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Displaying: 81 - 100 of 138 Next
81. Food and Drinking Water

Estimates of human intake of environmental pollutions via food and drinking water are performed in cooperation with the National Food Administration (Table 4, #9.4). During 2006 an estimation of children’s intake of dioxin was finalized. The concentration of pollutants in groundwater wells is studied in cooperation with SGU and the National Board of Health and Welfare.

Human health
82. The Hydrological Base Network at SMHI

Stream water is assessed in two programs in which SMHI conducts most river discharge observations. It has 155 discharge stations in northern Sweden that belong to the Base Hydrological Network (Fig. 5, Table 6, #3.1). SMHI reports daily discharges in 46 rivers north of 60°N to BALTEX (Table 6, #3.2). The size distribution of the catchments is characterized as minimum 30 km2, median 6 400 km2 and maximum 33 930 km2, and the relative area of lakes as minimum 3%, median 6.4%, and maximum 21%. SLU is in charge of the water quality and SFB of the test fishing program. In the River Mouth Survey the goal is to estimate the element discharge from Sweden to the sea. Monthly sampling is conducted in 23 rivers and the samples are analyzed for pH, conductivity, NH4, NO2, NO2+NO3, Kjeldahl-N, Tot-N, Tot-P, PO4, TOC, Si, absorbance (on filtered and nonfiltered samples), KMnO4, Fe, Mn, alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO4, Cl, F, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Ni, V, As, Al, Hg. The primary goal of the Trend Streams program is to build time series to detect eventual environmental changes. The streams are of quite different sizes, with drainage basins from 1 to 10 000 km2. For water chemistry 37 streams are sampled monthly and the samples analyzed as for the River Mouth Survey. Out of the 37 streams 27 are selected for yearly sampling of bottom fauna and benthic diatoms, and in turn electrical test fishing is performed once per year in 16 of these.

83. Sweden National Lake Survey

The National Lake Survey (Table 4, #7.4) gives an aerial coverage of water quality in Swedish lakes. Water samples are taken at 0.5 to 2 m depth in a total of 1841 lakes in northern Sweden in a 6-year rotation with about 350 lakes per year. The samples are taken after the lake’s complete overturn in the autumn. For water chemistry the samples are analyzed for 20 variables (temperature, pH, NH4, NO2+NO3, Tot-N, Tot-P, PO4, TOC, Si, absorbance, Fe, Mn, alkalinity, Ca, Mg, K, Na, SO4, Cl and F) and less frequently for 9 trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Ni, V, Al). In the Trend Lakes program the sampling is more frequent (4 times per year for water chemistry and one time per year for bottom fauna, phytoplankton and macrophytes). The aim of the program is to build time series to detect environmental changes due to e.g. Climate change or large scale changes in deposition load. In this program about 40 lakes are sampled in northern Sweden. For water chemistry the samples are analyzed for the same elements as in the National Lake Survey. In addition test fishing is conducted in 2 of the lakes per year. Invented variables: Temperature, pH, NH4, NO2-NO3, Tot-N, Tot-P, PO4, TOC, Si, Absorbance, Fe, Mn, Alkalinity, Ca, Mg, K, Na, SO4, Cl, F, and trace metals Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Ni, V, Al Sampling depths: Sampling at 0.5 - 2.0 m depth during fall circulation Network layout: The network is based on EMEP-squares and gives between 19 and 134 lakes sampled per county every year. Sampled lakes rotation: About 350 lakes are sampled in northern Sweden every year in a six-year -periodical program. Out of 4824 lakes sampled in the country 2112 are situated in northern Sweden.

84. SGU network for groundwater chemistry

Since the late 1960s, the Swedish Geological Survey (SGU) has operated a groundwater network comprising about 400 wells throughout Sweden. The groundwater level is measured twice per month, resulting in maps (published monthly) of the groundwater situation in the country (Table 6, #7.1). Chemical analyses are performed twice per year in 30 wells selected from the network (Table 6, #7.2). The groundwater sampling network for water quality called “reference stations – groundwater” is split in two parts: one called trend stations (comprised of 80 stations that are sampled a couple of times per year) and the other called periodical stations (comprised of a large number of stations sampled once every 6 years). In total, 528 stations are sampled every 6 years, most of which are natural springs and the rest are groundwater observational wells and municipal water supplies (Table 4, #7.1). Half of the trend stations are situated in small aquifers, e.g. till deposits, while the other half are situated in large aquifers such as sand and gravel deposits in eskers and fossil deltas. Groundwater from all stations is analyzed according to a base program. In addition, complementary analyses are performed for a number of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, As, V and in some cases Hg). SGU operates a network for groundwater comprising about 400 stations for groundwater level and 30 stations for groundwater quality. This network is financed by SGU and data are not freely available. SGU also operates a environmental monitoring network for groundwater comprising 80 trend stations visited a couple of times per year and 528 periodical stations that are only visited oncce per six years. This monitoring network is financed by SEPA and data can be downloaded from SGU hompage. Water from the reference stations are analyzed for the following chemistry: All stations: Temperature, pH, PO4-P, Tot-P, conductivity (EC), NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2-N, Tot-N, TOC, F, Cl, Alk/Ac, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Si and Al Further analysis for periodical stations are the following metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, As, V and Hg and the organic compounds trichloretylen, tetrachloretylen

85. ICP Forest Program in Sweden

At present, Sweden has 4 integrated monitoring (IM) sites that are part of a European network on integrated monitoring with an extensive measurement program. One of these sites, Gammtratten, situated in central Västerbotten, monitors several variables (Table 4, #3.2). SGU conducts groundwater sampling at 3 of the sites. In total, 18 stations are sampled 4 times per year. A program for comprehensive information on the state of forests in Europe was launched 1985 in response to acid deposition and fear of forest decline. The program was named the European ICP-Forest Program (International Co-operative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests operating under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, Table 6, #5). ICP-Forest monitors forest conditions in Europe and operates at two levels of intensity. Level I is a systematic 16 km by 16 km transnational grid having around 6 000 observation plots in Europe. Level II is comprised of around 800 sites in selected forests throughout Europe with more intense observations. The Level I measurements consist of three parts: crown condition assessment, soil condition assessment, and foliar survey. The crown condition assessment includes the degree of defoliation, discoloring, and damage visible on trees. The soil condition assessment addresses possible nutrient imbalances caused by, e.g. acid deposition. The foliar survey assesses foliar nutrient concentrations, because changes in environmental conditions may affect foliar nutrient concentrations. The Swedish contribution is made by the national forest inventory (SLU-FRM), which estimates the degree of crown defoliation and discoloring on 700 permanent plots around the country. The Swedish Forest Agency (SST) organizes the Level II observational plots. They manage a program with more than 200 permanent plots throughout Sweden, on which they estimate forest vitality (several measures), forest growth, soil chemistry, and field vegetation. Of these plots, 100 are connected to the international network, and 20 are north of 60°N. Foliage chemistry is determined on 100 plots, deposition and soil water chemistry on 50 plots, air quality on 25 plots, and climate on 14 plots. The sampling intensity varies from once in 5 years to once per hour depending

Ecosystems Environmental management Pollution sources
86. SEPA wetland inventory

At present SEPA’s program on wetlands is mainly a follow-up on wetland states, e.g. hydrological intactness and biodiversity. On the other hand, wetlands are part of the national inventory of landscape, NILS (see above). Wetland status is embraced by reporting obligations according to the EU Habitat Directive, and SEPA now uses high-resolution satellite data for operational monitoring.

87. Sweden lake and river ice monitoring

The earliest record of lake ice break-up in Sweden is from as early as 1701, when the ice on Torne River at Haparanda melted on May 31st. Since then SMHI has successively extended the ice observation network. By 1900 the network included about 150 sites, and by 1950 it included over 320 sites (Table 6, #2). By 1950, observations had been terminated at only 9 sites. During the following 50 years 72 new sites were added to the network while observations were terminated at 255 sites. The reason for the extensive network during the latter nineteenth century and the early twentieth century was the use of frozen lakes and rivers for transportation, but also the need to know when spring activities, e.g. floating timber, could commence. The ice broke up on Torne River at Haparanda, on average, on May 20th during the eighteenth century, on May 17th during the nineteenth century, and on May 10th during the twentieth century, indicating a long-term trend of earlier lake ice break up.

88. Sweden EMEP air and precipitation chemistry

The subprogram main task is to check if international agreements as the UN Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLTRAP) are followed. EMEP = European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme. The network comprises 10 stations, out of which three are in northern Sweden. Air chemistry is monitored by diffusion samplers. The following compounds are measured: SO2, SO4, tot-NH4, tot-NO3, soot, NO2, O3 Precipitation quality is monitored by samplers with lid, open only when it rains. The following compounds are measured: SO4-S, NO-N, Cl, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, pH, EC. Ozone near ground is analyzed every hour and is part of an European warning system PM10 is particles Metals in air and precipitation is analysed at Bredkälen only. The following elements are analyzed: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, V, Hg, metyl-Hg.

Atmosphere GIS Pollution sources
89. Air and Precipitation Chemistry Network (PMK)

The PMK Network is part of the national network for deposition measurements. The aim is a longterm monitoring concentration and deposition of different air transported compounds. The aim is also to generate knowledge about longterm variation in the deposition field, and to give background data from low polluted areas for calculation of pollution deposition in more polluted areas. The Air and Precipitation Chemistry Network includes about 25 sites (14 in northern Sweden) where precipitation from open accumulating samplers are collected and analyzed for pH, SO4, NO3, NH4, Cl, Ca, Mg, Na, K, conductivity, and amount of precipitation (Table 4, #1.2). At 3 sites (one in northern Sweden) precipitation is analyzed for heavy metals, mercury, and methyl-mercury (Table 4, #1.3).

Climate Pollution sources Atmosphere
90. IRF Weather station

at the Institute for Space Physics (IRF) in Kiruna, an automated weather station logging air temperature, humidity, wind, pressure, and UV-radiation has been in operation since 1996

Climate Atmosphere
91. Abisko Scientific Research Station (ANS) (ANS)

Investigations within many areas of biosciences and geosciences are carried out at the station. The emphasis of staff research is on plant ecology and meteorology. The main objectives of the ecological projects are to study the dynamics of plant populations and to identify the controlling factors at their latitudinal and altitudinal limits. The meteorological projects deal with recent climate changes in the region, and also with local variations of the microclimate in subalpine and alpine ecosystems.

Atmosphere Climate Ecosystems Environmental management
92. SLU, Faculty of Forestry, Unit for Forest Field Research, experimental forests

The Faculty of Forestry at SLU has two research stations with experimental forests, two experimental forests with permanent staff, three without permanent staff and a large number of long-term field trials. These facilities are spread over the country.

Climate Environmental management Atmosphere Ecosystems
93. SMHI Climate monitoring

The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) performs basic climate measurements (Table 2 and Table 6, #1) in an irregular grid over the country (Fig. 1). For non-commercial research and educational purposes, data from the core services are made available at handling costs only. The meteorological base network (Table 6, ##1.1–1.6) north of 60°N consists of 105 stations; Table 2 lists the different observation programs. In addition to the meteorological base network, SMHI operates several other climate stations with a variety of instrumentation. Main gaps: The meteorological base network was biased toward lowland in populated areas, originally because potential observers were more likely to be found there. This problem has been partly overcome since the introduction of automated sampling systems. Still there has been a need for climate measurements in forested areas on higher grounds. Network type: National monitoring

94. Transport of Hg to marine coastal areas from tthe terrestrial monitoring areas near Zackenberg and Nuuk

In the Arctic the warming climate is expected to increase the meltning of glaciers, reducing the permafrost and increase the biologial activities. This may have consequences for the transportations of Hg from the terrestrcal ecosystems to the marine coastal areas. The project will investigate the influence of warming climate on the transportation of Hg to marine cooastal areas.

Heavy metals Contaminant transport Climate change
95. AMAP 2009 and 2010 core HM and POP programme Faroe Islands

The project is a continuation of the monitoring activities of the AMAP POPs and Heavy metals programme in marine, terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Faroe Islands. The aims of the programme is to establish data for timetrend and spatial assessments as well as providing data of importance in human health risk assessment on mercury and POPs. The programme incorporates analyses on pilot whale, cod, black guillemots from the marine environment, sheep and hare from the terrestrial environment and arctic char from the freshwater environment. The compounds analysed are "legacy" POPs and mercury, cadmium and selenium. In addition, a retrospective analyses of PFOS in pilot whale tissues going back as far as possible (ie.1986) is part of the project.

Organochlorines PCBs Heavy metals Fish Long-range transport Spatial trends Terrestrial mammals Exposure Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Seabirds Pesticides Temporal trends Marine mammals
96. ZERO-database

The ZERO database contains all validated data from the Zackenberg Ecological Research Operations Basic Programmes (ClimateBasis, GeoBasis, BioBasis and MarinBasis). The purpose of the project is to run and update the database with new validated data after each succesfull field season. Data will be available for the public through the Zackenberg homepage linking to the NERI database. The yearly update is dependent on that each Basis programme delivers validated data in the proscribed format.

Biological effects Hydrography Geophysics Climate Polar bear GIS Sediments Marine mammals Biology Populations Soils UV radiation Fish Discharges Sea ice Climate change Terrestrial mammals Ice Biodiversity River ice Arctic Seabirds Geochemistry Reproduction Permafrost Ecosystems
97. Marine corrosion of stainless steel in Polar seawater

The effects of biofilm settlement on corrosion resistance of stainless steels in polar seawaters are not well known. In warmer conditions (Mediterranean sea) biofilm increases both the risk of localised corrosion onset and the propagation rate of corrosion attack. Corrosion tests carried out in Antarctica demonstrated that biofilm growth at about 0°C induced electrochemical effects less important than those occurring in warmer conditions. On the contrary, corrosion tests performed in similar environmental conditions at Ny-Aalesund (Svalbard) showed more severe corrosion attack than in Antarctica. This research aims: - to define the influence of biofilm on stainless steel corrosion resistance in polar seawater in the range of temperature between -1 and +5 °C, - to define if change in salinity can influence corrosion process, - to identify stainless steel grades which can be acceptable in such conditions (polar seawater seems to be somewhat less corrosive, which gives the possibility to use cheaper stainless steels).

marine corrosion Biological effects stainless steels seawater Oceanography Exposure
98. Marine food webs as vector of human patogens

Marine foodwebs as vector and possibly source of viruses and bacteria patogenic to humans shall be investigated in a compartive north-south study. Effects of sewage from ships traffic and urban settlements, on animals of arctic foodwebs will be studied.

Pathways Biological effects Hydrography Fish Discharges Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Terrestrial mammals Shipping Polar bear Exposure Arctic Local pollution Seabirds Shellfish Food webs Waste Human health Human intake Marine mammals
99. The Effect of solar UV on lipids in the planktonic food chain of polar freshwater ponds

Plankton of shallow polar freshwater water bodies is exposed to increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) due to the limited water depth. Daphnia (Crustacea, waterflea) and algae are common representatives of the food chain in these water bodies. Daphnia almost exclusively use lipids for energy storage, which they obtain from their food (mainly algae). Therefore, Daphnia and algae are closely linked to each other. Preliminary experiments on the UV-induced damage in phyto- and zooplankton point to lipids as one of the key players. With this application we want to identify how algae specific lipids and fatty acids (FA) are modified by UVR. The factors modifying UV-doses to the animals and their food are depth of the waterbody and DOC (absorbs UV). A pondsurvey shall provide a wide spectrum on ponds which vary in DOC and depth. Lipid analysis of Daphnia and their food of these ponds as well as physical parameters of the pond waters shall identify correlations between UV-exposure and specific fatty acids. This shall enable us to estimate the effect of solar UVR on the freshwater plankton community in polar ponds.

Biological effects UV radiation freshwater plankton Climate change Exposure Arctic Food webs Diet Ecosystems lipids
100. Hydrology and water currents in the inner part of Kongsfjord in front of Kongsbreen Glacier

The aim of this project is to study the physical oceanography of the sea in the area where Kongsbreen glacier get in touch with the sea in the inner part of Kongsfjord. In particular the project aims:  to characterise temperature and salinity of water masses in the inner part of Kongsfjord close to Kongsbreen Glacier  to characterise major fresh water outflow from Kongsbreen glaciers to the sea in the inner part of the fiord  to collect time series if seawater currents in-out from the inner part, temperature and salinity patterns for one year from summer 2001 to summer 2002.  to collect a one year time series of sea level changes by an automatic self recording depth gauges deployed close to the base.

Glaciers Kongsfjord Hydrography Water currents Hydrology sea level change salinity Sea ice Climate change Ice Oceanography Arctic temperature Ocean currents Kongsbreen