simulation, Prevention and Remediation of Dense and Debris Flows IV. WIT Press Southampton, Boston: 125-135. ISBN: 978-1-84564-586-1

https://www.witpress.com/elibrary/wit-transactions-on-engineering-sciences/73/23345

 

Kociuba W., Janicki G., Siwek K., 2010: Dynamics of changes of bed load outflow from a small glacial catchment (West Spitsbergen). [W:] D. de Wrachien, C.A. Brebbia (eds.), Monitoring, Simulation, Prevention and Remediation of Dense and Debris Flows III. University of Milan, Italy: 261-270.

https://www.witpress.com/elibrary/wit-transactions-on-engineering-sciences/67/21014

 

Abstracts:

Kociuba W., 2014. Bedload flux changeability in the proglacial river catchment (Scott River, Svalbard SW) [in:] D. Morche, M. Krautblatter, A. Beylich & T. Heckmann (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th I.A.G./A.I.G. working group SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Workshop “Sediment Cascades in Cold Climate Geosystems” Zugspitze/Reintal, Bavaria/Germany, September 1-3/4, 2014, 22.

 

Kociuba W., 2014. Terrestrial Laser Scanning as a tool to measurement transformations of fluvial forms and processes in the Arctic environment [in:] D. Morche, M. Krautblatter, A. Beylich & T. Heckmann (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th I.A.G./A.I.G. working group SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Workshop “Sediment Cascades in Cold Climate Geosystems” Zugspitze/Reintal, Bavaria/Germany, September 1-3/4, 2014, 23.

 

Kociuba W., 2014: Terrestrial Laser Scanning as a tool of monitoring rapid transformations of fluvial forms and processes. [in:] Gonçalo Vieira, Pedro Pina, Carla Mora and António Correia (eds.), EUCOP 4 - Book of Abstracts. Published by the University of Lisbon and the University of Évora: 381.

 

Franczak Ł., Kociuba W., Gajek G., 2014: Effect of climate drivers on extreme Arctic river flows during floods (melt season 2013). [in:] K. Migała, M. C. Strzelecki, P. Owczarek, T. Sawiński, M. Korzystka-Muskała, P. Muskała, M. Kasprzak(eds.) Book of Abstracts 35th Polar Symposium. Diversity and state of polar ecosystems, 34.

 

Gajek G., Kociuba W., Franczak Ł., 2014: Changes in Scottbreen geometry in the light of archival cartographic materials and the latest TLS measurements. [in:] K. Migała, M. C. Strzelecki, P. Owczarek, T. Sawiński, M. Korzystka-Muskała, P. Muskała, M. Kasprzak(eds.) Book of Abstracts 35th Polar Symposium. Diversity and state of polar ecosystems, 35.

 

Kociuba W., 2014: Bedload transport in a High Arctic gravel-bed river (Scott River, Svalbard SW) [in:] K. Migała, M. C. Strzelecki, P. Owczarek, T. Sawiński, M. Korzystka-Muskała, P. Muskała, M. Kasprzak(eds.) Book of Abstracts 35th Polar Symposium. Diversity and state of polar ecosystems, 60.

 

Kociuba W., Gajek G., Franczak Ł., Lehmann S., Polkowska Ż., 2014: The distribution and changeability of sediment yield and its delivery at the small glacial catchment (Scott River, Svalbard SW), [in:] K. Migała, M. C. Strzelecki, P. Owczarek, T. Sawiński, M. Korzystka-Muskała, P. Muskała, M. Kasprzak(eds.) Book of Abstracts 35th Polar Symposium. Diversity and state of polar ecosystems, 61.

 

Lehmann S., Kociuba W., Gajek G., Franczak Ł., Kozak K., Namieśnik, J., Polkowska Ż., 2014: Organic compounds of anthropogenic origin present in a small glaciated catchment of Scott Glacier. [in:] K. Migała, M. C. Strzelecki, P. Owczarek, T. Sawiński, M. Korzystka-Muskała, P. Muskała, M. Kasprzak(eds.) Book of Abstracts 35th Polar Symposium. Diversity and state of polar ecosystems, 72.

 

Lehmann S., Gajek G., Franczak Ł., Kociuba W., Łęczyński L., Chmiel S., Kozak K., Polkowska Ż., 2014: Spatial distribution of metals present on the surface of Scott and Blomli glaciers (Bellsund, SW Spitsbergen). [in:] K. Migała, M. C. Strzelecki, P. Owczarek, T. Sawiński, M. Korzystka-Muskała, P. Muskała, M. Kasprzak (eds.) Book of Abstracts 35th Polar Symposium. Diversity and state of polar ecosystems, 73.

 

Janicki G., Kociuba W., Rodzik J., 2013. Application of the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for assessing development of a forested loess gully. [in:] Gully Erosion in a Changing World (6th ISGE) 06-12 May 2013, Iasi, Romania, Book of abstracts, 60.

Kociuba W., 2012: Changeability of bedload transport rate in the gravel-bed channel of the Scott River (Svalbard SW), Monitoring bedload and debris flows in mountain basins,  Bozen-Bolzano (Italy), 10-12 October 2012.

 

Kociuba W., Janicki G., 2012: Contemporary transformations of a braided gravel-bed river (Svalbard), New insight on the Qaternary evolution of the Mosele River and its tributaries (Luxembourg, France, Germany), Abstract book, pp.39

 

Kociuba W., Seul C., 2012. Variability of measured bedload flux in a small glacial river catchment (Scott River, Svalbard SW). The Arctic Science Summit Week 2013. The Arctic Hub Regional and Global Perspectives, Kraków 13 - 19 April 2013, http://www.assw2013.us.edu.pl/pdf/Pendrive/ABSTRACT_T_3395.pdf

 

Lehmann S., Kociuba W., Gajek G., Franczak Ł., Łęczyński L., Polkowska Ż., 2012. Dynamics and spatial distribution of changes in the concentration levels of anthropogenic pollutants in the proglacial waters of the Scott River. The Arctic Science Summit Week 2013. The Arctic Hub Regional and Global Perspectives, Kraków 13 - 19 April 2013, http://www.assw2013.us.edu.pl/pdf/Pendrive/ABSTRACT_T_3255.pdf

 

Lehmann S., Kociuba W., Gajek G., Franczak Ł., Łęczyński L., Polkowska Ż., 2012. Environmental conditions of differentiation of anthropogenic pollutants concentrations present in the water bodies of small catchments of the Svalbard. The Arctic Science Summit Week 2013. The Arctic Hub Regional and Global Perspectives, Kraków 13 - 19 April 2013, http://www.assw2013.us.edu.pl/pdf/Pendrive/ABSTRACT_T_4155.pdf

Samples/specimens archived in specimen banks?
No

Methods & Procedures

Procedures and methodology used for, e.g., sampling and sample storage, sample pretreatment, extraction and analysis, including which laboratories are involved, references to methods employed, etc.

The studies was carried out based on an integrated monitoring program of sediment transport. The study was focused on identification of patterns of channel development of rivers analyzed, tendencies of changes in the morphology of river beds and valley bottoms, as well as identification of their transportation regime, and determination of modern sedimentation (sub)environments. Water discharge intensity and fluvial transport volume was analyzed in selected hydrometric cross-sections closing subcatchments. Individual components of sediment transported, their spatial differentiation, and variability at various time scales (diurnal, seasonal, long-term) will be identified. Flow rate was determined with the application of an current meter, and water levels in the river bed – by means of pressure limnigraphs. Measurements of dissolved and suspended material was carried out with the application of the conductometric and gravimetric method. Bedload material was measured based on an innovative methodology with the application of River Bedload Traps – RBT, constructed by W. Kociuba. Material sampled was subjected to field granulometric analyses for the purpose of determination of statistical parameters of granulation distribution. The analyses planned was supplemented by meteorological measurements carried out in the ‘Calypsobyen’ and glaciological measurements (based on a network of ablation stakes and GPS measurements) of the Scott Glacier, allowing for determination of the effect of meteorological conditions and glacier ablation rate on the dynamics of fluvial processes.

Additional Information

Is this a bi- AND multi-lateral project (i.e. a project involving cooperation between different countries)?
No
Other institutes involved in the project

Maria Curie-Skłodowska University (MCSU) Polar Expedition

Other related projects

The field research was performed during the 24th and 25th Maria Curie-Skłodowska University (MCSU) Polar Expeditions. This study was supported by the scientific project of the Polish National Science Centre 2011/01/B/ST10/06996 ‘Mechanisms of fluvial transport and sediment supply to channels of Arctic rivers with various hydrological regimes (SW Spitsbergen)’. The results was prepared in the scope of promotion of the project POIG.01.03.02-00-082/10, co-financed from the resources of the EU in the scope of the Operational Programme Innovative Economy, 2007-2013, Priority 1. ‘Research and development of modern technologies’. 

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