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Displaying: 281 - 300 of 418 Next
281. Millimetre wave radiometer for stratospheric trace gas measurements

A millimeter wave radiometer is started operation at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden. The location of the instrument (67.8 N, 20.4 E) allows continuous observation of the evolution of ozone and ozone related trace gases in the Arctic polar stratosphere. It is designed for measurements of thermal emission lines around 204 Ghz. At this frequency observations include of ozone, chlorine monoxide, nitrous oxide, and nitric acid.

Ozone Geophysics Climate Modelling Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
282. Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer

The DOAS instrument consists of grating spectrometer covering the visible and near ultraviolet spectral region. Zenith-scattered sunlight is collected by simple one-lens telescopes and fed via optical fiber bundles into the spectrometers, where atmospheric absorption spectra are obtained. The instrument runs automatically. Total column densities of the stratospheric trace species ozone, NO2, BrO, and OClO are retrieved from the spectra using the DOAS algorithm. These are species that play a major role in ozone chemistry, either by themselves in ozone destruction (BrO) or as indicators of chlorine activation/deactivation (OClO). The chemistry and dynamics of ozone destruction is investigated, e.g. with respect to the location of the polar vortex during the winter. The instrument is also useful for detection of polar stratospheric clouds using the zenith-sky colour index method.

Ozone Geophysics Modelling Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
283. Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectrometry

FT-IR spectrometers are capable to quantifiy the total column amounts of many important trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere. At present the following species are retrieved from the Kiruna data: O3 (ozone), ClONO2, HNO3, HCl, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, NO2, N2O, NO, HF, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CH4, CO, COF2, H2O, HCN, HO2NO2, NH3, N2, and OCS Selected research topics and activities: chemical ozone depletion by observation of key species (O3, ClONO2, HNO3, HCl, ..) details of the ozone formation process by isotopic studies in ozone profile retrieval to detect dynamical changes transport studies of chemical tracers and tropospheric pollutants satellite validation

Atmospheric processes Ozone Organochlorines Geophysics chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Modelling Emissions Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
284. Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectrometry

FT-IR spectrometers are capable to quantifiy the total column amounts of many important trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere. At present the following species are retrieved from the Kiruna data: O3 (ozone), ClONO2, HNO3, HCl, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, NO2, N2O, NO, HF, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CH4, CO, COF2, H2O, HCN, HO2NO2, NH3, N2, and OCS Selected research topics and activities: chemical ozone depletion by observation of key species (O3, ClONO2, HNO3, HCl, ..) details of the ozone formation process by isotopic studies in ozone profile retrieval to detect dynamical changes transport studies of chemical tracers and tropospheric pollutants satellite validation

Atmospheric processes Ozone Organochlorines Geophysics chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Modelling Emissions Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
285. SKERRIES - stratospheric climatology by regular balloon-borne

Objective: to collect climatology information on the seasonal and year-to-tear variability of stratospheric CFCs, water vapour and atmospheric electrical parameters.

Atmospheric processes Geophysics Climate variability Spatial trends Climate change Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
286. Descartes

Objectives 1. To develop the measurement technique further, providing more accurate measurements and extend the method to a larger number of trace species 2. To monitor the presence of CFC:s and other longlived anthropogenic tracers in the stratosphere 3. To use long-lived anthropogenic species as tracers of atmospheric motion, in particular for comparison with atmospheric models Reserarchers: Descartes is a joint research programme currently involving N.R.P Harris and J.A. Pyle, Centre for Atmospheric Science at the Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, U.K., and Hans Nilsson and Johan Arvelius, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden

Atmospheric processes Ozone Geophysics Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Emissions Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
287. Fair Weather Atmospheric Electricity

The atmosphere carries a continuous electric current and , even during fair weather, there is a strong electrostatic electric field, up to 200 volts per meter, close to the ground. This electric current is thought to be due to the accumulated effect of thousands of thunderstorms, mostly in the tropical regions of the Earth. These storms feed a current from the ground up to the ionosphere, a highly conducting layer in the atmosphere which lies above about 70 km altitude. The current spreads out around the globe through this layer and returns to Earth through the atmosphere as the 'fair weather current' outside the thunderstorm areas. Objective: Investigation of the part of the Earths global electrical circuit: fair weather current and its interaction with geomagnetic phenomena, such as, for example, a magnetic substorms. We use the data of the air-earth current measured by a long wire antenna installed in Kiruna/Esrange, Sweden. In July 1999 we have installed a new portable antenna at a distance of about 30 km from the old one. This antenna has a length of nearly 50 m, and we are recording the near ground vertical current with a time resolution of 10 seconds. The data from both instruments will be analysed together - for comparison and possible separation of the meteorological effects.

Atmospheric processes Air-Earth current Geophysics Climate variability Arctic
288. Long-Term and Solar Variability effects in the Upper Atmosphere

Objective: to determine how solar activity influences temperatures, winds, electric currents and minor constituents and to allow possible anthropogenic influences to be determined. Uses primarily measurements by the ESRAD and EISCAT radars, plus ground-based and balloon-borne measurements of atmospheric electric fields and currents.

Atmospheric processes Noctilucent clouds Geophysics Climate variability Solar Proton Events Climate Climate change Modelling Emissions Arctic Atmosphere Polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) Temporal trends
289. ANS´climate measurerments

1. Supervision of instruments used for ANS´climate monitoring on the Observation Hill. There will be installations and comparisons between instruments used for radiation, wind speed and direction. 2. Data collection and supervision of instruments used in an ANS´project for monitoring air and groundtemperatures, wind spped and direction at a site near Lake Njulla 1000. The lake is situated below the saddle between Njulla and Slåttatjåkka. The program is described in an attachment. For the work on Njulla I plan 2-3 visits, each lasting from approximately 10h to 15h. It would be of advantage for practical reasons and also for security reasons if an assiatant could accompany me during the visits to Njulla. A battery (12 kg) has to be carried from the upper lift station to Lake Njulla.

290. Optical reflectance properties of tundra vegetation

The aim of this project is to characterise the spectral reflectance properties of a range of tundra (dwarf shrub and lichen) species using a high-resolution spectroradiometer, and to relate these properties to physiological state, especially biomass. This will provide us with control data for our remote-sensing investigations of the impact of air pollution on tundra vegetation around nickel smelters in Russia, by indicating the natural (unpolluted) optical properties. Species to be investigated will include empetum nigrum, vaccinium spp, rubus chamaemorus, cetraria nivalis, cladonia rangiferina, and some grasses and bog.

291. Lidar Measurements, valley - mountaintop

documentation and monitoring of the aerosol content of a mountain valley atmosphere and its diurnal changes

Atmospheric processes Climate variability Emissions Atmosphere
292. Monitoring of total ozone and spectral UV radiation at Sonnblick

For the first time in Austria, routine monitoring of the ozone layer as well as routine spectral UV measurements have been performed at Sonnblick. Column ozone, ozone profile, SO2 column, Nox column and spectral UV (from 290 to 325 nm) has been measured with a Brewer spectrometer type MKIV (No 093) since 1994. From 1997 on broad band erythemal UV has been recorded with a Robertson Berger biometer. For registration of the spectral ultraviolet irradiance-particularly the spectral UVB-radiation- a Bentham spectrometer (double monochromator) has been adapted so that it can be used under the extreme climatic conditions on a mountain top. Routine measurements of the spectral irradiance in the spectral range of 280-500 nm are performed in 0.5 nm steps every half hour. Additional information on cloudiness is supplied by a upwards looking CCD camera equipped with a fish eye lense. Sonnblick station is embedded in the EDUCE, GAW and WMO networks.

Ozone UV radiation Atmosphere
293. Aerosol and Trace Gas Measurements at Sonnblick

For a two year period daily samples of selected trace gases (nitric acid, sulfur dioxide and ammonia) and aerosol compounds (sulfate, nitrate, oxalate and ammonium) are determined with filter packs at the Sonnblick Observatory. The measurements will be used to identify the seasonal cycles of the selected trace gases and aerosol compounds at the 3 km level above Central Europe. Especially during the cold season previous measurements showed that samples collected at the Observatory represent free tropospheric air masses. Together with wet deposition measurements carried out at the site scavenging parameters are calculated.

Atmospheric processes Acidification Atmosphere
294. Stratosphere-mesosphere intercomparison of ozone profil

During the past years, atmospheric research in high latitudes has been focussed on processes causing ozone loss in the polar winter lower stratosphere1). Recent research efforts also dealt with regions up to the lower mesosphere, and studied the effects of charged particle precipitation on NO and ozone2)-5). However, the measurement techniques and hence the database for studying such processes in this altitude range are very limited. The Airborne SUbmillimeter Radiometer ASUR6),7) of the Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen has recently been equipped with a high-resolution spectrometer that will enable the retrieval of vertical profiles of ozone up to an altitude of about 65 - 70 km. Its measurement capabilities comprise also several other species of interest, especially NO. This makes the measurement technique particularly suitable for upper stratospheric/lower mesospheric studies. The lidar at ALOMAR is capable of measuring highly resolved vertical profiles of ozone up to an altitude of 60 km, thus giving the rare opportunity for intercomparison and validation studies in an altitude range reaching from the lower stratosphere to the lower mesosphere. Therefore we propose to perform simultaneous ozone measurements of the ASUR instrument with the ALOMAR lidar, supported by launches of ozone sondes.

Atmospheric processes Ozone Geophysics radiometer Climate Arctic Atmosphere lidar
295. Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds With the shortest possible wavelength (308 nm)

Noctilucent clouds (NLC) remain a fascinating phenomenon of the upper atmosphere to study. The questions about the typical particle density and particle size distribution within a NLC are very prominent ones, to which a number of answers have been given, though some of the answers contradict each other. The parameters of particle size distributions can be derived from groundbased lidar measurements of the spectral dependence of the volume backscatter coefficient of an NLC. Such studies have been performed during a number of NLC events by e.g. the ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman (RMR) lidar (von Cossart et al., GRL, 26, 1513, 1999). A drawback of these experiments is the wavelength limitation of the RMR lidar, the shortest wavelength of which is 355 nm. At this wavelength, the sensitivity of the lidar to particles with sizes smaller than, say, 25 nm is minimal. Because a considerable part of the entire particle population may have sizes below that threshold, a lingering question remains whether or not this drawback matters for typical NLC distributions. Using the ALOMAR ozone lidar, a measurement of the NLC volume backscatter coefficient at 308 nm becomes possible. Due to the l-4 -dependence of the backscatter coefficients, the latter are almost a factor of 2 larger at this wavelength than at 355 nm. For this reason and in order to gain a fourth wavelength to the spectral distribution, we aim at using the ozone lidar for the outlined project.

Atmospheric processes Climate NLC Arctic Atmosphere lidar
296. Study of the ozone response to the winter-spring time atmospheric dynamics at high latitude

These investigations confirm the fact that in the stratosphere the ozone is considerably influenced by dynamical processes and it is a good indicator of them. In this context the main objectives of the proposed study are: 1) to investigate the possible relationship between stratospheric ozone perturbations and the temperature enhancement in the upper mesosphere, observed by Shepherd et al. (2001); 2) to examine whether changes in ozone, concomitant with the phenomenon, take place and how and when they would be manifested; and 3) to investigate the stratospheric ozone behaviour during the equinox atmospheric transition in the North Hemisphere, for better understanding of the middle atmosphere dynamics.

Ozone Geophysics stratospheric warming Climate Arctic Atmosphere polar vortex
297. RADNOR - Radioactive dose assessment improvements for the Nordic marine environment: Transport and environmental impact of technetium 99 (99Tc) in marine ecosystems

Radioactivity in the Arctic environment is a central topic within environmental pollution issues. Increased discharges of technetium-99 (99Tc) from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant Sellafield to the Irish Sea has caused public concerns in Norway. This project (acronym “RADNOR”) includes model and monitoring assessments and improvements, assessment of current and novel abiotic and biotic dose parameters and dose calculations and use of realistic climatic background scenarios in order to assess corresponding consequences for transport of radioactive pollutants. RADNOR consists of three main components: part 1, the determination of levels and time series of 99Tc in benthic and pelagic food webs; part 2, containing working packages on improvements to the understanding of site-specific and time-dependent sediment-water interactions (KD), kinetics of accumulation (CF) and body distribution in marine organisms, including contaminated products for the alginate industry and part 3, dealing with model hindcasts and observations for spreading of 99Tc from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant during the 1990s and improvement of the NRPA dose assessment box model. From the model outputs, doses to man and environment will be calculated resulting in a valuable database for use within environmental management and for decision makers.

distribution coefficients (KD) RADNOR Long-range transport Spatial trends Contaminant transport concentration factors (CF) Radionuclides Modelling Oceanography Arctic Food webs Sediments Temporal trends Human intake Technetium 99
298. GPS-high-rate-receiver

A high precise GPS-receiver with high time resolution is operated together with the Norwegian Mapping Authority in Ny Ålesund since 1999. Datasets are transmitted continuously and automatically via Internet to the GFZ in Potsdam where they are evaluated for two purposes. Firstly to determine station coordinates, ephemerides for all GPS-satellites and high temporal resolved vertical integrated water vapor for the International GPS Service (IGS). Secondly they are used as reference for the CHAMP-satellite to determine its exact orbit and to calculate water vapor profiles from on board GPS-receiver-data.

299. Satellite validation for SAGE III (contribution to VINTERSOL/SOLVE-2)

In december 2001 the SAGE III experiment was successfully launched. The NASA science team of the SAGE III experiment has announced the Koldewey-Station in Ny-Aalesund as "anchor site" for validation, especially for such parameters as optical depth, aerosol extinction profiles and ozone profiles. Because of time coincidence NASA apprechiates support for the prospected validation activities for ENVISAT. This should be also considered as contribution to the NASA accepted project "Ground based Validation of SAGE III by the NDSC Primary Station at Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen" for SOLVE-2.

Ozone Climate variability SAGE III Climate change Arctic satellite validation
300. Optical properties, structure, and thickness of sea ice in Kongsfjorden

Study of the energy exchange between atmosphere, sea ice and ocean during freezing and melting conditions; within that, measurements of solar radiation (visible and UV) and optical properties, snow and sea ice characteristics, vertical heat and salt fluxes, oceanographic parameters.

UV radiation Geophysics Climate variability Climate remote sensing Sea ice Climate change Modelling Ice Oceanography Arctic Ice cores Atmosphere Ocean currents optical properties