Since 1988 the regular summer hydrographic observations in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait have been collected by the Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences (IOPAS). Observational activities were carried out under several national programs, in the frames of EU projects VEINS, ASOF-N and DAMOCLES and within Polish-Norwegian cooperation in the AWAKE project. The main objectives are: to study the long-term variability of water mass distribution, their physical and chemical properties and different pathways in the Nordic Seas; to investigate the Atlantic water (AW) circulation in the Nordic Seas and its inflow into the Arctic Ocean; to recognize the possible feedbacks between the Atlantic water variability and local and global climate changes.
Basic hydrography (temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients), sea currents (continuous ADCP measurements and on stations LADCP profiles). All measurements at the fixed oceanographic sections (see map), repeated annually within the period 20 June to 20 July.
Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IO-PAN) (IOPAN)
ASOF-N (ASOF-N), Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies (DAMOCLES), Arctic Climate and Environment of the Nordic Seas and the Svalbard – Greenland Area (AWAKE), Variability of Exchanges in the Northern Seas (VEINS)