The full list of projects contains the entire database hosted on this portal, across the available directories. The projects and activities (across all directories/catalogs) are also available by country of origin, by geographical region, or by directory.

Displaying: 241 - 255 of 255
241. The Seasonal Cycle of Organochlorine Concentrations in the Canadian Basin

In September 1997, the CCGS Des Groseillers was frozen into the permanent ice-pack and started a year-long science program drifting across the southern Canada Basin. This program provided a unique opportunity to carry out a "vertical" food-chain study in a seasonal context to learn how the physical and biological systems couple to produce contaminant entry into the food web (Figure 1). "Vertical" components included the water and ice, particles, algae, zooplankton (sorted by trophic level), fish and seal.. The interpretation of contaminant data collected during SHEBA will provide information about the relationship between seasonal ice formation and melt, seasonal atmospheric transport and water column organochlorine concentrations in the Canada Basin. In addition our contaminant sampling program was integrated within a larger science plan where other SHEBA researchers studied the physical and biological properties of the water column. This means that contaminant distributions can be interpreted and modeled within the full context of physical, chemical and biological processes, and of atmospheric and oceanic transport mechanisms.

Pathways Organochlorines PCBs Long-range transport Spatial trends Sea ice Contaminant transport Climate change Oceanography Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Geochemistry Food webs Temporal trends
242. Measurements of radioactivity in particles of air.

Measurements of radioactivity in particles of air

243. Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme (SWECLIM)

It has become clear in recent years that a changing composition of the atmosphere due to human activities may influence the climate system. The production of greenhouse gases and their accumulation in the atmosphere can result in a global warming and changes in the climate system. On regional scales, this may result in even much more pronounced changes. This is particularly true for the high northern latitudes. Climate changes will impact the society and nature in many ways. The anticipated effects are large and will matter both globally (mainly negative consequences) and regionally (both negative and positive consequences). SWECLIM provides users with detailed regional climate study results. SWECLIM develops regional (limited area) climate system modeling, studies climate processes and feedback special for the Nordic region and creates regional climate (change) scenarios on a time scale of 50-100 years. SWECLIM also performs impact studies on water resources. Climate scenarios are also made available for other impact studies, such as in forestry, done by external groups. Information activities on climate change and the regional consequences are an important component in the program. The regional climate model system is built around a regional atmospheric model, regional ocean models with sea ice for the Baltic Sea and land surface modeling plus hydrology. The model system is forced at the by large-scale results from global climate models. Multi-year to multi-decade length integrations are performed with the regional model targeting a domain roughly centered on the Nordic countries and using horizontal resolutions ranging from 20-80 km.

Atmospheric processes Climate variability Climate Sea ice Climate change Atmosphere Temporal trends
244. Monitoring and Modelling of Atmospheric Pollution in Greenland

In 2000 it is proposed to operate an atmospheric programme consisting of a monitoring and a modelling part and composed of 3 programme modules. The monitoring programme consists of two parts. I. It is proposed to continue the weekly measurements of acidifying components and heavy metals at Station Nord in north-east Greenland for assessment of atmospheric levels and trends. The measuring programme includes also highly time resolved measurements of Ozone and of total gaseous Mercury (TGM). The results will also be used for continued development and verification of the transport model calculations. Receptor modelling of the pollution composition will be used for identification and quantification of the source types that influence the atmospheric pollution in north-east Greenland. Comparison of the two sets of modelling results is expected to give better models. II. The purpose of the project is the operation of a permanent air monitoring programme in the populated West Greenland at a location which is representative for transboundary air pollution. The most promising sites are located in the Disko Bay area and in the vicinity of Nuuk. The objectives are to obtain data on the concentration levels of air pollutants that can be used for assessing seasonal variations and trends and for studying long range transport of pollutants mainly from North America to West Greenland. The purpose is further to provide data for development and improvement of long range transport models that can be used to identify the origin of the pollution and its transport pathways. The results from measurements and model calculations will be used to assess the magnitude of deposition to sea and land in this populated region of Greenland. III. In the proposed modelling programme the operation, application and maintenance of the current basic hemispheric model will be continued. Results on origin, transport, and deposition of contaminants on land and sea surfaces in the Arctic are essential for interpretation and understanding the Arctic air pollution. The model will be developed to improve the spatial and temporal resolutions, as well as the accuracy by including physically and mathematically better descriptions of the key processes treated in the model. The work to expand the model to include also non-volatile heavy metals, such as Cadmium and Lead on an hemispheric scale will be continued. Since the atmospheric chemistry of Ozone and Mercury seem to be strongly connected in the Arctic it is planned to continue the development and testing of a model module for hemispheric transport and chemistry for ozone and mercury to assess the origin and fate of this highly toxic metal in the Arctic.

Atmospheric processes Atmospheric Pathways Ozone Arctic haze Long-range transport Acidification Pollution sources Modelling Emissions Arctic Atmospheric Deposition Atmosphere
245. Mercury Measurements at Amderma, Russia

This project aims to establish continuous Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) measurements at Amderma, Russia to provide circumpolar data in concert with international sampling efforts at Alert (Nunavut, Canada), Point Barrow (Alaska, USA) and Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard/Spitsbergen, Norway). The objectives of this project are to determine spatial and temporal trends in atmospheric mercury concentrations and deposition processes of mercury in the Arctic in order to assist in the development of long-term strategies for this priority pollutant by: A) measuring ambient air TGM concentrations in the Russian Arctic; B) investigating and establishing the causes of temporal variability (seasonal, annual) in mercury concentrations so that realistic representations (models) of atmospheric pathways and processes can be formulated, tested and validated; and C) studying the circumpolar behaviour of mercury by comparison with data from other polar sites.

Pathways Atmospheric processes gas-phase mercury mercury Heavy metals Long-range transport Spatial trends Hg Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends particulate-phase mercury Arctic springtime depletion of mercury total gaseous mercury
246. Mercury Measurements at Alert

The objectives of the project are: A) to determine temporal trends in atmospheric mercury concentrations and deposition processes of mercury in the Arctic, and to assist in the development of long-term strategies for this priority pollutant by: i) measuring ambient air Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) concentrations in the Canadian Arctic (Alert) and investigating the linkage to elevated levels of mercury known to be present in the Arctic food chain; ii) investigating and establishing the causes of temporal variability (seasonal, annual) in mercury concentrations so that realistic representations (models) of atmospheric pathways and processes can be formulated, tested and validated; iii) studying the chemical and physical aspects of atmospheric mercury vapour transformation (oxidation) after polar sunrise and the resultant enhanced mercury deposition to the sea, snow and ice surfaces each year during springtime; and iv) obtaining a long-term time series of atmospheric mercury (TGM) concentrations at Alert for the purpose of establishing whether mercury in the troposphere of the northern hemisphere is (still) increasing and if so, at what rate; B) to establish a sound scientific basis for addressing existing gaps of knowledge of the behaviour of mercury in the Arctic environment that will enable international regulatory actions to reflect the appropriate environmental protection strategies and pollution controls for the Arctic by: i) studying the relative roles of anthropogenic and natural sources of mercury so as to clarify understanding of the atmospheric pathways leading to the availability of mercury to Arctic biota; ii) studying tropospheric TGM depletion mechanisms/processes leading to enhanced input of mercury to the Arctic biosphere in spring; iii) undertaking essential speciated measurements of particulate-phase and/or reactive gaseous-phase mercury as well as mercury in precipitation (snow/rain) to quantify wet and dry deposition fluxes into the Arctic environment; and vi) providing the scientific basis for the information and advice used in the preparation and development of Canadian international strategies and negotiating positions for appropriate international control objectives.

Pathways Atmospheric processes gas-phase mercury mercury Heavy metals Long-range transport Spatial trends Hg Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends particulate-phase mercury Arctic springtime depletion of mercury total gaseous mercury
247. Northern Contaminants Air Monitoring: Organochlorine Measurements

The objectives of this project are: A) to determine whether atmospheric concentrations and deposition of priority pollutants in the Arctic are changing in response to various national and international initiatives by: i) continuing to measure the occurrence of selected organochlorines in the arctic atmosphere at Alert, NWT for a period of three more years (measurements started in 1992), in parallel with identical measurements in western Russia at Amderma; ii) sampling at the Kinngait (Cape Dorset) station in 2000/2001 for the purpose of detecting change in the eastern Canadian Arctic by comparison with observations made four years earlier (1994-1996) at this site; and iii) analyzing and reporting data from Alert, Tagish, Kinngait and Dunai Island thereby providing insight into pollutant trends and sources. B) Ensuring the effective utilization of information at the international negotiating table in order to achieve the appropriate restrictions on release of pollutants of concern for the arctic environment by: i) contributing to the next assessment arising from the second phase of the Northern Contaminants Program (Canada) and specifically, the revised Assessments on POPs and Heavy Metals as part of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment (AMAP) Program Work Plan; and ii) advising Canadian negotiators in preparing reasonable, practical strategies of control.

Organochlorines PCBs PAHs Long-range transport Contaminant transport Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Data management Pesticides Atmosphere
248. Fluxes of Mercury from the Arctic Ice Surface during Polar Sunrise Conditions and Melt Conditions

The objectives of this project are: A) to determine the pathway for the transfer of mercury in snowmelt to sea water during the melt period at Alert; B) to determine the extent of open water and wet ice in the summer Arctic as it affects the surface exchange of Hg using satellite radar imagery; and C) to determine the atmospheric dynamics associated with the photochemistry of mercury episodically during the polar sunrise period.

trace metals satellite radar imagery radar Atmospheric processes melt open water acoustic sounding mercury Mapping Heavy metals Long-range transport Spatial trends Contaminant transport Hg Modelling Ice Arctic GIS radar imagery wet ice Atmosphere atmospheric boundary layer boundary layer
249. New Persistent Chemicals in the Arctic Environment

The objectives of this project are A) to determine coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), brominated diphenyl ethers (BDPEs), chlorophenolic compounds and chloroparaffins in air from arctic monitoring stations; and B) to search for other "new" chemicals in the arctic environment, not currently monitored by Canada's Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) but of potential concern based on known persistence, extent of usage and toxicology.

Sources PCAs BDPEs Pollution sources Exposure monitoring chloroparaffins Sediments Pesticides SCCPs Human intake Marine mammals new chemicals polychlorinated naphthalenes Pathways Organochlorines PCBs chlorinated paraffins Long-range transport brominated diphenyl ethers Spatial trends HAAs Arctic PCNs Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) synthetic musks haloacetic acids Atmosphere polychlorinated alkanes
250. Global Gridded gamma-HCH and Endosulfan Emission Inventories

The aim of this project is to compile information and create a computerized database of historical and present global lindane and endosulfan usage data as well as emission data for gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) and endosulfan with 1 degree x 1 degree lat/long resolution. The objectives of this project are: A) to create global gridded g-HCH and endosulfan emission inventories; B) to study the linkage between global g-HCH and endosulfan use trends and g-HCH and endosulfan concentration trends in the Arctic; and C) to assist in comparing concentrations and ratios of different HCH isomers in the Arctic biotic and abiotic environments.

Sources emission inventory b-HCH alpha-HCH Pollution sources Contaminant transport Modelling GIS a-HCH hexachlorocyclohexane Pesticides endosulfan beta-HCH Organochlorines Mapping lindane ß-HCH Long-range transport Discharges Spatial trends gamma-HCH gridded Emissions HCH Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) g-HCH Data management Atmosphere Temporal trends
251. Spatial trends in loadings and historical inputs of mercury inferred from Arctic lake sediment cores

1. To determine the depth profiles of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) as well as manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in fifteen dated Arctic sediment cores over a three year period. Mercury is the main focus. 2. To quantify geographical trends in fluxes of the mercury and its enrichment factors in Nunavut, NWT, Nunavik, and Labrador. To link mercury findings with those of paleolimnological indicators, POPs, as well as indicators of biogeochemical processes of manganese and iron, all of which are obtained from the same cores, or cores from the same sites whenever possible. 3. To complement existing data on mercury in Arctic sediment cores with data generated over a much wider latitudinal and longitudinal range than previous work in order to provide a better understanding of Hg in Canada North. 4. Secondary to Hg, to provide loading data for Pb which may help elucidate the understanding of Hg pathways and sources.

Pathways Sources Metals pollution Canadian Arctic Mercury Heavy metals Spatial trends Arctic Sediments Remote lakes
252. Application of Ground-based remote sensing to Arctic climate research

This research consists of eight projects. 1. Climate-related remote sensing of clouds. A project to extend and test innovative techniques for observing cloud microphysical properites from ground-based cloud radar, lidar, and radiometers (P.I. Brooks Martner +1-303-497-6375) 2. Ground-based and remote sensing of microphysical and radiative properties of Arctic clouds. This project involves data analysis of radar, lidar, and radiometer data from the FIRE-III Arctic Cloud Experiment, including in situ validation with aircraft, and development of retrieval techniques of cloud microphysical properties from satellite data. (P.I. Taneil Uttal, +1-303-497-6409) 3. Deployment of surface based, active remote sensors during SHEBA. Data collected in 1997-1998 will be analyzed to provide information on cloud boundaries, radar reflectivities, radar Doppler velocities, lidar depolarization ratios, and lidar backscatter. (P.I. Taneil Uttal, +1-303-497-6409) 4. Validation of CERES cloud retrievals over the Arctic with surface-based millimeter-wave radar. The goal is to provide long-term data sets to validate satellite data from the CERES package on the TERRA satellite. (P.I. Taneil Uttal, +1-303-497-6409) 5. Development of an integrated sounding system in support of the DOE/ARM program. Microwave and millimeter wave radar data sets are being collected to study water vapor and Arctic clouds under Arctic winter conditions. (P.I. Ed Westwater, +1-303-497-6527) 6. Application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors. The goal is to improve calibration methods for the ARM microwave radiometers. (P.I. Ed Westwater, +1-303-497-6527) 7. Meltpond 2000. The goal is to use aircraft-based radiometers to obtain the first high spatial resolution microwave images of polynas to improve the interpretation of SSM/I and SSMIS imagery of Arctic ice. (P.I. Al Gasiewski, +1-303-497-3577) 8. Arctic atmospheric radiation studies. This collaboration with the Japanese Communications Research Laboratory provides for ground-based measurement of ozone, water vapor and cloud radiation. (P.I. Joe Shaw, +1-303-497-6496)

Atmospheric processes Climate variability SEARCH Atmosphere
253. Compiling and summarizing Persistent Organic Pollutant (POPs) data from the U.S. Arctic for the Arctic Monitoring & Assessment Programme (AMAP)

Objectives: 1. Locate and assemble scientific data from the U.S. Arctic on the concentrations and effects of POPs in all compartments (e.g., marine and terrestrial biota, abiotic substrates) of the Arctic. 2. Evaluate, analyze and summarize these scientific data from the U.S. Arctic into text suitable for inclusion in a new (second) AMAP publication on POPs. 3. Disseminate the summarized information via a U.S. AMAP Internet page that is directly linked to the current International AMAP Internet page. Summary (Abstract): The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) was established in 1991 and given the responsibility of monitoring the concentrations and assessing the effects of selected anthropogenic pollutants in all compartments of the Arctic. The first AMAP assessment report, published in 1998, points out gaps in our current understanding of contaminant inputs, their transport processes and food web interactions. In addition, the AMAP report noted a serious lack of information about persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the U.S. and Russian Arctic. Thus, the recommendations of the first AMAP report were to: monitor spatial distribution, contaminant levels and biological effects of POPs; improve the understanding of the adverse effects of POPs on human populations; and fill existing data gaps, specifically in the U.S. and Russia. In this work, we plan to identify sources of scientific information (e.g., published reports, datasets) on POPs in the U.S. Arctic and obtain these data for AMAP. Once data sources are identified, a small group of scientific experts will be assembled for a workshop to determine if any pertinent sources have been overlooked and to give advice on how best to evaluate, analyze, summarize and disseminate the information obtained. A working database will be designed so that the data and scientifically important findings or conclusions from each study can be organized and evaluated. Data will be analyzed statistically, as appropriate, to determine spatial and temporal trends. The data and scientific findings that have been collected and analyzed will then be summarized into text, for inclusion in the next AMAP publication on POPs. This major effort of synthesizing the existing data from the U.S. Arctic will ensure that the AMAP report adequately presents the accomplishments of U.S. scientists and research programs. The written publication and the summarized U.S. POPs data will also be presented as a U.S. AMAP Internet page linked to the International AMAP Internet page.

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) SEARCH Data management assessment Phase II
254. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

The North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is providing data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are being used to refine models and parameterizations as they relate to the Arctic. The NSA/AAO site is centered at Barrow and extends to the south (to the vicinity of Atqasuk), west (to the vicinity of Wainwright), and east (perhaps to Oliktok). The Adjacent Arctic Ocean was probed by the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment, a multi-agency program led by the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research. SHEBA involved the deployment of an instrumented ice camp within the perennial Arctic Ocean ice pack that began in October 1997 and lasted for 12 monthsB. For the planning period covered here, a major focus will be on completing the facilities at Atqasuk, 100 km inland from Barrow. Presently, the instrumentation shelters are located on a gravel pad turn-around at the end of a dead end road between the town of Atqasuk and its airport. To comply with the terms of our land lease, we will construct a platform on pilings adjacent to the gravel pad and move the shelters off the roadway and onto the platform. The platform will permit long-term deployment of the Atqasuk instrumentation in a manner very similar to that at Barrow. Sky radiation (SKYRAD) radiometric instrumentation will be mounted above the level of the roof of the shelters so as to avoid shadowing, and the ground radiation (GNDRAD) instrumentation will be mounted on a tip tower such as the one about to be installed at Barrow. At Atqasuk, during the CY 2000 melt season, the science team heat flux study begun during the CY 1999 melt season will resume in spring with the redeployment of a laser scintillometer. In addition, heat flux measurements will begin near Barrow on the shore of the Beaufort Sea in the same time frame. Also at Barrow, a mini-IOP is planned during spring 2000 that will bring together two extended-range atmospheric emitted radiance interferometers (ER-AERIs) (including the one permanently installed at Barrow), one normal range downward-looking AERI (for snow characterization), and one or two other extended-range upward-looking Fourier transform infrared spectrometers (FTIRs). Various other less major enhancements will be made to the instrumentation suites of both Barrow and Atqasuk. Both facilities, however, will continue to be strongly focused on Instantaneous Radiative Flux (IRF) experiments for this planning period. A Single-Column Model (SCM) experiment utilizing either subscale or full scale aircraft that had been proposed for the NSA/AAO for CY2000 will be put off for a year.

Climate variability Climate Climate change SEARCH
255. Halocarbons in the atmosphere

The objectives are: 1. to monitor in near-real time the levels of a whole suite of halocarbons (both biogenic and anthropogenic) ranging through CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs using an adsorption/desorption system coupled to a GC/MS system not using liquid cryogens. 2.The system will be installed (April 2000) at the Ny-Alesund, Zeppelin Research Station and will be operated and owned by NILU (Dr. N.SChmidbauer). 3. Comparisons will be made with the data obtained (since Oct. 1994) on similar compounds from the Mace Head (Ireland) station which uses similar instrumentation, and the Jungfraujoch Station (Jan 2000) operated by EMPA (Dr. Stefan Reimann). 4. Data will be compared to the Southern Hemisphere data collected at Cape Grimm, Tasmania by CSIRO (Dr. P. Fraser) 5. Data will be used to model the dispersion of the halocarbons in the high latitudes and possible consequences for radiative forcing.

Atmospheric processes Sources Long-range transport Contaminant transport Climate change Halocarbons Emissions Anthropogenic Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Atmosphere Biogenic