The full list of projects contains the entire database hosted on this portal, across the available directories. The projects and activities (across all directories/catalogs) are also available by country of origin, by geographical region, or by directory.
Temporal trend monitoring of contaminants in atmosphere and biota in Greenland. Modelling the atmospheric transport pathways and deposition of contaminants in the Arctic as well as determination of climate related parameters.
SMEAR I –station (Station for Measuring Ecosystem – Atmosphere Relations) was built in 1991-1992 at the side of Värriö Subarctic Research Station to monitor the pollution originating from Kola Peninsula. Continuous measurements of trace gases, aerosols, photosynthesis growth of Scots pines and meteorology have been carried on by the University of Helsinki since 1992. The station is located at the northern border of Salla municipality, some 6 km’s from the Russian border and built on top of a 390 m high forested hill. A 16 meter high weather mast is mounted next to the measurement cabin. The closest source area for air pollutants are the mining and metallurgical industry at the Kola Peninsula with the most important point sources being Nikel, Montcegorsk and Zapolyarny, respectively. In addition to the measurements carried on by the University of Helsinki, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has been measuring both sulphates and heavy metals using filter sampling techniques. Also, respiration and photosynthesis of the soil has been measured campaign wise in the vicinity of the station. Trace gases have been measured at four different levels (2, 6.5, 9 and 15 m) above the ground until recently the three highest sampling levels were taken off. The sulphur dioxide concentration is measured with a pulsed fluorescence analyzer. Nitrogen oxides (most importantly NO and NO2) are measured with an analyzer that is based on chemiluminescence and ozone is measured with a photometric analyzer. Total aerosol concentration has been measured since 1991 and the particle size distribution since 1997. The cut-off diameter of the size distribution measurements was changed from 8 nm to 3 nm in 2003. The total concentration is measured using CPC (Condensation Particle Counter) and the size distribution with DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) system. Photosynthesis of Scots pines is measured from living twigs using chambers placed on top of the trees. Also, the growth in width and length are measured. A wide range of meteorological parameters are measured at five different levels (2, 4, 6.6, 9, 15 ja 16 m). Network type: Automatic and manual monitoring of atmosphere and biosphere (incl. SMEAR I –station and synoptic weather observations) as well as tracking and monitoring wide range of flora and fauna (e.g. game, insects and berries).
Monitoring and forecast of the atmosphere state and climate change. Main gaps: Initial historical data from specific stations have not been digitized It is needed to control and recover gaps in historical data from specific stations.
Monitoring and forecast of the atmosphere state and climate change. Main gaps: Initial historical data before 1961 from specific stations have not been digitized. A part of metadata have not been digitized
Isavia is the national operator of Iceland‘s airports, air navigation services and air communications system. Iceland is responsible for international services in the North Atlantic including oceanic air traffic control services and the upper airspace of Greenland. The company and its subsidiaries have undertaken other international support tasks in the past, such as the development of Pristina Airport and ATM services in Kosovo. The company conducts air navigation calibrations in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Isavia operates under the regulatory supervision of the Icelandic and Danish Civil Aviation Authorities. Isavia and its subsidiaries conduct research and development of systems to fulfill all the special needs and safety requirements of the airports and air navigation service operation, with economic considerations in mind. Most of the software systems used by the air traffic control center in Reykjavik and towers are developed in conjunction with the subsidiary company, Tern Systems ltd. The products have been successfully marketed internationally in several overseas projects. For more detailed information, please see Isavia annual report 2010. Main gaps: Not specified Network type: Coordination
DMI operates general weather observation for meteorological and climatological services. DMI operates geomagnetic observatories in Greenland DMI monitores stratospheric ozone and UV radiation DMI operatetes ocean monitoring and operational icecharting
The Environment Agency operates under the direction of the Ministry for the Environment. It's role is to promote the protection as well as sustainable use of Iceland’s natural resources, as well as public welfare by helping to ensure a healthy environment, and safe consumer goods. Areas of operation: 1. Information and advice for the public, businesses and regulatory authorities 2. Monitoring of environmental quality 3. Evaluation of environmental impact assessment and development plans 4. Operation supervision, inspection, operating permits, etc. 5. Assessment of conservation effects and registration of unique nature 6. Management and supervision of designated protected areas 7. Wildlife management and conservation 8. Eco‐labeling 9. Labeling and handling of toxic as well as other hazardous substances 10. Coordination of health and safety in public places 11. Coordination of local environmental and health inspectorates 12. Genetically modified organisms (GMO) Main gaps: Metadata archives and metadata availability Network type: ‐ Thematic observations ‐ Community based observations ‐ Coordination
The Arctic region represents a sensitive ecosystem, which is susceptible to even small changes in the local climate. Special conditions of usually high surface albedo and low solar elevations cause enhanced aerosol/cloud effects due to multiple scattering. It is suspected that this increased interaction between solar radiation and the aerosol particles/clouds magnifies their radiative impact. Thus, for a given aerosol distribution, the specific optical properties are enhanced in the polar regions. For the same reasons, results from field experiments at low latitudes are difficult to transfer to polar regions and as a consequence there is an urgent need to conduct specific measurement programs in high latitude regions. In order to improve the knowledge about the origin, transport pathways, vertical structure of aerosol physical and chemical properties as well as the impact on climate in the polar regions, a combined effort of surface-based, airborne and spaceborne measurements is needed. Therefore, this proposed project is aiming at a determination of the vertical structure of the chemical, physical and optical properties of Arctic aerosol particles, including solar radiative closure between observed and calculated aerosol properties (direct climate effect)
The Centre for Northern Studies (www.cen.ulaval.ca; CEN: Centre d’études nordiques) is an interuniversity centre of excellence for research involving Université Laval, Université du Québec à Rimouski and the Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement de l'Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS). Members also come from the following affiliations: Université de Montréal, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, à Montréal and à Trois-Rivières, Université de Sherbrooke, and the College François-Xavier Garneau. The CEN is multidisciplinary, bringing together over forty researchers including biologists, geographers, geologists, engineers, archaeologists, and landscape management specialists. The CEN community also counts two hundred graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and employees. CEN’s mission is to contribute to the sustainable development of northern regions by way of an improved understanding of environmental change. CEN researchers analyze the evolution of northern environments in the context of climate warming and accelerated socio-economic change and train highly qualified personnel in the analysis and management of cold region ecosystems and geosystems. In partnership with government, industry and northern communities, CEN plays a pivotal role in environmental stewardship and development of the circumpolar North. CEN research activities are focused on three themes: 1 -Structure and function of northern continental environments. 2 -Evolution of northern environments in the context of global change. 3-Evaluation of the risks associated with environmental change and development of adaptation strategies. In 2009, CEN organised an international workshop with the European SAON network SCANNET and also partners throughout Canada. The workshop culminated in the formal incorporation of CEN stations within SCANNET (http://www.scannet.nu/). Main gaps: [Not specified] Network type: CEN operates the CEN Network, an extensive network of meteorological and field stations that were established in consultation with northern communities. The CEN Network comprises over 75 climate and soil monitoring stations and eight field stations distributed across a 4000 km North-South gradient from boreal forest to the High Arctic. The eight field stations are situated at the following sites: Radisson, Whapmagoostui- Kuujjuarapik, Umiujaq, Lac à l’Eau Claire (in the proposed new park Tursujuq), Boniface River, Salluit, and Bylot and Ward Hunt Islands, which are part of two National Parks in Nunavut. The main field station at the heart of the CEN Network is at Whapmagoostui-Kuujjuarapik.
The national program of intensive forest monitoring is managed by the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla). In 2011 five of the 18 Finnish intensive monitoring plots situated in Finnish Lapland (Fig. 5.1.: Sevettijärvi, Pallasjärvi and three plots in Kivalo). Finnish national intensive forest monitoring network is part of pan-European ICP Forests network of ca. 800 plots (http://icp-forests.net/page/level-ii). ICP Forests (the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) operates under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. These intensive monitoring plots were established in co-operation of ICP Forests and European Commission in mid 1990’s. European Commission co-financed forest monitoring under forest monitoring regulations until the end of 2006 when the Forest Focus regulation (EC No 2152 / 2003) expired. During 2009-2011 part of these intensive forest monitoring plots were included in Life+-project called “FutMon” (Further Development and Implementation of an EU-level Forest Monitoring System: http://www.futmon.org/). Monitoring is carried out following the manual of ICP Forests (http://icp-forests.net/page/icp-forests-manual) and the monitoring data is submitted once a year to the ICP Forests database in Hamburg. Every year Programme Coordinating Centre of ICP Forests publishes technical and executive reports on the condition of forests in Europe. ICP Forests monitoring activities provide information also for a number of criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management as defined by the Forest Europe Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe. Network type: National nation-wide monitoring
The Polar Station of the University of Nicolaus Copernicus is located in the western part of the Oscar II Land, in the northern part of the coastal Kaffiøyra Lowland which is closed by the Forlandsundet from the west. The undertaken research included almost all components of the geographical environment. Scientific programs put pressure on research in glaciology, glacial geomorphology, permafrost and periglacial processes, as well as climatologic and botanical studies. Since 1995 glaciological research and the studies of permafrost of various ground types and their seasonal thawing, as well as meteorological observations have been the major issues on the research agenda. Glaciers pose the dominating feature of the Kaffiøyra region. Since the 19th century their area has decreased by about 30%. Thus, one of the main scientific issues studied there is the course and the reasons for the change in the glaciers’ range. This can be achieved by studying mass balance of the glaciers. Presently, mass balance of four glaciers is studied: the Waldemarbreen, the Irenebreen, the Elisebreen and the Aavatsmarkbreen. 39 The research includes both the summer balance (ablation and outflow from the glaciers) and the winter snow accumulation. The detailed research plans also refer to two large glaciers which end up in the sea. Those are the Aavatsmarkbreen in the north and the Dahlbreen in the south of the Kaffiøyra. Currently, subaquatic glacial relief of the bays in the Forlandsundet region is under scrupulous investigation. The results of the research can be obtained from the station’s website (www.stacja.arktyka.com), from the publications by the World Glaciological Monitoring Service (WGMS- IAHS), as well as the website of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM- IPA). The research carried out in the N.Copernicus University Polar Station has enabled numerous scientists of most specialties of the Earth sciences (glaciology, climatology, hydrology, geomorphology, pedology and botany) to collect material for numerous papers, including master and doctoral theses. Scientific attractiveness of the Kaffiøyra’s geoecosystem has been appreciated by scientists from various scientific centres in Poland and elsewhere, who take part in interdisciplinary expeditions organized every year. The most Polish polar research in the north-west Spitsbergen is based on the N.Copernicus University Polar Station Once the station has had an extension addend, it can host 10-15 people at any one time. The new section of the station is 32 sq. m downstairs and 24 sq. m upstairs. This includes a study, a workshop, a bedroom as well as two bedroom entresols. The extension is connected with the old section of the station, which includes a living room and a bedroom, but there is also a separate entrance to the new part of the station. Additionally, the station gained extra storage floor, a laboratory, a bathroom, as well as a garage to keep boats, snowmobiles and engines. All together the station now has about 100 sq. m. The station is used 3 to 4 months annually, but it is possible to stay there for as long as a whole year. It is equipped with necessary technical facilities, motor-generators, solar panels, motorboats and snowmobiles. More important measurement equipment includes: a weather station with the basic measuring instruments (the measurements conducted since 1975); automatic weather stations (with the measurements taken at any intervals); limnigraphs and loggers installed in the selected watercourses (measurements of water levels, flow rates and the selected physicochemical features of water since 1975); a system of ablation poles installed on the glaciers; ice drills; loggers for measuring ground temperatures and ice temperatures, and others. The extension of the station in 2007 enabled larger groups of scientists to work and conduct research. The fact that both the living and laboratory space has been enlarged is especially important, as the station is often visited by scientists from all over the world. As a result, the extension will make it possible to intensify current international contacts, as well as start new co-operation projects in the Kaffiøyra region.
The project aims at analysing dynamics of matter circulation in the polar catchment under the deglaciation processes and its effect on topoclimatic and microclimatic diversification of the area in question. Equally important are: 1) the dynamics of periglacial and 2) hydrological processes and changes in the local environment as an indicator of global climatic changes. The proposed project shall take into account the following: - general weather and climatic conditions and topoclimatic and microclimatic differentiation of selected sites; - albedo and solar radiation and their influence on the course of the processes; - changes in the circulation of water in space and time (precipitation-evaporation-outflow) as an effect of local and global processes; - analysis of processes that determine the amount of water entering the hydrological cycle including global climatic changes and characteristics of summer ablation in terms of meteorological conditions; - analysis of the factors which determine the occurrence and circulation of waters in the permafrost active layer and assessment of static and dynamic water resources in the active layer in meteorological and hydrogeological aspects; determination and quantitative analysis of the genetic structure of fluvial outflow; - water balance of selected catchments (glacial and periglacial ones) with diverse outflow alimentation sources.
Monitoring and forecast of the sea and ocean state, support of safety of navigation and marine activities. Main gaps: Additional control is needed for historical data, especially with regard to hydrochemical parameters.
To collect hydrological and biochemical data in Horsund, Spitsbergen in the area of Revdalen Valley. Main gaps: Summer season data only, with gaps due to observer and equipment availability.
Observations of the Arctic Ocean have been made since the 1800s at varying levels of intensity. The objective is to gain a better understanding of the physical and chemical composition of Arctic waters, the circulation of the waters within the Arctic Ocean, and flows into and out of the Arctic Ocean. Physical observations are conducted on properties of the water column including ocean temperature, sea surface temperature, salinity, pH, carbon, changes in ice coverage and extent, hydrographic measurements, nutrients, etc. Surface drifters either embedded in the ice, or (lately) able to float and operate in ice infested waters, provide measurements of a limited number of surface ocean and meteorological variables. . Additional observations are obtained on ocean currents, waves and tides. Biological observations are captured within a separate inventory item titled “Arctic Marine Biodiversity Monitoring”. Recently, a focus has been on increasing understanding of the impacts of climate change on Arctic waters (e.g., increasing temperature, decreasing pH, decreasing salinity, changing ice conditions, etc.). Data is gathered by ship with in situ measurements, deployment of moorings and buoys, helicopters (e.g. for ice measurements), and satellites (e.g. sea surface temperature). Main gaps: Large geographic areas of the Arctic are not covered regularly. Network type: - Thematical observations: of all oceanographic parameters - Field stations: Research ships and ice breakers of the Canadian Coast Guard; other ships of opportunity as available; moorings and buoys - Community based observations: - Coordination: National coordination of the program provided within Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and the National Centre for Arctic Aquatic Research Excellence (NCAARE)
Station realizes optical active remote sensing using multiwavelength elastic and Raman scattering lidar. It gives a view to the atmospheric stratification and aerosol concentration. By spatial and time localization of the higher aerosol concentration evidence there is possible determination of source of aerosol origin using HYSPLIT backward trajectory model. Station is also member of AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) within NASA and performing observation of solar radiation for determination of atmospheric optical properties.
Monitoring and modelling of a glaciated terrestrial ecosystem and land ocean fluxes to the adjacent fjord system. Main gaps: - Basic funding for long-term monitoring - Basic funding for data and data base handling A few short gaps due to sensor failures
The aim of the programme is to obtain a snapshot of the occurrence of potentially hazardous substances in the environment, both in regions most likely to be polluted as well as in some very pristine environments. The focus is on little known , anthropogenic substances and their derivates, which are either used in high volumes or are likely to be persistent and hazardous to humans and other organisms. If substances being screened are found in significant amounts this may result in further investigations or monitoring on national level. The results from the screening can be used when analysing possible environmental effects of the selected substances, and to assess whether they pose a risk to the environment or not. The data are used as input to EU chemical eavluation processes and to the UN Stockholm convention. The screening results are valuable when data on chemicals are needed within the REACH-system in Europe. Locations: Varying, according to properties of the substances. Samples from both hot-spot and remote sites are included. Geographical coverage (countries): Norway, including Bear Island and Spitsbergen and Norwegian seas. The Nordic countries are cooperating on screening information exchange and studies, see net site and brochure: http://nordicscreening.org/ http://nordicscreening.org/index.php?module=Pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=10&pid=1
To monitor radioactivity in the air
Survey trends in deposition of long range transported heavy metals and other elements in Norway. For this purpose concentrations in mosses are measured. In year 2000 and 2005 extra samples were taken in areas with metallurgic industry to map the local level of deposition.