Projects/Activities

The full list of projects contains the entire database hosted on this portal, across the available directories. The projects and activities (across all directories/catalogs) are also available by country of origin, by geographical region, or by directory.

Displaying: 261 - 280 of 382 Next
261. Development of monitoring guidelines and modelling tools for environmental effects from Mediterranean aquaculture (MERAMED)

1. To undertake a review of procedures used in the regulation and monitoring of marine cage fish farms in Norway, Scotland and elsewhere to be used as the basis for creating an appropriate set of protocols, monitoring systems and techniques for the control of such farms in Mediterranean conditions 2. To carry out a field research programme to provide appropriate data on the environmental impact of marine cage fish farms in a range of conditions in the eastern Mediterranean. 3. To develop a predictive model to simulate the environmental response at Mediterranean sea cage farms to differing cage stocking levels and feeding regimes. This will be designed as a management tool for both the industry and regulatory authorities.

Biological effects Sources Aquaculture Mapping Discharges Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Modelling Local pollution Sediments Ecosystems
262. Time series monitoring of the UK's deep water territorial seabed: Sustainable development of the Atlantic margin

1. To compare temporal influences of environmental variables (e.g. depth temperature, contaiminats) on species and families 2. To corroborate inferences made from the previous two datasets. We hope to determine whether temperature is still the most important variable influencing the macrofauna 3. To analyse between temporal and spatial trends to determine whether there has been any significant change in the benthic community structure, especially at stations near past exploration activity 4. To compare results with those from the South of the Faroe Islands being collated by Daniel Jacobsen of the University of Copenhagen.

Mapping Spatial trends Oceanography Biodiversity Sediments Oil and Gas Temporal trends
263. Late Holocene and Shallow Marine Environments of Europe (HOLSMEER)

1. To generate high-resolution quantitative palaeoceanographic/palaeoclimatic data from NE Atlantic coastal/shelf sites for the last 2000 years using a multidisciplinary approach 2. To develop novel palaeoclimatic tools for shallow marine settings by (i) calibrating the proxy data against instrumental datasets, (ii) contributing to transfer function development, and (iii) then to extrapolate back beyond the timescale of the instrumental data using the palaeoclimate record 3. To investigate the link between late Holocene climate variability detected in the shelf/coastal regions of western Europe and the variability of the oceanic heat flux associated with the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, and to compare such variability with existing high-resolution terrestrial proxies to help determine forcing mechanisms behind such climate change 4. To lay a foundation for the identification of hazards and resources linked with, or forced by, such climate change.

Geology Climate variability Spatial trends Environmental management Climate change palaeoceanographic/palaeoclimatic Modelling anthropogenic Geochemistry Sediments Temporal trends
264. UK Marine environmental change network

1. Establish a network to measure environmental change in marine waters by undertaking long-term research and monitoring 2. Maintain and enhance existing long-term research programmes 3. Restart important discontinued long-term research programmes 4. Develop a quality controlled database of long-term marine data series 5. Deliver and interpret long-term and broad scale contextual information to inform water quality monitoring 6. Demonstrate the benefits of preserving and networking long-term time series programmes

Biological effects Mapping Climate variability Environmental management Climate change Modelling Biodiversity Data management
265. Oceanographic Applications to Eutrophication in Regions of Restricted Exchange (OAERRE)

1. Observations of the physics of vertical and open boundary exchange in Regions of Restricted Exchanges (REEs), leading to improved parameterisation of these processes in research and simplified models. 2. Study of the phytoplankton and pelagic micro-heterotrophs responsible for production and decomposition of organic material, and of sedimentation, benthic processes and benthic-pelagic coupling, in RREs, with the results expressed as basin-scale parameters. 3. Construction of closed budgets and coupled physical-biological research models for nutrient (especially nitrogen) and organic carbon cycling in RREs, allowing tests of hypotheses about biogeochemistry, water quality and the balance of organisms. 4. Construction of simplified 'screening' models for the definition, assessment and prediction of eutrophication, involving collaboration with 'end-users', and the use of these models to analyse the costs and benefits of amelioration scenarios.

Pathways Biological effects Sources Catchment studies Spatial trends Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Local pollution Sediments Temporal trends Ecosystems Eutrophication
266. Development of Elasmobranch Assessments (DELASS)

1. The improvement of the scientific basis for the management of fisheries taking elasmobranch species by: a)Species Identification /biological sampling b)Stock discrimination / separation c)Data compliation and exchange d)Data preparation, stock assessment & species vulnerability

Shelf seas Fish Spatial trends Environmental management Biodiversity Ecosystems Marine mammals
267. BIOFiltration & AQuaculture: an evaluation of hard substrate deployment performance with mariculture developments

1. To quantify the effectiveness of the biofilters in reducing the impacts of mariculture across Europe from both an economic and environmental perspective. 2. To determine the best design and placements of the biofilters, accounting for differences in geography, hydrology, nutrient input etc. between countries. 3. To examine the environmental and regulatory options governing the use of the biofilters at the end of their life-span and to provide detailed economic analyses of biofilter use compared to existing filtration methods.

Biological effects Fish Discharges Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Modelling Local pollution Food webs Sediments Diet Ecosystems
268. Marine artificial habitat manipulation: predicition and measurement of environmental impacts

1. To establish an environmental monitoring regieme during and following the period of reef complex construction using, where possible, the same static monitoring sites and transects established during the pre-deployment research, in addition to new stations 2. To develop and test models that will predict ecosystem changes caused by artifical habitat manipulation. The main model will examine whole ecosystem changes. Other models will examine hydrological profile alterations, habitat fractal dimensions and socio-economic cost benefit analysis.

Fish Environmental management Biodiversity Food webs Temporal trends Ecosystems
269. Diversity and function of the bacterial flora of the toxic alga Gymnodinium catenatum Graham

1. To descirbe and compare the phylogenetic diversity and distribution of the total bacterial flora associated with G catenatum cysts and vegetative cells. 2. To culture and identify bacteria from G catenatum, and identify/characterise any bacteria capable of autonomous PST production in G. catenatum 3. To examine the effect of cyst surface sterilisation and re-introduction of bacteria on PST production in G catenatum 4. Survey bacteria for quorum sensing capability (cell signaling) and detect in situ quorum sesing in xenic G. catenatum cultures, relating to toxicity development. 5. Develop molecular markers of cross species quorum sensing, facilitating analysis of quorum sensing in uncultivated bacteria.

Pathways Biological effects Sources Fish Environmental management Food webs Human health Ecosystems Human intake
270. Correlation between algal presence in water and toxin presence in shellfish

1. Analysis of existing data from the current shellfish monitoring programmes in order to design a suitable sampling strategy 2. Ideentification of toxic algal species in UK waters 3. Construction of a detailed time-series at several key sites in the UK for toxic phytoplankton and shellfish toxin occurence 4. Comparison of the genotype versus toxicity of suspected toxic species between sites

Pathways Biological effects Algal Biology Fish Contaminant transport Exposure Food webs Ecosystems Human intake
271. Atlantic Coral Ecosystem Study (ACES)

Objective 1: To map the structural and genetic variability, the framework-constructing potential, and the longevity of Deep Water Coral (DWC) ecosystems Objective 2: To assess hydrographic and other local physical forcing factors affecting Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL) sediment particle dynamics and POC supply in the vicinity of DWC ecosystems Objective 3: To describe the DWC ecosystem, its dynamics and functioning; investigate coral biology and behaviour and assess coral sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic stressors Objective 4: To assign a sensitivity code, identify the major conservation issues (and increase public awareness), and make recommendations for the sustainable use of the DWC ecosystem

Mapping Fish Environmental management Oceanography Biodiversity Corals Ecosystems
272. Molecularly impregnated polymer based sensors for environmental and process monitoring

The project aims to develop Molecular Imprinted Polymer (MIP)sensors into practical tools for the monitoring of a number of pollutants listed in the EU Water Framework Directive. (Further details in commercial confidence)

Heavy metals Discharges Spatial trends Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Local pollution Geochemistry Temporal trends
273. Deep Water Observing System II

1. To develop a deep water observation system 2. Detailed design document, workplan and risk register and reviewed and agreed by steering group, procurement of components. 3. Deep water tests of acoustic communications system performed. pilot data dissemination and archival system. Dry test DWOS -1 4. Deployment in near lab test environment eg. Dunstaffnage bay with regular inspections. Collect, analyse, disseminate and archive sensor and house keeping data 5. Deploy in exposed but coastal stratified site in western Irish Sea, with two visual inspections. Collect, analyse, disseminate and archive sensor and house keeping data. Liaison with Met Office regarding deployment logistics. 6. Six months Deployment at Deep Water site; Collect, analyse, disseminate and archive sensor and house keeping data; Distribute data to customers. Revisit mooring site after six months recover and redeploy. 7. Final Technical Report and Final Project Report: Second six months Deployment at Deep Water site (as decreed by steering group); Collect, analyse, disseminate and archive sensor and house keeping data. Analysis of complete data handling chain performed; impact of data on customer base assessed, recommendations for continuance of DWOS as an operational system.

Hydrography Mapping Climate variability Climate Spatial trends Environmental management Climate change Modelling Oceanography Data management Ocean currents Temporal trends
274. The ecological effects of sealice treatment agents

1. To determine the effects of each of several sealice treatment chemicals on macrofaunal assemblages 2. To determine the effects of each of several sealice treatment chemicals on zooplankton assemblages 3. To determine the effects of each of several sealice treatment chemicals on meiofaunal assemblages 4. To determine the effects of each of several sealice treatment chemicals on benthic diatom assemblages 5. To determine the effects of each of several sealice treatment chemicals on phytoplankton assemblages 6. To determine the effects of each of several sealice treatment chemicals on macroalgal and littoral assemblages 7. To measure the concentrations of each of several sea lice treatment chemicals in the environment post-treatment 8. To determine the significant correlations between ecosystem responses, time and therapeutant concentration to determine the proportion of the observed environmental variance attributal to the treatments against a background of responses due to other parameters such as waste organic materials and nutrients 9. To model the dispersion and or depostion of farm wastes including of each of several sea lice treatment chemicals in the marine environment post treatment and to incorporate terms relating to the toxicity of these chemicals to certain parts of the ecosystem (e.g. the macrofauna)

Biological effects Hydrography Mapping Fish Discharges Environmental management Contaminant transport Modelling Food webs Sediments Pesticides Diet Ecosystems
275. A new generation of biocides for control of fish lice in fish farms and biofilms on submerged materials

1. To develop a system of photoactive biocides for treating sea lice and biofouling (Further details in confidence)

Biological effects Mapping Fish Discharges Environmental management Contaminant transport Modelling Exposure Photosensitisation Local pollution Pesticides Photodynamic Marine mammals
276. Oceanographic Measurements and Navigation Trials in the Western Mediterranean

1. To provide detailed oceanographic support and navigation trials in the Western Mediterranean

Mapping Modelling Oceanography Data management Ocean currents
277. Rearing protocols for Atlantic halibut larvae during transition from endogenous to exogenous nutrition

1. To describe the ontogeny of foraging behaviour of halibut larvae, and to determine any detrimental effects of current commercial rearing practices in terms of structural damage, developmental abnormalities and behavioural competence 2. To investigate the resistance of larvae to handling in relation to developmental stage, in order to determine the most appropriate stage for handling and to devise non-damaging handling methods 3. To investigate whether larvae exhibit temperature, or salinity preferences at critical developmental stages, by means of behavioural observations in temperature/salinity gradients and by subjecting larvae to different acclimation regiemes in rearing tanks 4. To develop husbandry protocols that reduce the incidence of surface aggregation and that enable larvae to be retained in UK upwelling tanks for the optimal duration, in terms of handling resistance, behavioural competence and feed initiation success 5. To determine the optimum conditions for transferring larvae to first feeding tanks, by investigating responses to physical, chemical and biological parameters, including mechanisms by which microalgae 'green water' promote or enhance feed ingestion 6. To obtain a reproducible benefical microbial flora during the early stages of larval rearing, with the aim of establishing an industry -relevant probiotic approach at the feed initiation stage

Biological effects Fish Diet
278. New Particle Formation and Fate in the Coastal Environment (PARFORCE)

A dedicated study into the formation of new particles, PARFORCE (New particle formation and fate in the coastal environment), was conducted over a period from 1998-1999 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the western coast of Ireland. Continuous measurements of new particle formation were taken over the two-year period while two intensive field campaigns were also conducted, one in September 1998, and the other in June 1999. New particle events were observed on »90% of days and occurred throughout the year and in all air mass types. These events lasted for, typically, a few hours, with some events lasting more than 8 hours, and occurred during daylight hours coinciding with the occurrence of low tide and exposed shorelines. During these events, peak aerosol concentrations often exceeded 10 6 cm -3 under clean air conditions while measured formation rates of detectable particle sizes (i.e. d > 3nm) were of the order of 10 4 -10 5 cm -3 s -1 . Nucleation rates of new particles were estimated to be, at least, of the order of 10 5 -10 6 cm -3 s -1 and occurred for sulphuric acid concentrations above 2 x 10 6 molecules cm -3 ; however, no correlation existed between peak sulphuric acid concentrations, low tide occurrence or nucleation events. Ternary nucleation theory of the H2SO4-H2O-NH3 system predicts that nucleation rates far in excess of 10 6 cm -3 s -1 can readily occur for the given sulphuric acid concentrations; however, aerosol growth modelling studies predict that there is insufficient sulphuric acid to grow new particles (of »1 nm in size) into detectable sizes of 3 nm. Hygroscopic growth factor analysis of recently-formed 8 nm particles illustrate that these particles must comprise some species significantly less soluble than sulphate aerosol. The nucleation-mode hygroscopic data, combined with the lack of detectable VOC emissions from coastal biota, the strong emission of biogenic halocarbon species, and the finger-printing of iodine in recently-formed (7 nm) particles suggest that the most likely species resulting in the growth of new particles to detectable sizes is an iodine oxide as suggested by previous laboratory experiments. It remains an open question whether nucleation is driven by self nucleation of iodine species, a halocarbon derivative, or whether first, stable clusters are formed through ternary nucleation of sulphuric acid, ammonia and water vapour, followed by condensation growth into detectable sizes by condensation of iodine species. Airborne measurements confirm that nucleation occurs all along the coastline and that the coastal biogenic aerosol plume can extend many 100s of km away from the source. During the evolution of the coastal plume, particle growth is observed up to radiatively-active sizes of 100 nm. Modelling studies of the yield of cloud-condensation nuclei suggest that the cloud condensation nuclei population can increase by »100%. Given that the production of new particles from coastal biogenic sources occurs at least all along the western coast of Europe, and possibly many other coastlines, it is suggested that coastal aerosols contribute significantly to the natural background aerosol population.

Atmospheric processes Climate Aerosol Particle Formation Atmosphere
279. Quantification of Aerosol Nucleation in the European Boundary Layer (QUEST)

The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has very recently revised the prediction of global average temperature increase during the next century from 1.0-3.5 to 1.4-5.8 K. The increase in the upper limit of the prediction is largely due to the role of aerosols in the climate of the Earth: it is believed that reduction of pollution will result in reduced direct and indirect (via clouds) scattering of sunlight back to the space. However, as can be seen from the large uncertainty of the estimated temperature increase, not enough is known about the role of natural and anthropogenic aerosols in climate processes. This is also reflected in the Key Action 2, under the RTD priority 2.1.1, calling for ”… quantification and prediction of … concentration of … aerosols, in particular the fine fraction of particles and their precursors”. The concentration of aerosols is controlled by their sources and sinks, and thus the prediction of particle concentration requires the quantification of aerosol source terms. The main objective of QUEST is to quantify the number of new secondary aerosol particles formed through homogeneous nucleation in the European boundary layer, and the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources. The role of homogeneous nucleation in the formation of new atmospheric particles was realized in the 1990s, and considerable effort has been devoted to studies of aerosol formation in various parts of the Globe. The longest continuous data series of nucleation events has been obtained at a forest field station in Finland, where aerosol size distributions between 3 and 150 nm in diameter have been recorded in 10 minute intervals since the beginning of 1996 [1]. Nucleation events occur in this rather clean Boreal area roughly 50-60 times per year, the highest event frequency taking place in the spring months (March-May). The concentration of new particles per cc of air formed during one event varies between roughly 100-10 000. Taking the average number to be one thousand, and assuming that the nucleation takes place in a well mixed boundary layer having a height of 1000 m, it can be estimated that the aerosol source term in the Boreal forest area is on the order of 51013 m-2 per year. This is on the same order as the global aerosol yield estimated from primary emissions [2]. The number given here is very crude as we can at present only guess the vertical extent of the nucleation zone; however, it clearly shows that homogeneous nucleation events influence atmospheric particle concentrations at least at regional scales, and possibly also globally. Many features of the Boreal nucleation events have been revealed thus far. Necessary (but not sufficient) conditions include sunny weather, vertical mixing of air in the morning (prior to the detection of the event) [1], and a treshold value of a quantity that depends on radiation intensity (vapor source) and pre-existing aerosol size distribution (vapor sink) [3]. The springtime events always seem to take place in Polar or Arctic air masses [4], but so far it is unclear whether the meteorology is similar during other seasons. Aerosol flux measurements [5] indicate that the particles are formed aloft, but the vertical extent of the nucleation layer is unknown. However, there is clear evidence from simultaneous measurements at various locations, that the horizontal extent of the areas in which the nucleation takes place can be hundreds and in some cases even thousands of kilometers [1]. No direct correlation of nucleation events with SO2 concentrations has been found; however the product of SO2 concentration, ammonia concentration, and calculated OH concentration correlates with the events (personal communication). These results hint that the recently suggested ternary sulfuric acid-ammonia-water nucleation mechanism of small clusters, followed by the growth of the clusters due to condensation of other (possibly organic) vapors [6], may be operational in the Boreal forest area. Furthermore, there is experimental evidence that nucleation event particles in the 4-5 nm range are soluble in butanol (working fluid of condensation particle counters), which indicates organic composition. However, the confirmation of the ternary nucleation hypothesis requires simultaneous measurements of sulfuric acid vapor and ammonia, and further studies of the composition of the nucleated particles. Furthermore, to facilitate large-scale modelling studies, the vertical extent of the nucleation events, as well as the meteorological conditions during non-springtime events have to be investigated. Measurements of nucleation events at a more Central European location indicate that SO2 levels increase during the majority of nucleation events [7]. It can be hypothesized that a part of observed nucleation events (minority in Central Europe, majority in the Boreal area) are ”natural” and a part are affected (or even caused) by pollution (majority in Central Europe, minority in the Boreal area). The confirmation of this hypothesis and implementation of the pollution type nucleation mechanism into a large-scale model requires carefully designed measurements from a location which is preferably Southern European as there is very little available nucleation data from this area. One of the few observations of new particles in Southern Europe [8] is from the Italian site where we plan to study the frequency, meteorology, vertical extent, and chemical precursors of nucleation events. Another type of nucleation events has been observed all along the western coast of Europe and have been studied more particularly at the west coast of Ireland [9]. These events, which have a duration of the order of 4 hours and up to 8 hours, occur almost daily around low tide and under conditions of solar radiation, indicating photochemical source. Incredibly, the peak new particle concentrations often exceed 106 cm-3, making this the strongest natural source region of atmospheric particles. The exact chemical mechanisms leading to the production of coastal particles still remains an open question. As in other environments, there appears to be sufficient sulphuric acid vapour to participate in ternary nucleation with ammonia and water, however, there is insufficient sulphuric acid to grow these particles to detectable sizes [9]. The most probable chemical species involved in the production or growth of these particles is Iodine, or an Iodine Oxide, produced photochemically from biogenic halocarbon emissions [9]. The production of particles from the photolysis of CH2I2 in the presence of ozone has been confirmed by recent smog chamber experiments [10]. While the concentration of new particles in this environment is extraordinarily high, its impact on background particle and CCN contribution remains unclear and needs to be quantified. A limited single study [11] has shown that the coastal aerosol plume is detectable up to several hunderds of km downwind and that the new coastal particles readily grow into CCN sizes (larger than 100 nm). An intensive campaign at the coast of Ireland will quantify the flux of both biogenic halocarbon precursor gases and the yield of new, and radiatively-active particles in the European coastal boundary layer. The objective of QUEST is to determine the source strength of new particle formation in the three above mentioned cases. The specific objectives are: 1) To fill in gaps that exist in the understanding of chemical and physical pathways leading to homogeneous nucleation of new aerosol particles; 2) To understand the meteorological conditions required for the events to take place and to be able to predict the horizontal and vertical extent of the events; 3) To implement parametrized representations of the nucleation mechanisms, based on the information from 1) and 2), to an European scale model in order to determine the source strength of homogeneous nucleation of aerosol particles in the European boundary layer.

Atmospheric processes Sources Climate Modelling Aerosol Particle Formation Atmosphere Temporal trends
280. Plankton responses to turbulence in a gradient of nutrient concentrations

This study will be part of the EU project NTAP. The overall objective of NTAP is to provide a unified conceptual framework for nutrient dynamics as modulated by the interaction of turbulence and plankton and to use this information to aid in implementing and modifying legislation on coastal water quality and management. Specifically, the objectives are a) to build a database on turbulence effects by gathering existing scattered data, b) to produce experimental data on key organisms, interactions and mass transfer rates, c) to develop a sensor for laboratory measurement of small-scale turbulence, and d) to produce a dynamical model at community level with exploratory and predictive capabilities. The present project will fit within Objective b), and will complement other NTAP experimental studies with cultures and natural communities that are being carried out in different European laboratories. The results derived from this project will also be valuable to test and calibrate the model developed within Objective d).

Biology Modelling Oceanography Food webs