Projects/Activities

The full list of projects contains the entire database hosted on this portal, across the available directories. The projects and activities (across all directories/catalogs) are also available by country of origin, by geographical region, or by directory.

Displaying: 141 - 160 of 418 Next
141. Geographical environment conditions and its changes in the polar and subpolar regions (GeograPOLARUMCSphical environment conditions and its changes in the polar and subpolar regions ())

The study includes comprehensive study of the geographical environment in the area of Polar Station of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Calypsobyen (NW part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Svalbard). Currently, studies have been carried out within research projects: - Dynamics of matter circulation in the polar catchment are a subject to deglaciation processes (Scottelva, Spitsbergen) (DYNACAT) - Morphogenetic and morphodynamics conditions of development of the coast of the NW part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Spitsbergen) in the late Vistulian and Holocene (MORCOAST) - Mechanisms of fluvial transport and sediment supply to Arctic river channels with various hydrological regimes (SW Spitsbergen) (ARCTFLUX)

Geology Soils Environmental management
142. Canadian Permafrost Monitoring Network, Canada’s Contribution to Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P Canada) (GTN-P Canada)

• collect field based measurements of permafrost thermal state and active layer thickness (Essential Climate Variables identified by WMO/GCOS) • disseminate information on permafrost thermal state and active layer thickness (increase public availability • document current permafrost conditions and changes in these conditions and conduct analysis to explain these changes • provide essential information on permafrost conditions for decision making in Canada’s north to ensure sustainable development and to develop strategies to adapt to climate change Main gaps: Large regional gaps still exists especially in central region between Mackenzie Valley and Hudson Bay There is also a lack of long-term funding to maintain network operation and ensure ongoing data collection. Network type: Thematic observations (permafrost thermal state and active layer thickness), consisting of several field sites (>150) throughout northern Canada (see recent GCOS ECV report for map). Most sites in remote areas Limited community based monitoring

Ecosystems
143. Dynamics of matter circulation in the polar catchment subject to the deglaciation processes (Scottelva, Spitsbergen) (DYNACAT)

The project aims at analysing dynamics of matter circulation in the polar catchment under the deglaciation processes and its effect on topoclimatic and microclimatic diversification of the area in question. Equally important are: 1) the dynamics of periglacial and 2) hydrological processes and changes in the local environment as an indicator of global climatic changes. The proposed project shall take into account the following: - general weather and climatic conditions and topoclimatic and microclimatic differentiation of selected sites; - albedo and solar radiation and their influence on the course of the processes; - changes in the circulation of water in space and time (precipitation-evaporation-outflow) as an effect of local and global processes; - analysis of processes that determine the amount of water entering the hydrological cycle including global climatic changes and characteristics of summer ablation in terms of meteorological conditions; - analysis of the factors which determine the occurrence and circulation of waters in the permafrost active layer and assessment of static and dynamic water resources in the active layer in meteorological and hydrogeological aspects; determination and quantitative analysis of the genetic structure of fluvial outflow; - water balance of selected catchments (glacial and periglacial ones) with diverse outflow alimentation sources.

Atmosphere
144. GlacioBasis Monitoring Programme (GlacioBasis)

to monitor the mass balance of A. P. Olsen Ice Cap (74.6° N, 21.5° W) and its outlet glacier discharging into the Zackenberg River drainage basin using in-situ observations with automatic weather stations (AWS), ablation stakes, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and satellite remote sensing data, combined with surface mass balance modelling. Network type: research project including in-situ monitoring, ground penetrating radar, remote sensing and modelling

145. National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark (DTU AQUA) (DTU-AQUA)

Fish stock assessment and fisheries management Cooperation with Greenland Institute of Natural Resources (GNI) on: i) stock assessment and fisheries management, survey planning and evaluation, ii) stock and fish community dynamics under climate change, iii) fish species interactions, iiii) Education of young scientist at GNI. Oceanography and climate change impact on marine ecosystems. Cooperation with GNI, Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) and Natural Environmental Research Institute (DMU) on: i) physical oceanography and climate forcing, ii) biological oceanography, iii) population genetics. The Internation Polar Year IPY) project ECOGREEN under leadership of DMU. Contribution to biological oceanography, e.g. survey of RV Dana (the research vessel of DTU-AQUA) to West Greenland in 2008 Main gaps: Continuous financial support - funding

Oceanography Ecosystems
146. National Environmental Research Institute

Main gaps: 1. We need funding for winter measurements allowing us to study ecosystem dynamics outside the growing season. Recent research has demonstrated that important components of ecosystem dynamics occur after the growing season (e.g. Post et al. 2009: Science 325, 1355-1358; Mastepanov et al. 2008: Nature 456, 628-630.). 2. We need funding for increased circum-arctic cooperation between monitoring sites to facilitate comparative studies of ecosystem dynamics in different compartments of the Arctic.

Research
147. Sea Ice

The Canadian Ice Service (CIS), a branch of the Meteorological Service of Canada, is the leading authority for information about ice in Canada’s navigable waters. CIS provides the most timely and accurate information about sea ice, lake ice, river ice and icebergs to: • Ensure the safety of both mariners and Canadians, their property and their environment through the provision of hazardous ice condition warnings • Provide present and future generations of Canadians with sufficient knowledge to support sound environmental policies In summer and fall data collection and analysis is focussed on the Arctic and the Hudson Bay regions with daily satellite acquisitions. In winter and spring, the data collection is focussed on the Great lakes, the St. Lawrence River and the Gulf of the St. Lawrence and the Newfoundland and Labrador coasts The following products are produced: • In situ briefings, warnings, daily ice charts, image analysis charts, regional charts, observed charts, short- and long-term forecasts and iceberg bulletins and charts; specialised ice information services for Other Government Departments and research communities • Oil spill monitoring; satellite image analysis for oil spill detection • Annual Ice Atlas • Archive of climatic ice information Main gaps: Satellite monitoring of Arctic sea ice is limited to: • Canadian waters, • Bi-Weekly acquisitions from January to March • Weekly acquisitions from April to May • Daily acquisitions of areas where shipping is active from June to November Network type: various: satellite data, observations from ships and aircraft. CIS acquires and analyses thousands of satellite images, conducts millions of square kilometres of airborne reconnaissance and receives hundreds of ship and shore ice reports annually.

Human health Oceanography
148. Hydrological and biochemical monitoring of Revdalen Valley (HREV) (HREV)

To collect hydrological and biochemical data in Horsund, Spitsbergen in the area of Revdalen Valley. Main gaps: Summer season data only, with gaps due to observer and equipment availability.

Atmosphere Ecosystems
149. Polish Seismological Network

Polish Seismological Network is to record and investigate on seismic events recorded by permanent Polish seismic stations. The seismic station at Hornsund is a Polish station despite its location outside Poland’s territory Network type: Geophysical observations

Geophysics
150. Permanent research base in the field of glaciology in Barentsburg (Spitsbergen).

1. Snow cover (Spitsbergen) - Study of multi-year changes in snowiness near Nordenskiöld Land - Study of impact of spring-summer snow melting on superimposed (infiltration) ice formation on glacier surface - Study of mechanical and thermophysical properties of snow cover in different Spitsbergen landscapes - Study of impact of snowiness and summer melting conditions on the STL conditions under modern climate change (by the example of multi-year measurements near Barentsburg) - Study of structure and dynamics of large and multi-year snowfields as indicators of current climate change in this region. Contact person: Nikolay Osokin (jsokinn@mail.ru), Ivan Lavrentiev 2. Spitsbergen glacier surge mechanism: - Studies on Grenfjord non-surging glacier Fridtjovbreen surging glacier. Methods: radiolocation, radiophysics, DGPS, mass balance. Contact person: Yury Macharet 3. Monitoring of Spitsbergen polythermal glaciers to assess long-period climate change. Objects of long-term monitoring of changes in geometry and hydrothermal structure of polythermal glaciers: Tavle, Aldegonga Contact person: Yury Macharet 4. Ice deposits on Spitsbergen - Obtaining of new data on glacier thickness and volume - Definition of correlation relationships - Contribution of glaciers to world ocean level Contact person: Andrey Glazovsky 5. Glacier mass balance on Nordenskiöld Land (Spitsbergen): - Aldegonga, Eastern Grenfjord, Tavle - Development of new methods of mass balance measurement: core and non-core drilling, DGPS, temperature survey. Contact person: Andrey Glazovsky 6. Remote sensing (RSD), (Novaya Zemlya, FJL) Development of GIS-base for glaciers on the Russian Arctic archipelagos for remote monitoring of their current state and changes. Assessment of iceberg discharge and ice caps. Observation of glacier dynamics. Contact person: Andrey Glazovsky Yury Macharet 7. Remote sensing and validation (if possible) in situ (Russian Subarctic mountains – Polar Urals, Byrranga, Putorana, Suntar-Khayata mountains, Chersky Range, Koryak Upland, Chukotka) Executors: M. Ivanov, G.A. Nosenko, M.D. Ananicheva, G.A. Kapustin et al (RAS IO), gnosenko@mail.ru, maria_anan@rambler.ru, gregrus@mail.ru, V.A. Sarana, MSU, Research Laboratory “North’s Ecology”, Network type: Data are given for Barentsburg station - atmosphere (RAS PGI, Murmansk) - coastal ecosystem, including freshwater (yes/no) - marine ecosystem: Biological center on Spitsbergen. MMBI, Murmansk (http://www.mmbi.info) Integrated study on Spitsbergen has been carried out since 1994 in the biological center within the framework of MMBI’s International Environmental Laboratory. The main areas of scientific activities on Spitsbergen are as follows: acquisition of comparative data on biodiversity of flora and fauna and marine ecosystems on the north part of the Gulf Stream western branch; development of the model of the impact of melting (fresh) waters on the marine ecosystem in glacier bays of different types on western Spitsbergen; monitoring of Arctic ecosystems evolution and other natural phenomena. - ocean AARI, Saint Petersburg (http://www.aari.ru/main.php?lg=1) - cryosphere: periodic observations of snow cover and glaciers and seasonally melting layer of permafrost formation on Spitsbergen. Remote observations of Novaya Zemlya and FJL glaciers. - human factor anf socio-economic indicators (http://igras.ru/index.php?r=17&id=12) - space physics - (http://www.kolasc.net.ru/pgi_r/)

Ecosystems Oceanography Sea ice
151. National Glacier-Climate Observing System – State and Evolution of Canada's Glaciers (SECG) (SECG)

The State and Evolution of Canada's Glaciers initiative provides information and data products produced by the Federal Government's National Glacier-Climate Observing System (monitoring, assessment and data portal) and related freshwater vulnerability research in western and northern Canada. The Glacier-Climate Observing System is delivered through an integrated monitoring and research collaborative comprised of Natural Resources Canada-Geological Survey of Canada (lead agency), Geomatics Canada-Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Environment Canada-National Water Research Institute and Water Survey of Canada, Parks Canada Agency, C-CORE Polar View, and academic partners that include the universities of British Columbia, Northern British Columbia, Alberta, Calgary, Lethbridge, Saskatchewan, Regina, Toronto, Brock, Trent and Ottawa, and related academic initiatives such as the Cold Water Collaborative and those supported by the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Science. SECG is a contribution to the NRCan Earth Sciences Sector - Climate Change Geoscience Program. With this data research is conducted on the relationship between climate, glacier fluctuations and their impacts on freshwater systems (e.g., river flow, cold stream ecology, groundwater recharge, flow to oceans). The development of improved remote sensing tools is also a major research thrust. With the support of the Canadian Space Agency, European Space Agency, the Canadian Consortium for Lidar Environmental Applications Research (C-CLEAR), and the NASA - Wallops Flight Facility, new tools and a systematic approach are increasingly brought to bear to understand more completely and with reduced uncertainty the magnitude, causality and impacts of Canada's changing glaciers. System outputs are used to a) inform national and international climate change programs and process; b) improve knowledge regarding the nature and locations of historical, current, and potential future impacts of climate change, c) assist Canadians in understanding and adapting to climate change impacts on natural resources at a regional and national scale. The System also provides leadership and co-ordination of Canada's contribution to World Meteorological Organization’s Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) and its Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G), the contribution of Essential Climate Variables for GEO/GEOSS, and providing such as Official Communications to the Parties of the Convention UNFCCC. Main gaps: Regional representativeness has been improving with the re-establishment of former sites or the establishment of new sites. Contributions to thematic needs such as water resources, flow to oceans and sea-level change will require improved co-ordination with hydrometric and other monitoring entities. Which Network type: - Thematical observations: yes - Field stations: yes, 20 reference observing sites - Community based observations: some in development (Grise Fjord) - Coordination: SECG guides and co-ordinates observations conducted by partners; SECG co-ordinates reporting for Canada (e.g., GCOS-GTN-G, WGMS)

Ecosystems
152. Arctic Oceanographic Observations

Observations of the Arctic Ocean have been made since the 1800s at varying levels of intensity. The objective is to gain a better understanding of the physical and chemical composition of Arctic waters, the circulation of the waters within the Arctic Ocean, and flows into and out of the Arctic Ocean. Physical observations are conducted on properties of the water column including ocean temperature, sea surface temperature, salinity, pH, carbon, changes in ice coverage and extent, hydrographic measurements, nutrients, etc. Surface drifters either embedded in the ice, or (lately) able to float and operate in ice infested waters, provide measurements of a limited number of surface ocean and meteorological variables. . Additional observations are obtained on ocean currents, waves and tides. Biological observations are captured within a separate inventory item titled “Arctic Marine Biodiversity Monitoring”. Recently, a focus has been on increasing understanding of the impacts of climate change on Arctic waters (e.g., increasing temperature, decreasing pH, decreasing salinity, changing ice conditions, etc.). Data is gathered by ship with in situ measurements, deployment of moorings and buoys, helicopters (e.g. for ice measurements), and satellites (e.g. sea surface temperature). Main gaps: Large geographic areas of the Arctic are not covered regularly. Network type: - Thematical observations: of all oceanographic parameters - Field stations: Research ships and ice breakers of the Canadian Coast Guard; other ships of opportunity as available; moorings and buoys - Community based observations: - Coordination: National coordination of the program provided within Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and the National Centre for Arctic Aquatic Research Excellence (NCAARE)

Atmosphere Oceanography
153. Monitoring and modelling of a glaciated terrestrial ecosystem and land ocean fluxes to the adjacent fjord system (Sermilik Station, East Greenland)

Monitoring and modelling of a glaciated terrestrial ecosystem and land ocean fluxes to the adjacent fjord system. Main gaps: - Basic funding for long-term monitoring - Basic funding for data and data base handling A few short gaps due to sensor failures

Atmosphere Ecosystems
154. Screening of potential new hazardous substances in Norway

The aim of the programme is to obtain a snapshot of the occurrence of potentially hazardous substances in the environment, both in regions most likely to be polluted as well as in some very pristine environments. The focus is on little known , anthropogenic substances and their derivates, which are either used in high volumes or are likely to be persistent and hazardous to humans and other organisms. If substances being screened are found in significant amounts this may result in further investigations or monitoring on national level. The results from the screening can be used when analysing possible environmental effects of the selected substances, and to assess whether they pose a risk to the environment or not. The data are used as input to EU chemical eavluation processes and to the UN Stockholm convention. The screening results are valuable when data on chemicals are needed within the REACH-system in Europe. Locations: Varying, according to properties of the substances. Samples from both hot-spot and remote sites are included. Geographical coverage (countries): Norway, including Bear Island and Spitsbergen and Norwegian seas. The Nordic countries are cooperating on screening information exchange and studies, see net site and brochure: http://nordicscreening.org/ http://nordicscreening.org/index.php?module=Pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=10&pid=1

Atmosphere Human health
155. Radioactivity in the Marine Environment (RAME) and Monitoring of terrestrial and freshwater systems (RAME)

- To document levels and trends of radioactivity in the environment - Basis for reports to international organisations (mainly OSPAR) - Inform authorities, media and the public in general about status of radioactive contamination

Hydrography Oceanography Ecosystems
156. Coordinated Environmental Monitoring Programme (CEMP) (CEMP)

To assess the effects, levels and trends of hazardous substances in marine sediment and biota. The indicator organisms include blue mussel, dogwhelk, cod and plaice. The monitoring sites are mostly coastal and the frequency of sampling is mostly annually for biota and every 10-15 years for sediment. Main gaps: Protected areas and offshore monitoring are generally not included under the CEMP but offshore monitoring is somewhat covered by. IMR/NIFES programmes. Not all substances under EU’s Water Frame Work Directive and Marine Strategy Directive are monitored regularly. Biological effects monitoring is lacking except for IMPOSEX investigations.

157. NASA Ice monitoring

NASA satellites (Figure 13) and numerous instruments provide high accuracy, stable, circum-Arctic measurements for ocean and sea ice observing, including surface vector winds over the ice-free ocean, sea surface temperature, marine phytoplankton and sea ice temperature. The NASA satellites and ocean and sea ice data sets include: 1. Passive microwave time series of sea ice extent begin in 1978 and are archived at NSIDC. 2. The major Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) time series is from the Canadian RADARSAT satellite launched in 1995. RADARSAT data of the Arctic Ocean are processed by the RGPS (RADARSAT Geophysical Processing System, yielding high-resolution charts of ice motion, age/thickness and deformation. All RGPS data are archived at the NASA-supported Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), University of Alaska Fairbanks. 3. GRACE is a joint NASA/German mission that measures the changes in gravity associated with the changing mass of the ocean, land, and ice sheets. In experimental measurements, GRACE has measured the changes of mass associated with the shift of ocean currents in the Arctic Ocean. 4. The ICESat satellite is in a high latitude orbit (86°N) and can determine the free surface height of the Arctic Ocean up to that latitude. These laser measurements can be used to determine the geostrophic flow. ICESat also measures the height of the snow/air interface of the sea ice, which can be used to estimate sea ice thickness when combined with other data, e.g., snowfall and ice motion, or radar altimeter measurements of the sea ice freeboard. 5. Sea surface temperature (SST) and ice surface temperature (IST) are measured by NASA with the MODIS instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites. The AMSR-E instrument on Aqua measures all-weather sea surface temperature. The follow-on instrument to MODIS is the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), scheduled for launch in 2010 on NPP (NPOESS Preparatory Project). The NPP follow-on satellite is the NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite System) series beginning in 2013. 6. Satellite-derived ocean color is used in combina-tion with environmental data to provide primary productivity. NASA currently provides ocean color from observations taken by the MODIS instrument on Aqua. Under present plans, the MODIS replacement is VIIRS on the NPP and NPOESS satellites. Because VIIRS on NPP is not expected to yield the same high quality of ocean color measurements as MODIS, there may be a gap in the high accuracy of these measurements.

Sea ice Oceanography
158. NOAA + NASA remote sensing of climate variables (NOAA + NASA remote sensing)

Both NOAA and NASA operate satellites with cover¬age of the Arctic region. The major observations and products are: 1. Daily, near real-time plots of surface, cloud, and radiative properties from AVHRR; 2. Near real-time MODIS and AVHRR polar winds; 3. Daily, near real-time plots of clear sky, low-level temperature inversions from MODIS; 4. Daily profile plots of Arctic temperature, humid-ity and winds; 5. Near-daily plots of surface winds over open water; and 6. Surface temperatures for land, sea and sea ice.

Climate Sea ice Atmosphere
159. NPS Aerosols

NPS monitors aerosols at Denali National Park and Preserve (DNPP) to calculate and track visibility trends (1988 to present). The aerosol program is part of the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network. Wet deposi¬tion has been monitored at DNPP (Site ID AK03) since 1980 as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). In order to estimate dry deposition at DNPP (Site DEN417), weekly concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen compounds have been measured since 1998 as part of the Clean Air Status and Trends Networks (CASTNet). UV-B radiation has been monitored at DNPP since 1997 as part of the EPA UV-B Monitoring Program. The NPS Western Air¬borne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is currently evaluating water, snow, sediments, willow bark, fish, and moose tissue in a number of western US and Alaska national parks, including DNPP, for the presence of metals (including mercury) and organic compounds.

Pollution sources
160. Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net)

NASA and NSF support the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net), a series of automatic weather stations that monitor conditions on the ice sheet.

Atmosphere