The full list of projects contains the entire database hosted on this portal, across the available directories. The projects and activities (across all directories/catalogs) are also available by country of origin, by geographical region, or by directory.

Displaying: 81 - 100 of 108 Next
81. Hydrology and water currents in the inner part of Kongsfjord in front of Kongsbreen Glacier

The aim of this project is to study the physical oceanography of the sea in the area where Kongsbreen glacier get in touch with the sea in the inner part of Kongsfjord. In particular the project aims:  to characterise temperature and salinity of water masses in the inner part of Kongsfjord close to Kongsbreen Glacier  to characterise major fresh water outflow from Kongsbreen glaciers to the sea in the inner part of the fiord  to collect time series if seawater currents in-out from the inner part, temperature and salinity patterns for one year from summer 2001 to summer 2002.  to collect a one year time series of sea level changes by an automatic self recording depth gauges deployed close to the base.

Glaciers Kongsfjord Hydrography Water currents Hydrology sea level change salinity Sea ice Climate change Ice Oceanography Arctic temperature Ocean currents Kongsbreen
82. Relative importance of different sources of particulate matter in the Kongsfjorden environment

The general objective of this research concerns the quantitative and qualitative study of particulate matter retained in natural (sea-ice and sediment) and artificial (sediment traps) traps in order to determine the main origin (autochtonous and allochtonous) and the relative importance of different fractions of particulate matter and to follow their fate in the environment. To quantify the autochtonous origin of particulate matter, primary production, nutrient uptake, biomass distribution, phytoplankton community structure and fluxes in the first levels of the trophic chain will be investigated. Studies will be conducted in the sea-ice environment and in the water column and compared to the particle fluxes measured both in the water, using sediment traps and in the sediment, by radiometric chronology, in order to estimate the different contribution of these habitats to carbon export to the bottom. The zooplankton will be identified and counted and primary production, nutrient uptake and phytoplankton dynamics will be related to hydrological structure and nutrient availability in the environment. The Kongsfjord results particularly suitable for the main objective of this research as it is influenced by important inputs of both atmospheric (eolic and meteroric) and glacial origin and is characterised by a complex hydrological situation which may promote autochtonous productive processes, thus determining important particulate fluxes.

athmospheric carbon dioxide Biological effects Biology Arctic haze Hydrography inorganic and organic nutrients particulate Sea ice Ice Oceanography Biodiversity Arctic Ice cores Data management Atmosphere Ocean currents phytoplankton sediment radiometric chronology zooplankton
83. Radiometric studies of natural surfaces at Ny-Aalesund by means of field survey and multispectral satellite data

The main goal of this research project is to complete the collection of snow/ice field data and to improve the organization of snow/ice spectral signatures, and structural data, along with ancillary information in the existing archive.

Geology Mapping radiometric studies remote-sensing Spatial trends Climate change Ice Arctic Temporal trends spectral reflectance
84. Phosphorus Cycling in the Cryosphere

This project will construct detailed phosphorus budgets for polar catchments occupied by glaciers and freshwater systems undergoing rapid response to climate warming. These are Midre Lovenbreen, Svalbard; Jebsen Creek, Signy Island (maritime Antarctic) and Storglaciaren, northern Sweden. The relationship between meltwater production, pathway and phosphorus liberation from glacial sediments will be examined closely. Emphasis will be given to phosphorus sorption dynamics in turbid glacial streams and their receiving waters (fjords and lakes).

Glaciers Catchment studies Phosphorus Climate change Arctic Geochemistry Ecosystems
85. Studies of periglacial and glacial structures and permafrost conditions in ice free areas around Ny Ålesund area

Project Description: - Landform mapping of the periglacial and glacial structures using remote sensing / aerial photography and field observation - Genetic studies of ground ice using geochemical and stable isotope techniques - Studies of microbial life in extreme periglacial environment

glacial structures Mapping Geophysics microbial life Geochemistry Data management aerial photography periglacial structures Permafrost
86. Optical properties, structure, and thickness of sea ice in Kongsfjorden

Study of the energy exchange between atmosphere, sea ice and ocean during freezing and melting conditions; within that, measurements of solar radiation (visible and UV) and optical properties, snow and sea ice characteristics, vertical heat and salt fluxes, oceanographic parameters.

UV radiation Geophysics Climate variability Climate remote sensing Sea ice Climate change Modelling Ice Oceanography Arctic Ice cores Atmosphere Ocean currents optical properties
87. The surface energy budget and its impact on superimposed ice formation (SEBISUP)

During the spring/summer transition, sea ice and snow properties change considerably in response to warming and the eventual reversal of temperature gradients within the snow and ice. Snow melt water percolates down towards the colder snow/ice interface, where it refreezes to form superimposed ice. On sea ice this process occurs probably longer and more intensive than on land, because throughout the summer the ice and underlying seawater is always colder than the snow. In Antarctica superimposed ice may actually form layers of some decimeters in thickness. The objective of this study is to investigate the main processes and boundary conditions for superimposed ice formation, in recognition of its importance for Antarctic sea ice, and its possible importance for Arctic sea ice in case of environmental changes due to future climate change. This will be performed by means of modeling as well as by combined measurements of the temporal evolution of snow and ice properties and the energy budget.

Snow and ice properties Sea ice Climate change Modelling Ice Ice sheets Arctic Ice cores Superimposed ice formation
88. Submarine Operational And Research Environmental Database (SOARED)

The Submarine Operational And Research Environmental Database (SOARED)is comprised of a fixed relational environmental database using unclassified data collected during the Science Ice Exercises (SCICEX) during the past several years. It also includes publicly accessible gridded historical sound velocity, temperature and salinity data from 1900 from the US National Oceanographic Data Center. This project is a demonstration system to show ways to retrieve and analyze sound velocity, temperature and salinity profiles, bathymetry and ice thickness data using a mouse-driven GIS-based query.

Shelf seas Hydrography Mapping Spatial trends Sea ice Climate change Ice Oceanography Arctic GIS Data management Ocean currents Temporal trends
89. C-ICE 2001

The Collaborative Interdisciplinary Cryospheric Experiment (C-ICE) is a multi-year field experiment that incorporates many individual projects, each with autonomous goals and objectives. The science conducted has directly evolved from research relating to one of four general themes: i. sea ice energy balance; ii. numerical modeling of atmospheric processes; iii. remote sensing of snow covered sea ice; and iv. ecosystem studies.

Atmospheric processes Biology Mapping Climate variability Spatial trends Remote Sensing Sea ice Climate change Shipping Modelling Ice Polar bear Oceanography Arctic Ice cores GIS Energy Balance Food webs Data management MicroWave Scattering Atmosphere Ocean currents Ecosystems Marine mammals
90. Polar microbial ecology

Ecology of bacterioplankton and bacterioneuston in the polar seas, distribution, number, in situ heterotrophic activity, involvement in natural purification processes from oil pollution.

Biological effects heterotrophic bacteria oil biodegradation. number distribution Sea ice Environmental management Contaminant transport Petroleum hydrocarbons Arctic activity Polar seas
91. Energy balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

Analysis of the energy balance terms obtained during the measuring campaign in 1991 at Greenland. It deals with profile and turbulence measurements, RASS-SODAR observations and radiation measurments.

mass balance Climate variability Climate Climate change Ice Ice sheets
92. Land ice, climate change and sea level

Land ice forms an important component of the climate system. Sea level variations are closely related to the total ice volume. Purpose of the research project is to obtain a better understanding of how glacier fluctuations and climate change are linked. This is a prerequisite to make more accurate predictions of future sea level.

Glaciers Climate variability Climate Climate change sea-level change Ice Ice sheets
93. 'Arctic-2000' expedition

The expedition 'Arctic-2000' included climatic, hydrometeorological and hydrochemical studies in the eastern part of the Central Arctic Basin, during the period July-August 2000.

Contaminant transport Heavy metals Hydrography Ice Long-range transport Oceanography Organochlorines PAHs PCBs Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Petroleum hydrocarbons Sea ice
94. Arctic Nearshore Impact Monitoring in the Development Area (ANIMIDA)

1. Sediment study for heavy metals and selected organic contaminants. 2. Analysis of benthic organisms for heavy metals and selected organic contaminants. 3. Study of suspended sediment distribution, composition and sources. 4. Determination of partitioning of heavy metals between dissolved and particulate phases.

Heavy metals PAHs Pollution sources Contaminant transport Petroleum hydrocarbons Local pollution Geochemistry Sediments
95. Simulation Scenarios for Potential Radioactive Spreading in the 21st century from Rivers and External sources in the Russian Arctic Coastal Zone (RADARC)

1) To perform simulation scenarios for the 21st century, including global warming scenarios, of potential radioactive spreading from sources in the Russian Arctic coastal zone and its impact on Barents, Greenland and Norwegian Seas and the Arctic Ocean; 2) To update the environmental and pollution data base of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP); 3) To assess, select and define the most probable simulation scenarios for accidental releases of radionuclides; 4) To implement a Generic Model System (GMS) consisting of several nested models designed to simulate radionuclides transport through rivers, in the Kara sea and in the Arctic ocean / North Atlantic; 5) To carry out simulation studies for the selected "release" scenarios of radionuclides, using various atmospheric forcing scenarios; 6) Assess the impact on potential radioactive spreading from sources as input to risk management.

Shelf seas Pathways Sources Hydrography Catchment studies Radioactivity Long-range transport Pollution sources Sea ice Contaminant transport Radionuclides Modelling Ice Oceanography River ice Arctic Local pollution GIS Sediments
96. Study of influence of land-based sources of radionuclides on radioactive contamination of Kara sea through Ob- and Yenisey river systems

To assess potential levels of radionuclides input into the Kara sea from existing and potential sources of technogenic radioactivity, located on the land in the Ob- and Yenisey rivers watersheds. Specific Objectives * To reveal and estimate a) most hazardous technogenic sources of radioactive contamination in the Ob- and Yenisey watersheds and b) the most possible and dangerous natural and technogenic (antrophogenic) situations (in the regions of these sources) that may result in release of radionuclides into the environment and may lead to significant changes in the radioactive contamination of the Kara sea * To estimate parameters of radionuclides (potential amount, composition, types etc.) under release to the environment from chosen sources as a result of accidents as well as during migration from the sources to the Kara sea through river systems * To set up a dedicated Database and a Geographic Information System (GIS) for modelling transport of radionuclides from the land-based sources to the Kara sea * To develop and create a dedicated model tool for simulation of radionuclides transport from land-based sources through Ob- and Yenisey river systems to the Kara sea

Pathways Hydrography Catchment studies Radioactivity Long-range transport Pollution sources Sea ice Contaminant transport Radionuclides Modelling Ice Oceanography River ice Arctic Local pollution GIS Data management Ocean currents
97. Monitoring the Atlantic Inflow toward the Arctic (MAIA)

The overall objective of MAIA is to develop an inexpensive, reliable system based on coastal sea-level data for monitoring the inflows of Atlantic Water to the northern seas. Available observation systems, including stan-dard tidal stations, will be used to obtain transport estimates with a time resolution of less than a week and show that the method is generic and can be applied to a similar monitoring of other regions.

Long-range transport Climate Sea ice Ice Oceanography Arctic Ocean currents
98. Ellasjøen, Bear Island - A mass balance study of a highly contaminated Arctic area

In 1994, analyses of sediments and fish from Lake Ellasjøen on Bear Island revealed a surprising scenario. The analytical results indicated some of the highest values of the contaminants PCB and DDT in freshwater sediments and fish ever found in the Arctic. The 1994 results were based on limited amounts of samples. During 1996 and 1997 there were carried out new sampling and analyses of several samples. These results verify the results found in 1994. Since the POP-patterns found deviate considerably from the typical patterns expected for local contamination, no local source can be assumed to be responsible for the high POP values found. Thus, the questions that need to be addressed include the source of these contaminants, the transport pathways that deliver these contaminants to this site, total deposition and finally contaminant fate including biological uptake and effects. Previous investigations from the early 80’s on high volume air samples carried out at Bear Island revealed several long-range transport episodes from Eastern Europe. The overall objective of this project is to contribute significant new information to the understanding of contaminant pathways in the Arctic hydrosphere and to provide a better understanding of contaminant focusing in a sensitive polar environment. This will be accomplished through the development of a comprehensive mass balance study of the atmospheric loadings of PCBs and other contaminants to the Lake Ellasjøen watershed to determine the seasonal importance of atmospheric deposition on a remote polar island. Further, effort will be directed at assessing the relative importance of various source regions of contaminants to the island through an evaluation of contaminant signatures and back trajectories of pollution events.

Pathways Organochlorines PCBs Long-range transport Pollution sources Contaminant transport Modelling Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Pesticides Atmosphere
99. Transfer of organic pollutants from the abiotic environment to the lowest tropic levels of the ice associated food chain

The aim of the project is to detrmine the content of organic contaminants in sea ice (including dirty ice), sea water (particulate and dissolved), snow, ice algae and phytoplankton collected in the marginal ice zone of the Barents Sea and in Fram Strait, and to calculate bioconcentration factors from the abiotic compartments to the lowest trophic levels of the food chain. Silicate measurements were included in the Fram Strait as water mass tracer. The Barents Sea represents an area influence mainly by first year ice with sea ice formed in the area and or in the Kara Sea, and and strongly influenced by the inflowing two branches of water of Atlantic origin. Samples were collected on a transect along the ice edge and at two transects into the ice. The stations across the Fram Strait were taken in regions affected by water masses and sea ice from differents regions and age. In the western sector, the upper water column was influenced by the inflowing west Spitsbergen current of Atlantic origin and mainly with first-second year ice, while the easter station was influenced by outflowing water from the Arctic Ocean and multiyear sea ice of more eastern origin.

Pathways Organochlorines PCBs PAHs Long-range transport Pollution sources Sea ice Contaminant transport Exposure Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Ice cores Food webs Pesticides Ecosystems
100. Ice-sheet mass balance in central West Greenland

The aim of the project is to obtain more insight in the response of the Greenland ice sheet to climatic change. For this purpose we will link our surface energy-balance model to an atmospheric model, so that the model can be forced by variables characterizing the atmosphere outside the thermal influence of the ice sheet itself. The modelling is supported by the mass-balance and meteorological data that we collect along a transect in West Greenland (the Kangerlussuaq-transect or K-transect). The albedo of the ice sheet is studied by means of satellite data and measurements obtained from a helicopter. Research activities - develop numerical models of the surface energy balance and the boundary layer above the ice sheet - perform annual measurements of the mass balance and ice velocity along the K-transect - maintain two automatic weather stations along the K-transect - study the surface albedo by means of remote-sensing images - improve methods to retrieve the surface albedo from satellite data by means of measurements obtained from a helicopter

mass balance Geophysics Climate variability Climate meteorology surface albedo Climate change Ice Ice sheets