Diversity of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae in subglacial soil (Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) Study of the reinvasion and establishment of plant and animal life after ice retreat is one on the most important ecological problems. In the past, many Arctic and Antarctic research projects have dealt with primary succession processes and the effects of climate warming. Cyanobacteria and algae are widespread in polar wetlands and soils and produce visible biomass, which represents a considerable global pool of fixed carbon. Together with associated microorganisms, they are involved in energy flow, mineral cycling, weathering processes and the biological development of the polar landscape. The processes primary succession by cyanobacteria and algae are influenced by many ecological factors. However, two of them (1) aerobiological and water inputs of viable cells and spores into deglacaited areas and, (2) ability to endure freeze-dry desiccation for long periods of time (perennial character) play a detrimental role in the processes of primary succession. The diversity and abundance of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae will be studied in the vicinity of Ny-Ålesund, Southern part of Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen, 79°N in the following habitats: subglacial soil (samples will be collected from below glacier ice) freshly deglaciated soil (close to glacial margins - up to 50m) glacial ice surface (cryoconite, streams flowing on ice surface, etc.) soils of habitats deglaciated many years ago (more than 50 years ago) The collection of these samples will be focussed on soils that have not been in contact with environment above the ice.