The full list of projects contains the entire database hosted on this portal, across the available directories. The projects and activities (across all directories/catalogs) are also available by country of origin, by geographical region, or by directory.
-Quantify changes in ice dynamics and characteristics resulting from the switch in AO phase -Establish a climate record for the region north of Greenland through the retrieval and analysis of sediment cores -Improve an existing dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model, focusing on the heavily deformed ice common in the region -Relate the region-specific changes which have occurred to the larger-scale Arctic variablity pattern -Place the recent ice and climate variability for this critical region into the context of long term climate record, as reconstructed from sediment cores
EARLINET will establish a quantitative comprehensive statistical database of the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. The goal is to provide aerosol data with unbiased sampling, for important selected processes, and air-mass history, together with comprehensive analyses of these data. The objectives will be reached by implementing a network of 21 stations distributed over most of Europe, using advanced quantitative laser remote sensing to directly measure the vertical distribution of aerosols, supported by a suite of more conventional observations. Special care will be taken to assure data quality, including intercomparisons at instrument and evaluation levels. A major part of the measurements will be performed according to a fixed schedule to provide an unbiased statistically significant data set. Additional measurements will be performed to specifically address important processes that are localised either in space or time. Back-trajectories derived from operational weather prediction models will be used to characterise the history of the observed air parcels, accounting explicitly for the vertical distribution.
SOGE is an integrated system for observation of halogenated greenhouse gases in Europe. There are two objectives: (1) To develop a new cost-effective long-term European observation system for halocarbons. The results will be in support of the Kyoto and the Montreal protocols,in assessing the compliance of European regions with the protocol requirements. In particular the observation system will be set up to: - detect trends in the concentrations of greenhouse active and ozone-destroying halocarbons; - verify reported emissions and validate emission inventories; - develop observational capacity for all halocarbons included in the Kyoto protocol (PFC, SF6) for which this is presently not yet existing; - develop a strategy for a cost-effective long-term observation system for halocarbons in Europe. (2) To predict and assess impacts of the halocarbons on the climate and on the ozone layer. This implies extensive exploitation of existing data. The impact assessment will be aimed at providing guidance for development of the Kyoto protocol and to the further development of the Montreal protocol mendments, by: - modelling impacts of halocarbons on radiative forcing and their relative importance for climate change; - modelling impacts of emissions of CFCs and HCFCs on the ozone layer.
The aim of QUILT is to optimise the exploitation of the existing European UV-visible monitoring systems by which O3 and the related free radicals NO2, BrO and OClO can be measured. These monitoring systems include ground-based, balloon and satellite observations. QUILT is providing an assessment of the chemical ozone loss over the last decade and through 2000-2003. This is achieved through analysis improvements, consolidation of existing datasets and near real time integrations with chemical transport models.
The goals of this experiment are to map out the chemical changes in the free troposphere as the atmosphere transitions from winter to spring. It is hoped to begin to understand the chemical conditions that influence the lifetime of ozone and understand more about the productivity of this region of the atmosphere with respect to the in-situ production of ozone. How the free troposphere responds to changing levels of pollution could be critical to the development of future abatement strategies.
The overall objective of COSE is to provide the Earth Observation (EO) user community with a validated, consistent and well-documented data set of mainly stratospheric constituent columns and/or profiles, by co-ordination of ground-based observations at existing stations in Europe. The data set builds on past and ongoing time series, and will be archived in a dedicated database for immediate and future exploitation, e.g., satellite validation activities, data assimilation and scientific studies. Active participation of some representative EO customers will assure that the delivered data sets come up to their requirements.
The main specific objectives of UFTIR are: (1) To revise and homogenise the analyses of available experimental data for providing consistent time series of distinct tropospheric and stratospheric abundances of the target gases using new inversion algorithms. A common strategy for retrieval and characterisation of the vertical distributions of the target gases from FTIR ground-based measurements will be established. (2) To provide quantitative trends and associated uncertainties for the target gases over about the last decade, as a function of latitude throughout Western Europe, focusing on the troposphere. (3) To integrate the data in model assessments of the evolutions of tropospheric abundances. The measured burden and changes of the tropospheric gases will be compared with 3D model simulations, in order to help developing the latter, assist in explaining potential causes for the observed changes and to assess the consistencies between the trends at the surface to the free troposphere and lowermost stratosphere, and the agreement with known evolutions of emissions. UFTIR will make the community prepared to deliver tropospheric data for validation and synergistic exploitation of new satellite experiments like ENVISAT.
The effects of climate change in a dynamic competitive interaction between two or more species can be bought about either as direct responses of species to change or indirectly through effects on competing species. Intertidal barnacles are ideal model organisms to test these alternative causal mechanisms, being easily censussed and directly competing for space. Single- and multi- species models will be developed for barnacles in SW England to determine whether direct or indirect mechanisms better predict responses to change. The models will include functions for space-limitation, environmental influence and, in the latter models, functions for interspecific competition. Historical data from a network of sites collected over a 40-year period will be used to develop and test the models.
Objective: to collect climatology information on the seasonal and year-to-tear variability of stratospheric CFCs, water vapour and atmospheric electrical parameters.
The atmosphere carries a continuous electric current and , even during fair weather, there is a strong electrostatic electric field, up to 200 volts per meter, close to the ground. This electric current is thought to be due to the accumulated effect of thousands of thunderstorms, mostly in the tropical regions of the Earth. These storms feed a current from the ground up to the ionosphere, a highly conducting layer in the atmosphere which lies above about 70 km altitude. The current spreads out around the globe through this layer and returns to Earth through the atmosphere as the 'fair weather current' outside the thunderstorm areas. Objective: Investigation of the part of the Earths global electrical circuit: fair weather current and its interaction with geomagnetic phenomena, such as, for example, a magnetic substorms. We use the data of the air-earth current measured by a long wire antenna installed in Kiruna/Esrange, Sweden. In July 1999 we have installed a new portable antenna at a distance of about 30 km from the old one. This antenna has a length of nearly 50 m, and we are recording the near ground vertical current with a time resolution of 10 seconds. The data from both instruments will be analysed together - for comparison and possible separation of the meteorological effects.
Objective: to determine how solar activity influences temperatures, winds, electric currents and minor constituents and to allow possible anthropogenic influences to be determined. Uses primarily measurements by the ESRAD and EISCAT radars, plus ground-based and balloon-borne measurements of atmospheric electric fields and currents.
The focus of this project is the improvement of water vapour measurement techniques in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Routine measurements of water vapour with high accuracy in these altitudes are an unsolved problem of meteorological measurements up to now. Water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas in the earth's atmosphere. Recent model calculations show that observed water vapour increases in the stratosphere contribute significantly both to surface warming and stratospheric cooling. In addition to climate change both the direct chemical and indirect radiative effects of stratospheric water changes in ozone chemistry are important as well. Despite of many activities in the past ten years, accuracies of the available methods for measuring the water vapour vertical profile in the free atmosphere are still not sufficient. Therefore one of the aims of the forthcoming EU COST Action 723 "The Role of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere in Global change", is to improve sounding and remote sensing techniques of water vapour (see http://www.sat.uni-bremen.de/cost/). Another example of the planned work focusing on water vapour is proposed GEWEX (Global Energy an Water Cycle Experiment) Water Vapour Project (GVaP). See [SPARC 2000] and the references therein. The idea of LAUTLOS-WAVVAP comparison/validation experiment which brings together lightweight hygrometers developed in different research groups, which could be used as research-type radiosondes in UTLS region. These include the following instruments: Meteolabor Snow White hygrometer, NOAA frostpoint hygrometer, CAO Flash Lyman alpha hygrometer, Lindenberg FN sonde (a modification of Vaisala radiosonde) and the latest version of regular Vaisala radiosonde with humicap-polymer sensor. The experimental plan of LAUTLOS-WAVVAP is based on the regular launches of multi-sensor payloads from the Sodankylä meteorological balloon launch facility in January -February 2004. The aim is to study the effect of atmospheric conditions such as ambient temperature, water vapour or relative humidity, pressure or solar radiation for each participating hygrometer/radiosonde. Both night and daytime launches are planned. Apart from the intercomparison/validation experiment the campaign also have an scientific aim of studying the stratospheric PSC occurrence and their dependence on local temperature and the water vapour content. The campaign will be hosted by FMI Arctic Research Centre Sodankylä assisted by Vaisala Oyj and is a part of planned Finnish contribution to Cost 723 project. The campaign in Sodankylä is partly funded from LAPBIAT Facility, which belong to the EU program: Access to Research Infrastructures (see: http://www.sgo.fi/lapbiat/). References: SPARC Assessment of Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Water Vapor/SPARC Report No2/ December 2000
documentation and monitoring of the aerosol content of a mountain valley atmosphere and its diurnal changes
Polar stratospheric clouds play a key-role in polar ozone destruction. Cold temperatures in the vortex allow formation of these clouds. Depending on the PSC-type different formation-temperatures have to be reached. Synoptic temperatures do not always fall to these formation-temperatures, but waves in the atmosphere can lead to additional cooling of several 10 K, which allows PSC-formation. Whereas the wave-activity at the ESRANGE is very high due to hilly surrounding area, the orographic wave-activity at ALOMAR is expected to be rather small. Waves with long wavelengths will be present at both stations simultaneously. Coordinated measurements of temperature and aerosols will show both the large-scale wave-part and also the locally induced wave-part. Such measurements should allow identification of the different wavelngth scales and in addition contribute to a better estimate of the importance of wave-induced clouds for PSC-formation.
In december 2001 the SAGE III experiment was successfully launched. The NASA science team of the SAGE III experiment has announced the Koldewey-Station in Ny-Aalesund as "anchor site" for validation, especially for such parameters as optical depth, aerosol extinction profiles and ozone profiles. Because of time coincidence NASA apprechiates support for the prospected validation activities for ENVISAT. This should be also considered as contribution to the NASA accepted project "Ground based Validation of SAGE III by the NDSC Primary Station at Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen" for SOLVE-2.
Study of the energy exchange between atmosphere, sea ice and ocean during freezing and melting conditions; within that, measurements of solar radiation (visible and UV) and optical properties, snow and sea ice characteristics, vertical heat and salt fluxes, oceanographic parameters.
Changes in surface reflection at the arctic tundra at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79 N) were monitored during the melting season 2002 using a low cost multispectral digital camera with spectral channels similar to channels 2, 3, and 4 of the Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite sensor. The camera was placed 474 m above sea level at the Zeppelin Mountain Research Station and was programmed to take an image automatically every day at solar noon. To achieve areal consistency in the images (which is necessary for mapping purposes) the images were geometrically rectified into multispectral digital orthophotos. In contrast to satellite images with high spatial resolution the orthophotos provide data with high spatial and high temporal resolution at low cost. The study area covers approximately 2 km2 and when free of snow, it mainly consists of typical high arctic tundra with patchy vegetation and bare soil in between. The spectral information in the images was used to divide the rectified images into maps representing different surface classes (including three subclasses of snow). By combining classified image data and ground measurements of surface reflectance, a model to produce daily maps of surface albedo was developed. The model takes into account that snow-albedo decreases as the snow pack ages; and that the albedo decreases very rapidly when the snow pack is shallow enough (20-30 cm) to let surface reflectance get influenced by the underlying ground. Maps representing days with no image data (due to bad weather conditions) were derived using interpolation between pixels with equal geographical coordinates. The time series of modeled albedo-maps shows that the time it takes for the albedo to get from 80% to bare ground levels varies from less than 10 days in areas near the coast or in the Ny-Ålesund settlement till more than 70 days in areas with large snow accumulations. For the entire study area the mean length of the 2002 melting period was 28.3 days with a standard deviation of 15.1 days. Finally, the duration of the snowmelt season at a location where it is measured routinely, was calculated to 23 days, which is very close to what is the average for the last two decades.
Monitoring of the active layer near Ny Ålesund as part of the international monitoring scheme CALM (Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring)
The objectives of this project is to study the effect of environmental stochasticity on the Svalbard reindeer population dynamics, nad further evaluate how this may affect reindeer-plant interactions.
ASTAR, Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol and Radiation is a a joint German (AWI Potsdam) - Japanese (NIPR Tokyo) campaign with participation from NASA LaRC Hampton, VA (USA). In addition to AWI, NIPR, and NASA LaRC the following institutions contributed to the project: Hokkaido University (Japan), Nagoya University (Japan), Norwegian Polar Institute Tromsoe/ Longyearbyen (Norway), NILU Kjeller (Norway), MISU Stockholm (Sweden), NOAA-CMDL Boulder, CO (USA) and Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany). The campaign is based on simultaneous airborne measurements from the German research aircraft POLAR 4 and ground-based measurements in Ny-Ålesund. The main goals of the project are - to measure aerosol parameters of climate relevance, like extinction coefficient, absoprtion coefficients and phase function. - to create an Arctic Aerosol Data Set for climate impact investigation by using the regional climate model HIRHAM. - to carry out comparison measurements with the SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) and the ground based Raman-Lidar.