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Displaying: 41 - 60 of 87 Next
41. The ecophysiology of crustaceans used as biomarker of stress

Aim of the research is to diagnose and prognose ecologically relevant effects of pollution using ecological and physiological biomarkers in crustaceans. Field studies combined with laboratory experiments are carried out on epibenthic and relatively sedentary crustaceans as e.g. Norway lobster and amphipods. Changes in population structure, behaviour, fertility, recruitment, blood and nerve physiology, energy reserves and kinetics and body load of trace metals (mainly manganese, copper and iron) related to stress from toxic compounds and hypoxia are investigated.

Biological effects Biology
42. Effects on marine organisms of sediments contaminated with tributyltin with special reference to sub-arctic and arctic conditions,Effects of TBT- and triazine/copper based antifouling paints on the early development of cod, Effects of antifouling agents

Effects on marine organisms of sediments contaminated with tributyltin with special reference to sub-arctic and arctic conditions The use of antifouling paints based on tributyl tin (TBT) is now restricted in most European countries. However, the prohibition involves only vessels less than 25 m length. As a result many coastal areas and harbours show raised levels of TBT in water and sediment, high enough to cause effects on sensitive organisms. Dredging operations in such areas may increase exposure of organisms to TBT. As the degradation processes are temperature dependent contamination by TBT in arctic or sub-arctic waters may be more serious. The specific objectives of this study, which is performed in co-operation with the University of Iceland (Prof. J. Svavarsson), are to evaluate a/ the effect of temperature on the uptake of TBT by the gastropod Buccinum undatum during exposure to TBT-contaminated sediment and b/ the effects of contaminated sediment on the development of imposex (penis and vas deferens development of females) at different temperatures.The project involves both laboratory experiments and field studies. The project started in late autumn 1995 and results are not yet available. Effects of TBT- and triazine/copper based antifouling paints on the early development of cod Elevated amounts of components from antifouling paints has been found in sediment and in organisms in Icelandic coastal waters. Also imposex in dogwhelks and whelks has been observed. In order to evaluate any impact on the economically important fishery and especially focused on cod, experiments are performed in the laboratory following the early development of the fish from fertilization up to hatching when exposed to antifouling components. No results are yet available. Effects of antifouling agents in the marine environment. Early development in lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus) preliminary studies. The objectives of the study are to reveal the effects of chemicals from antifouling paints on the development of the lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus) - in situ and under laboratory conditions. The study focuses on TBT (tributyltin) and a chemical, Sea-nine, replacing TBT as the major toxic agent. We will evaluate the effects of TBT in the laboratory and under field conditions, but Sea-Nine under laboratory conditions only. Laboratory studies are based on the use of flowthrough conditions with different concentrations, while in the field studies we use cages with eggs and larvae. The eggs of the lumpsucker are allowed to glue to glass slides following fertilization. These are then easily transferred to either laboratory set up or into small cages, which will be set out at different distances from harbours. Also semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD:s) will be used in order to determine the actual water concentrations. The effects of TBT from the harbours is evaluated by measuring imposex in gastropods (Nucella lapillus) at the coastline. The mortality of the eggs and the larvae is determined and different physiological measurements are made in order to detect sublethal effects of the contaminants in question. The project has just started and no results are yet available.

Biology Local pollution
43. Environmental sensitivity of cold water corals

Distribution • What is the current distribution of coral colonies in the North Sea? • Where are coral colonies located on the structures? • Do any colonies show evidence of exposure to drill cuttings? Monitoring & Environmental Recording • What hydrodynamic regime and levels of suspended particulate material are coral colonies exposed to? • Does the coral skeleton retain an archive of any past contamination? • Does skeletal growth vary over time and does this correlate with any past contamination? • How variable is the rate of coral growth and does this correlate with any environmental variables? Environmental Sensitivity • What effect does increased sediment load have on coral behaviour and physiology? • What effect does exposure to discharges (e.g. cuttings and produced water) have on coral behaviour and physiology? • Are such exposures realistic in the field?

Shelf seas Biological effects Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Petroleum hydrocarbons Oceanography Biodiversity Local pollution Ecosystems
44. Optical reflectance properties of tundra vegetation

The aim of this project is to characterise the spectral reflectance properties of a range of tundra (dwarf shrub and lichen) species using a high-resolution spectroradiometer, and to relate these properties to physiological state, especially biomass. This will provide us with control data for our remote-sensing investigations of the impact of air pollution on tundra vegetation around nickel smelters in Russia, by indicating the natural (unpolluted) optical properties. Species to be investigated will include empetum nigrum, vaccinium spp, rubus chamaemorus, cetraria nivalis, cladonia rangiferina, and some grasses and bog.

45. Aerosol and Trace Gas Measurements at Sonnblick

For a two year period daily samples of selected trace gases (nitric acid, sulfur dioxide and ammonia) and aerosol compounds (sulfate, nitrate, oxalate and ammonium) are determined with filter packs at the Sonnblick Observatory. The measurements will be used to identify the seasonal cycles of the selected trace gases and aerosol compounds at the 3 km level above Central Europe. Especially during the cold season previous measurements showed that samples collected at the Observatory represent free tropospheric air masses. Together with wet deposition measurements carried out at the site scavenging parameters are calculated.

Atmospheric processes Acidification Atmosphere
46. Effects of UV-B radiation on Microbial communities in Kongsfjorden

Effects of UV-B radiation on microbial communities in Kongsfjorden in relation to metal and dissolved organic matter availabillity.

Biological effects Ozone Biology UV radiation Heavy metals Environmental management Exposure Arctic Model ecosystem Ecosystems
47. Ecological and Physiological Investigations about the Impact of UV Radiation (UVR) on the Succession of Benthic Primary Producers in Antarctica

The succession of macro- and microalgal communities in the Antarctic will be investigated in field experiments under various UV radiation (UVR) conditions and in the absence or presence of grazers. The observed differences in the succession process will be correlated to physiological traits of single species, especially in spores and germlings, which are the most vulnerable stages in their life histories. Photosynthetic activity of the different developmental stages will be measured routinely. Additionally we plan the determination of pigment composition, C:N ratios, content of UV protective pigments and of possible DNA damage. The experiments will start in spring, concomitant to the time of highest UVBR, due to the seasonal depletion of the ozone layer in the Antarctic region. Supplemental laboratory experiments will be conducted to determine the effects of UVR on spores and germlings of individual species. In addition to the above analyses, we plan to examine of UVR induced damage of cell fine structure and of the cytoskeleton. The results of both the field and laboratory experiments will allow us to predict the consequences of enhanced UVR for the diversity and stability of the algal community.

Biological effects Biology UV radiation Environmental management Climate change Biodiversity Arctic Ecosystems Seaweeds
48. Adaptation of bacteria in marine sediments to Arctic temperatures

The goal is to understand, how bacteria in Arctic sediments are adapted to low temperature and how (climatic) changes of temperature may affect the rate and pathways of carbon cycling and the balance of mineral cycles. The diversity and physiology of bacterial populations of fjord sediments on West-Spitzbergen will be studied by a combination of molecular (16S rRNA sequence analyses and in situ hybridization) and microbiological (isolation and physiology of pure cultures) approaches. The metabolic activity of these bacteria in the sea floor and the temperature regulation of the dominant mineralization processes will be analysed by experimentel techniques during the research period in Ny Ålesund. The focus will be on the enzymatic cleavage of polymeric carbohydrates, the anaerobic respiration through sulfate reduction, the reduction of iron and mangenese oxides, and the turnover of volatile fatty acids and hydrogen. Subsequently, psychrophilic bacteria are isolated from the anoxic sediments and studied in pure culture. The bacterial populations in the sediment are studied by molecular methods to analyze their diversity and metabolic activity.

Biological effects microbial life Sediments
49. The photochemistry of PTB compunds in Arctic ice

In the present time, we have lack of information and knowledge as far as the fate of presistent organic compounds in the Arctic environmet including ice.

UV radiation Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
50. Biomarkers for organic pollution components

Biomarkers for orgaic pollution components

Biological effects Pollution sources
51. Mercury Measurements in Ny-Ålesund

The general objective of the proposed project is to increase the understanding of the Mercury Depetion Events occoring in the Arctic sunrise and quntify the input of mercury to polar ecosystems during this events.

Atmospheric processes Atmosphere
52. Development of monitoring guidelines and modelling tools for environmental effects from Mediterranean aquaculture (MERAMED)

1. To undertake a review of procedures used in the regulation and monitoring of marine cage fish farms in Norway, Scotland and elsewhere to be used as the basis for creating an appropriate set of protocols, monitoring systems and techniques for the control of such farms in Mediterranean conditions 2. To carry out a field research programme to provide appropriate data on the environmental impact of marine cage fish farms in a range of conditions in the eastern Mediterranean. 3. To develop a predictive model to simulate the environmental response at Mediterranean sea cage farms to differing cage stocking levels and feeding regimes. This will be designed as a management tool for both the industry and regulatory authorities.

Biological effects Sources Aquaculture Mapping Discharges Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Modelling Local pollution Sediments Ecosystems
53. UK Marine environmental change network

1. Establish a network to measure environmental change in marine waters by undertaking long-term research and monitoring 2. Maintain and enhance existing long-term research programmes 3. Restart important discontinued long-term research programmes 4. Develop a quality controlled database of long-term marine data series 5. Deliver and interpret long-term and broad scale contextual information to inform water quality monitoring 6. Demonstrate the benefits of preserving and networking long-term time series programmes

Biological effects Mapping Climate variability Environmental management Climate change Modelling Biodiversity Data management
54. Oceanographic Applications to Eutrophication in Regions of Restricted Exchange (OAERRE)

1. Observations of the physics of vertical and open boundary exchange in Regions of Restricted Exchanges (REEs), leading to improved parameterisation of these processes in research and simplified models. 2. Study of the phytoplankton and pelagic micro-heterotrophs responsible for production and decomposition of organic material, and of sedimentation, benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling, in RREs, with the results expressed as basin-scale parameters. 3. Construction of closed budgets and coupled physical-biological research models for nutrient (especially nitrogen) and organic carbon cycling in RREs, allowing tests of hypotheses about biogeochemistry, water quality and the balance of organisms. 4. Construction of simplified 'screening' models for the definition, assessment and prediction of eutrophication, involving collaboration with 'end-users', and the use of these models to analyse the costs and benefits of amelioration scenarios.

Pathways Biological effects Sources Catchment studies Spatial trends Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Local pollution Sediments Temporal trends Ecosystems Eutrophication
55. BIOFiltration & AQuaculture: an evaluation of hard substrate deployment performance with mariculture developments

1. To quantify the effectiveness of the biofilters in reducing the impacts of mariculture across Europe from both an economic and environmental perspective. 2. To determine the best design and placements of the biofilters, accounting for differences in geography, hydrology, nutrient input etc. between countries. 3. To examine the environmental and regulatory options governing the use of the biofilters at the end of their life-span and to provide detailed economic analyses of biofilter use compared to existing filtration methods.

Biological effects Fish Discharges Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Modelling Local pollution Food webs Sediments Diet Ecosystems
56. Marine artificial habitat manipulation: predicition and measurement of environmental impacts

1. To establish an environmental monitoring regieme during and following the period of reef complex construction using, where possible, the same static monitoring sites and transects established during the pre-deployment research, in addition to new stations 2. To develop and test models that will predict ecosystem changes caused by artifical habitat manipulation. The main model will examine whole ecosystem changes. Other models will examine hydrological profile alterations, habitat fractal dimensions and socio-economic cost benefit analysis.

Fish Environmental management Biodiversity Food webs Temporal trends Ecosystems
57. Diversity and function of the bacterial flora of the toxic alga Gymnodinium catenatum Graham

1. To descirbe and compare the phylogenetic diversity and distribution of the total bacterial flora associated with G catenatum cysts and vegetative cells. 2. To culture and identify bacteria from G catenatum, and identify/characterise any bacteria capable of autonomous PST production in G. catenatum 3. To examine the effect of cyst surface sterilisation and re-introduction of bacteria on PST production in G catenatum 4. Survey bacteria for quorum sensing capability (cell signaling) and detect in situ quorum sesing in xenic G. catenatum cultures, relating to toxicity development. 5. Develop molecular markers of cross species quorum sensing, facilitating analysis of quorum sensing in uncultivated bacteria.

Pathways Biological effects Sources Fish Environmental management Food webs Human health Ecosystems Human intake
58. Atlantic Coral Ecosystem Study (ACES)

Objective 1: To map the structural and genetic variability, the framework-constructing potential, and the longevity of Deep Water Coral (DWC) ecosystems Objective 2: To assess hydrographic and other local physical forcing factors affecting Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL) sediment particle dynamics and POC supply in the vicinity of DWC ecosystems Objective 3: To describe the DWC ecosystem, its dynamics and functioning; investigate coral biology and behaviour and assess coral sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic stressors Objective 4: To assign a sensitivity code, identify the major conservation issues (and increase public awareness), and make recommendations for the sustainable use of the DWC ecosystem

Mapping Fish Environmental management Oceanography Biodiversity Corals Ecosystems
59. Molecularly impregnated polymer based sensors for environmental and process monitoring

The project aims to develop Molecular Imprinted Polymer (MIP)sensors into practical tools for the monitoring of a number of pollutants listed in the EU Water Framework Directive. (Further details in commercial confidence)

Heavy metals Discharges Spatial trends Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Local pollution Geochemistry Temporal trends
60. Deep Water Observing System II

1. To develop a deep water observation system 2. Detailed design document, workplan and risk register and reviewed and agreed by steering group, procurement of components. 3. Deep water tests of acoustic communications system performed. pilot data dissemination and archival system. Dry test DWOS -1 4. Deployment in near lab test environment eg. Dunstaffnage bay with regular inspections. Collect, analyse, disseminate and archive sensor and house keeping data 5. Deploy in exposed but coastal stratified site in western Irish Sea, with two visual inspections. Collect, analyse, disseminate and archive sensor and house keeping data. Liaison with Met Office regarding deployment logistics. 6. Six months Deployment at Deep Water site; Collect, analyse, disseminate and archive sensor and house keeping data; Distribute data to customers. Revisit mooring site after six months recover and redeploy. 7. Final Technical Report and Final Project Report: Second six months Deployment at Deep Water site (as decreed by steering group); Collect, analyse, disseminate and archive sensor and house keeping data. Analysis of complete data handling chain performed; impact of data on customer base assessed, recommendations for continuance of DWOS as an operational system.

Hydrography Mapping Climate variability Climate Spatial trends Environmental management Climate change Modelling Oceanography Data management Ocean currents Temporal trends