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Displaying: 221 - 240 of 255 Next
221. C-ICE 2001

The Collaborative Interdisciplinary Cryospheric Experiment (C-ICE) is a multi-year field experiment that incorporates many individual projects, each with autonomous goals and objectives. The science conducted has directly evolved from research relating to one of four general themes: i. sea ice energy balance; ii. numerical modeling of atmospheric processes; iii. remote sensing of snow covered sea ice; and iv. ecosystem studies.

Atmospheric processes Biology Mapping Climate variability Spatial trends Remote Sensing Sea ice Climate change Shipping Modelling Ice Polar bear Oceanography Arctic Ice cores GIS Energy Balance Food webs Data management MicroWave Scattering Atmosphere Ocean currents Ecosystems Marine mammals
222. Atmospheric transport modelling of HM/POPs over Europe

The aim of this project is to assess the deposition of HM/POP over Europe and to evaluate models. Within the framework of UN-ECE, EMEP Meteorological Synthesising Centre-East (MSC-E Moscow) organised in co-operation with RIVM, a model intercomparison for operational transport models on HM in 1995. In this intercomparison the RIVM will participate with the TREND-model. Results of the intercomparison will also be reported to the OSPAR commission. A model comparison for POPs will follow later. The RIVM/EUROS model is extended with soil and surface water modules in order to improve the description of the exchange process of POPs (deposition and re-emission). With the model, long-term averages of the deposition and accumulatation of POPs are described and scenario-studies can be carried out. In the first instance, Lindane and B(a)P will be taken as examples of POPs dominantly present respectively in the gas phase and attached to particles. When emissions are available the calculations are extended to other POPs.

Pathways Atmospheric processes Heavy metals PAHs Long-range transport Contaminant transport Modelling Emissions Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Pesticides Atmosphere
223. 'NAR-2000' expedition

The 'NAR-2000' expedition was performed during August-September 2000. The overall programme of work includes: - monitoring of pollution in air, waters and bottom sediments of freshwater lakes, soils and terrestrial vegetation - soil/botanical studies - visual and remote sensing (aerial photos and video surveys) studies of damage to soil and vegetation cover. Samples of river water and bottom sediments from 25 freshwater bodies and samples from 16 terrestrial sites in the area of the Varandey and Toravey oil fields were taken for chemical analyses.

Biological effects Organochlorines PCBs Soils Catchment studies Heavy metals PAHs Pollution sources phenols Petroleum hydrocarbons Forest damage soil damage Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Sediments Atmosphere Oil and Gas Temporal trends detergents
224. Monitoring pollution of air and precipitation in Arctic Russia

Stationary systematic observations of pollution in atmospheric air and precipitation. During 2000, observations of contaminant levels in atmospheric air in the cities of Murmansk, Nickel, Monchegorsk, Salekhard and Norilsk were conducted. Monitoring of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation was continued at the above locations and also at Yaniskosky (Kola peninsula) and Pinega (Arkhangelsk region) under the EMEP programme framework. Observations of CO2 were continued at the Teriberk station. Observations of the chemical content of atmospheric precipitation were carried out at 5 stations in the Arctic network of stationary observations: in the Krasnoshelye settlement area (Kola peninsula), Naryan-Mar (Pechora river area), Dikson Island, Turuhansk (Yenisey river area), and Kusyur settlement area (Lena river). Under a joint Russian-Canadian-AMAP project, monitoring of POPs and (from 2001) mercury in air at the Amderma site is conducted.

Organochlorines PCBs Arctic haze Heavy metals PAHs Long-range transport Acidification Contaminant transport Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Pesticides Atmosphere EMEP air monitoring urban air quality
225. Radiation monitoring in the Russian Arctic

During 2000, observations under the framework of control of radioactive contamination were continued at 34 sites of the State System of Radiation Monitoring in the Russian Arctic. At all stations, daily monitoring of exposure dose strength of gamma emissions, and daily sampling of radioactive fallout from the atmosphere to determine total beta-activity are conducted. At sites in Arkhangelsk, Naryan-Mar, Salekhard, Murmansk, Dikson Island, Zhelaniya Cape, Kheis Island and Kandalaksha, sampling of atmospheric aerosols and precipitation was performed for specific radioisotopic analysis, including determination of tritium. Samples of surface water for determination of levels of 90-Sr and tritium were collected at radioactive contamination control stations in the mouth regions of the largest rivers of the Russian Arctic (Severnaya Dvina, Pechora, Mezen, Ob, Yenisey, Khatanga, Indigirka). 26 samples were collected for this purposes in 2000. Samples for determination of 90-Sr in seawater were collected at relevant sites in the Barents Sea and White Sea.

Sources Radioactivity Discharges Pollution sources Radionuclides Emissions Exposure
226. Terrestrial monitoring programme. Studies in vegetation ecology of boreal birch forests in Børgefjell National Park, N Norway

In 1990, the Directorate for Nature Management (DN) established an area for integrated monitoring within Børgefjell National Park, Røyrvik, N Trøndelag. Studies of vegetation-environment relationships in the area was performed by NINA. The area includes both subalpine birch forest and low alpine heath. The new established vegetation investigation included all together 80 different species. This material was processed numerically by using multivariate methods. Indirect gradient analyses were performed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Local Nonmetric Multidimentional Scaling (LNMDS). Direct gradient analyses were performed by using rescaled hybrid Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Non-parametric correlation analyses, Kendall’s , were performed between environmental parameters and DCA axis values. The results of the numerical and statistical processing were used partly to provide a description of the vegetational structure in the material and partly to quantify how much each ecological parameters contributed to determination of vegetational structure. This work shows the species distribution along various complex gradients; moisture, nutrient conditions, light etc. The investigation is primarily designed to study vegetation dynamics along these gradients and whether changes in the number of species can be related to changes in physical, biotic and, not least, chemical parameters. Variance analysis was performed to assess to what extent the sample plots tends move in a determined direction from 1990 to 1995. The variation between the years were not significant along the primary complex gradients, but there were a significant displacement of species along the following gradients. The most important species were: Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Melampyrum sylvaticum and Hylocomium splendens), which showed an increase and some cryptogams like Brachythecium reflexum, B. salebrosum and Cladonia ecmocyna which declined.

Biological effects Biology Populations Soils Mapping Heavy metals Long-range transport Acidification Spatial trends Environmental management Climate change Forest damage Modelling Emissions Exposure Biodiversity Local pollution GIS Data management Temporal trends Ecosystems
227. Monitoring terrestrial ecosystems: Ecological investigation of vegetation in the boreal birch forest of Dividalen National park, county Troms, Norway.

In 1993, the Directorate for Nature Management (DN) established a new area for the monitoring of terrestrial ecosystems in Dividalen National Park in Troms County. This report presents the reanalysis of vegetation and soil from this terrestrial monitoring area. The area in Dividalen is located in the northern boreal birch forest, in a relatively continental section where the dominant type of vegetation is bilberry-mountain crowberry birch forest (A4c). The structure of the vegetation is analysed by multivariate methods (ordination). In Dividalen all together 131 species were found; 75 vascular plants, 18 mosses, 14 liverworts and 24 lichens. This is a decrease from the number of species recorded in 1993 when 141 species were found in the same mesoplots: 74 vascular plants, 24 mosses, 18 liverworts and 25 lichens. The decrease was not significant for the total number of species or for the total number of vascular plants. However the total number of cryptogames showed a slight significant decrease in number between 1993 and 1998. This may be due to increased cover of several ericoid species. In Dividalen we found no significant changes in vegetation composition for the periode 1993 – 1998 along the first four ordination axes. However, there were changes in mesoplots with high DCA1 values. The changes were in the direction towards lower species richness. Species like Myosotis decumbens, Poa alpina, Solidago virgaurea, Cerastium fontanum and Rumex acetosa ssp. lapponicus showed the largest decrease in these mesoplots. Species that showed the largest increase were Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Mnium spinosum and Polytrichum juniperinum. We have found no relations between these changes and acidification due to deposition of pollutans. Lack of disturbance factors in the area in the last years, which favours an increase in ericoid vegetation, is the probable explanation for the changes.

Biological effects Populations Long-range transport Acidification Spatial trends Environmental management Climate change Forest damage Biodiversity GIS Temporal trends Ecosystems
228. Ellasjøen, Bear Island - A mass balance study of a highly contaminated Arctic area

In 1994, analyses of sediments and fish from Lake Ellasjøen on Bear Island revealed a surprising scenario. The analytical results indicated some of the highest values of the contaminants PCB and DDT in freshwater sediments and fish ever found in the Arctic. The 1994 results were based on limited amounts of samples. During 1996 and 1997 there were carried out new sampling and analyses of several samples. These results verify the results found in 1994. Since the POP-patterns found deviate considerably from the typical patterns expected for local contamination, no local source can be assumed to be responsible for the high POP values found. Thus, the questions that need to be addressed include the source of these contaminants, the transport pathways that deliver these contaminants to this site, total deposition and finally contaminant fate including biological uptake and effects. Previous investigations from the early 80’s on high volume air samples carried out at Bear Island revealed several long-range transport episodes from Eastern Europe. The overall objective of this project is to contribute significant new information to the understanding of contaminant pathways in the Arctic hydrosphere and to provide a better understanding of contaminant focusing in a sensitive polar environment. This will be accomplished through the development of a comprehensive mass balance study of the atmospheric loadings of PCBs and other contaminants to the Lake Ellasjøen watershed to determine the seasonal importance of atmospheric deposition on a remote polar island. Further, effort will be directed at assessing the relative importance of various source regions of contaminants to the island through an evaluation of contaminant signatures and back trajectories of pollution events.

Pathways Organochlorines PCBs Long-range transport Pollution sources Contaminant transport Modelling Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Pesticides Atmosphere
229. Atmospheric mercury at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

To see whether the features in the annual cycle of mercury is a local phenomena for Alert in the Canadian Arctic or also apply to larger ares in the Arctic. To quantify the concentrations/depositions of biological available mercury (reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury) in the Arctic environment during polar sunrise

Atmospheric processes Mercury Heavy metals Arctic Atmosphere
230. Global Emission Inventory for Hg

Our knowledge of mercury fluxes on a global scale is still incomplete. Estimates indicate that Europe and North America contribute less than about 25 % to the global anthropogenic emissions of the element to the atmosphere. The majority of the remaining emissions originate from combustion of fossil fuels, particularly in the Asian countries including China, India, and South and North Korea. Even less and very controversial information is available on emissions of mercury from natural sources, including volatilization of the element from terrestrial and aquatic surfaces. In general, it is assumed that natural emissions of the element are about 3000 t/year, thus contributing more 60 % to the total global emissions of mercury. However, much work needs to be done in order to verify the above estimate.

anthropogenic sources Sources mercury Emissions Arctic
231. Monitoring Heavy Metals and Organic Pollutants in Air at Svalbard

To monitor concentrations of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in air in the Arctic.

Ny-Ålesund Heavy metals Arctic air Long-range transport HM POP Svalbard Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Zeppelinfjell Atmosphere
232. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in the Arctic environment

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent and lipophilic compounds used as flame retardants in electronic equipment, plastic material and synthetic fibbers among other things. The PBDEs are mainly used as Deca-BDE and Bromokal 70-5DE, a mixture of tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDE. Due to its chemical and physical properties PBDEs, especially TeBDEs, tend to bioaccumulate. PBDEs were first reported in sediments in USA, and in fish from a Swedish river. More recently PBDEs have also been reported in seals, birds, mussels, whales and humans. In this study an SFE-method for rapid analysis of PBDEs in marine mammals was developed. This method was used to determinate the concentrations of these environmental pollutants in Pilot Whale samples caught in the Faroe Islands, Beluga Whales from the Arctic and Polar Bears from Svalbard. Using this method several PBDEs were analysed in the different species. In addition methoxylated PBDEs (Me-O-PBDE) were identified by interpretation of the different mass spectra’s. Of the 209 theoretical possible congeners only a few PBDE seem to accumulate in the environment. Accumulation of PBDE is related to the different chemical properties of the molecule. With the help of multivariate characterisation of a compound class using semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, literature data and actual experimental measurements, the behaviour of PBDE in the environment can be modelled and predicted. Such models are essential in order to gain more insight in the behaviour of PBDE in the environment.

SFE extraction Long-range transport Brominated flame retardants Contaminant transport PBDE Supercritical fluid Terrestrial mammals Polybrominated diphenyl ethers Polar bear Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Sediments Reproduction Marine mammals
233. Temporal assessment of Arctic pollution of mercury and persistent organic pollutants using lake sediments

The general objective is to assess time trends and deposition loads of mercury and persistent organic pollutants from long-range atmospheric transport in Arctic environments (Greenland and north Swedish mountains) using lake sediments. The specific aims are: 1. Mercury - Study pre-industrial and industrial temporal changes in Hg concentrations in sediment records of remote lakes in Greenland and north Swedish mountains. - Address the hypothesis of 'cold condensation' (the progressive re-volatilization in relatively warm locations and subsequent condensation and deposition in cooler environments) of mercury, using a series of lake sediment cores along climate gradients: in Greenland from the inland ice sheet towards the coast and in the Swedish mountains from high altitudes down to the boreal forest. 2. POPs - Make a screening to establish which persistent organic pollutants are present in recent lake sediments in remote sites in Greenland and the north Swedish mountains. Besides PCBs, HCH, DDT and other pesticides, there are new environmental threats such as brominated flame retardants, such as PDBEs, which are of particular interest. The increasing use of PBDE and other brominated compounds may lead to increasing concentrations in the Arctic environment. However, very little is known about the levels of PBDEs as well as other POPs in sediments from the Arctic. - Analyse test series of selected POPs using a lake sediment core to assess temporal trends and a number of surface sediment samples from different lakes to assess spatial variability in concentrations and cumulative fluxes of POPs in Greenland and Swedish mountain lakes. - The main purpose of this pilot study of POPs is to determine the concentrations of selected POPs in sediments from Greenland and the northern Swedish mountains and to assess how useful lake sediments are for studying temporal and spatial pollution loads of POPs in Arctic environments.

Heavy metals Long-range transport Spatial trends Pollution sources Contaminant transport Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Geochemistry Temporal trends
234. Polar Exchange at the Sea Surface (POLES)

Our broad area of enquiry is the role of polar regions in the global energy and water cycles, and the atmospheric, oceanic and sea ice processes that determine that role. The primary importance of our investigation is to show how these polar processes relate to global climate.

Atmospheric processes polar cloud dynamics ice dynamics surface radiation and cloud forcing Climate variability Climate Sea ice Climate change surface heat and mass balance polar atmospheric processes ice-ocean models arctic climate Modelling Ice Oceanography Arctic SEARCH Atmosphere Ocean currents cryosphere ice thickness
235. The Role of Polar Oceans in Contemporary Climate Change

Our central geophysical objective is to determine how sea ice and the polar oceans respond to and influence the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere. Our primary technical objective is to determine how best to incorporate satellite measurements in an ice/ocean model.

Atmospheric processes ice dynamics mass balance of Arctic sea ice Geophysics Climate variability Climate Sea ice Climate change freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean polar atmospheric processes ice-ocean models arctic climate Modelling Ice Oceanography Arctic SEARCH Atmosphere Ocean currents ice thickness
236. Ultraviolet (UV) Monitoring in the Alaskan Arctic

High levels of ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation (280 to 320 nm wavelength) have been shown to be responsible for biologically harmful effects in both plants and animals. Atmospheric gases and suspended particulate matter (aerosols) absorb UV-B, the most important of which is stratospheric ozone. Because ozone in the stratosphere absorbs energy in the UV-B portion of the solar spectrum, any changes in the total amount of ozone affects the levels of UV-B reaching the ground. The potential for excessive stratospheric ozone loss in the Arctic makes the monitoring of actual variations in the billogically sensitive regions of the UV spectrum particularly important, especially since the Arctic supports a significant human population. In 1997 and 1998, with support from a new NOAA Arctic Research Initiative, NOAA deployed portable, ground-based UV instruments at three sites in Alaska: the CMDL Observatory in Barrow and the National Weather Service facilities in Nome and on St. Paul Island. Over the past decade, there has been a significant downward trend in Arctic ozone levels. Current predictions for future Arctic ozone levels indicate continued depletion for at least ten years and a very slow and possibly incomplete recovery. The observed changes in ozone in the Arctic have been accompanied by increased UV radiation, primarily in the spring. The potential for continued stratospheric ozone loss in the Arctic makes the monitoring of biologically damaging UV particularly important, since the Arctic is home to a human population and supports a variety of aquatic and terrestrial species.

237. Shelf Basin Interactions Program

To understand and model the processes by which Arctic deep water is formed on continental shelves by the modification of inflowing Atlantic and Pacific waters.

Shelf seas Hydrography Modelling Ice Oceanography Arctic SEARCH Data management Atmosphere Ocean currents
238. Polar Ice Prediction System Version 3.0 (PIPS 3)

To develop the next-generation Navy operational ice thickness and movement model.

Shelf seas Hydrography Modelling Ice Oceanography Arctic SEARCH Data management Atmosphere Ocean currents
239. International Arctic Buoy Program

To regularly deploy buoys in the Arctic to measure atmospheric temperature and pressure at various drifting sites.

Atmospheric processes Climate Arctic SEARCH Atmosphere
240. An investigation of factors affecting high mercury concentrations in predatory fish in the Mackenzie River Basin.

1. Continue to investigate spatial and temporal patterns in mercury concentrations in fish in lakes in the Mackenzie River Basin with a focus on predatory fish in smaller lakes near Fort Simpson but also including Great Bear Lake 2. Assess temporal trends in mercury concentrations and influencing factors, e.g., climate change 3. Conduct sediment core studies as opportunities allow to characterize long-term trends in mercury deposition and productivity 4. Integrate the findings of this study with our mercury trend monitoring in Great Slave Lake and the western provinces.

Pathways Sources Biology Organochlorines Mackenzie River Basin Soils Catchment studies Mercury Heavy metals Fish Indigenous people Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Food webs Sediments Atmosphere Human health Ecosystems