Projects/Activities

The full list of projects contains the entire database hosted on this portal, across the available directories. The projects and activities (across all directories/catalogs) are also available by country of origin, by geographical region, or by directory.

Displaying: 141 - 160 of 291 Next
141. Behavioural responses of the nordic krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica) to light

To examine the effect of light intensity on swimming activity in Krill.

Biology
142. Tundra Vegetation Composition And Change Over The Past Five Hundred Years.

Please contact Dr Jelte Rozema.

Biology
143. Ciliary upstream-collecting in marine filter-feeding invertebrates

The main objective was to study the basic mechanism of ciliary upstream-collecting on a selected marine invertebrate.

Biology
144. Variation in primary sex characters in goldsinny and corkwing wrasse in relation to variation in mating system

Variation in primary sex characters of wrasse in relation to reproduction strategy and environmental conditions:

Biology
145. Estimating The Contribution Of Deposition Of Ammonia To Bryophytes Utilising The 15N/14N Ratio In Arctic Bryophytes.

Mosses and lichens are important components of arctic ecosystems as well as being an internationally important component of the biodiversity of the British Isles and Scandinavia. They are typically associated with nutrient poor ecosystems and are often eliminated with increased supplies of nitrogen. This study is part of a programme examining the impact of elevated nitrogen in nutrient poor ecosystems on mosses and lichens. This particular study will examine the contribution of airborne nitrogen in the form of ammonia to the growth of mosses in the arctic tundra in Kongsfjord. Breeding colonies of seabirds deposit large quantities of guano, which can be major sources of nitrogen as well as heavy metals (Headley 19xx) and other contaminants in the marine ecosystems. The nitrogen in fish and other organisms high up in the marine food chains have higher concentrations of the heavier stable isotope of nitrogen called 15N. The ratio of this isotope to the usual isotope of nitrogen (14N) can be used as a marker as to the relative contributions of different forms of nitrogen that are being utilised by an organism. By taking samples of moss at different distances from seabird colonies and analysing these and the soil and guano for the concentrations of the two stable isotopes of nitrogen (15N:14N ratio) the relative contributions of nitrogen from the soil and atmosphere can be determined. This can then be utilised along with details of the relative abundance of the mosses along transects away from seabird colonies to ascertain how important atmospheric ammonia is in altering the species composition of moss communities.

Biology
146. Feast or famine: how to be a successful marine benthic consumer

Five French Scientists orginating from the Observatoire Océnologique de Banyals, stayed at the Kristineberg Marine Station during two weeks.

Biology
147. Direct and Plant Mediated Responses of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function of Decomposer Fungi to Nitrogen Enrichment in a High arctic Ecosystem

Please contact Dr Clare Robinson

Biology
148. Adaptation of Higher Plants and Snow Algae to the Arctic Environment

Please contact Dr Cornelius Lutz

Biology
149. Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Tundra Ecosystems

In 2001 we were granted an LSF award for work on dissolved organic nitrogen in arctic ecosystems. In collaboration with Bjorn Solheim and Christina Wegener of the University of Tromso, we studied (a) the DON and DIN content of a range of soils around Ny Alesund and (b) the relative uses of nitrogen fixation and DON in a defined range of communities. We established a long term experiment at Stuphallet on dry tundra, where we made additions of nitrogen to fixed quadrats. The nitrogen additions were of nitrate, ammonium, glycine and glutamate at 10 kg ha-1. This is the first long-term experiment where organic N additions have been made to tundra. Our hypothesis is that DON is a preferred N source for tundra angiosperms. Within 10 days of application of the N in 2001, there were no significant changes in plant chlorophyll content or N content, not surprisingly as the plants were fruiting and end-of-season N retranslocation and leaf loss were in progress. This application is to make measurements on these plots to test the hypothesis after one year, and to make further applications.

Biology
150. Proximate ecological controls on the swimming behaviour of coastal euphausiids

To examine the way in which light intensity and spectrum affects the swimming behaviour and activity of the pelagic euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica.

Biology
151. Cell lineage and gene expression during cleavage and larval development of Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Euphausiacea)

The project is part of a large comparative study on the evolution of the development of crutaceans, mainly malacostracans (higher crustaceans).

Biology
152. Climate Change and Competitive Interactions

The effects of climate change in a dynamic competitive interaction between two or more species can be bought about either as direct responses of species to change or indirectly through effects on competing species. Intertidal barnacles are ideal model organisms to test these alternative causal mechanisms, being easily censussed and directly competing for space. Single- and multi- species models will be developed for barnacles in SW England to determine whether direct or indirect mechanisms better predict responses to change. The models will include functions for space-limitation, environmental influence and, in the latter models, functions for interspecific competition. Historical data from a network of sites collected over a 40-year period will be used to develop and test the models.

Climate variability Spatial trends Climate change Biodiversity Temporal trends Ecosystems
153. Environmental sensitivity of cold water corals

Distribution • What is the current distribution of coral colonies in the North Sea? • Where are coral colonies located on the structures? • Do any colonies show evidence of exposure to drill cuttings? Monitoring & Environmental Recording • What hydrodynamic regime and levels of suspended particulate material are coral colonies exposed to? • Does the coral skeleton retain an archive of any past contamination? • Does skeletal growth vary over time and does this correlate with any past contamination? • How variable is the rate of coral growth and does this correlate with any environmental variables? Environmental Sensitivity • What effect does increased sediment load have on coral behaviour and physiology? • What effect does exposure to discharges (e.g. cuttings and produced water) have on coral behaviour and physiology? • Are such exposures realistic in the field?

Shelf seas Biological effects Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Petroleum hydrocarbons Oceanography Biodiversity Local pollution Ecosystems
154. The Effects of Turbidity on Marine Fishes

(a) To assemble and further develop an integrative methodology for in situ evaluation of the effects of turbidity and hypoxia on fish physiological and/or behavioural performance. (b) To determine experimentally the threshold values beyond which oxygen and turbidity levels are liable to alter fish physiological and/or behavioural performance. (c) To integrate the results obtained in a conceptual and predictive model. Main expected achievements: [1] establishment of a link between laboratory studies, studies in mesocosms and field studies, using the most advanced techniques for monitoring behaviour in various environmental conditions. [2] an understanding of the impact of water turbidity and oxygenation on three major components of the behavioural repertoire of fish: habitat selection, predator-prey interactions and schooling-aggregation. [3] Predictive ability for the effect of the environmental variables studied on ecologically relevant behaviour.

Shelf seas Biological effects Fish Environmental management Local pollution Food webs
155. Modelling Nitrogen Fluxes In Tundra Ecosystems On Svalbard Using N-15 Labelling Of The Snowpack And Measurement Of Natural Isotopic Abundance 180/160 And 15N/14N.

The high Arctic contains delicate, relatively pristine ecosystems that are increasingly subject to exported aerial pollution (e.g. nitrogen) and higher than average climatic temperature change. Together these factors may potentially change important biogeochemical processes (e.g. the cycling of carbon and nitrogen) and ecosystem dynamics. This project involving the University of Nottingham, The British Geological Survey and IACR Rothamsted is now entering its second field season. The project concentrates on the release and the subsequent fate of N, entering the tundra ecosystem, as a pulse during the spring thaw. The questions we propose addressing are (i) how important is this event in transferring enhanced N deposition to tundra ecosystems, and how much is lost as run-off to lacustrine and inshore marine environments, (ii) how does enhanced N affect the carbon cycle (i.e. plant growth, decomposition processes) and (iii) what is the impact on soil N mineralizationimmobilization dynamics. Two plot experiments have been set up at contrasting vegetation sites around Kongsfjorden (Brandalspyntyn and Ny-London). We have simulated the release of N from the snowpack by applying 15N label as the snow has melted. An accurate audit regarding the fate of this snowpack N can then be made (i.e. does it remain in the soil, enter the tundra flora and soil microbiology or is it lost from the system). In addition, using techniques for combined 18O+15N analysis of nitrate, we can distinguish between atmospheric- and soil-derived nitrate. This will allow us to assess and source losses of N from the tundra during the brief summer growing season. These complementary approaches will provide a quantitative understanding of the fate of deposited N in the pristine Arctic environment. The overall aim will be to parameterize an N-flux model for this important ecosystem.

Biology
156. Modelling Nitrogen Fluxes In Tundra Ecosystems On Svalbard Using N-15 Labelling Of The Snowpack And Measurement Of Natural Isotopic Abundance 180/160 And 15N/14N.

The high Arctic contains delicate, relatively pristine ecosystems that are increasingly subject to exported aerial pollution (e.g. nitrogen) and higher than average climatic temperature change. Together these factors may potentially change important biogeochemical processes (e.g. the cycling of carbon and nitrogen) and ecosystem dynamics. This project involving the University of Nottingham, The British Geological Survey and IACR Rothamsted is now entering its second field season. The project concentrates on the release and the subsequent fate of N, entering the tundra ecosystem, as a pulse during the spring thaw. The questions we propose addressing are (i) how important is this event in transferring enhanced N deposition to tundra ecosystems, and how much is lost as run-off to lacustrine and inshore marine environments, (ii) how does enhanced N affect the carbon cycle (i.e. plant growth, decomposition processes) and (iii) what is the impact on soil N mineralizationimmobilization dynamics. Two plot experiments have been set up at contrasting vegetation sites around Kongsfjorden (Brandalspyntyn and Ny-London). We have simulated the release of N from the snowpack by applying 15N label as the snow has melted. An accurate audit regarding the fate of this snowpack N can then be made (i.e. does it remain in the soil, enter the tundra flora and soil microbiology or is it lost from the system). In addition, using techniques for combined 18O+15N analysis of nitrate, we can distinguish between atmospheric- and soil-derived nitrate. This will allow us to assess and source losses of N from the tundra during the brief summer growing season. These complementary approaches will provide a quantitative understanding of the fate of deposited N in the pristine Arctic environment. The overall aim will be to parameterize an N-flux model for this important ecosystem.

Biology
157. Seal studies in Kongsfjorden 2003

Seals studies

Biology Marine mammals
158. Effects of UV radiation on lipids, fatty acids and nutritonal quality of Arctic marine alga and zooplankton

Effects of UV radiations on lipids, fatty acids and nutritional quality of Arctic marine algae and zooplankton

Biological effects UV radiation
159. Interaction between moose (Alces alces) and the willow Salix phylicifolia (Salicaceae)

The project deals with the interaction between moose (Alces alces) and one of its major food plants (Salix phylicifolia, - Salicaceae). This plant was chosen after previous investigations in this area. On one hand the food selection of moose will be investigated. On the other hand the influence of browsing on the changes of chemical compounds and morphological structures of the food plant will be studied. While the quality and the browsing degree on Salix phylicifolia will be recorded in natural habitat, the induction of changes in the plant metabolism caused by moose and its subsequent consequences for the food selection will be studied experimentally. The primary plant compounds will be analysed by standard methods. Specific secondary plant compounds will be analysed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The results of the chemical analyses should be used to calibrate near infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) to determine the quality of the food. Then the spectra should be used to predict the probable use of S. phylicifolia by moose in this area.

160. Stordalen carbon cycling and trace gas flux project 2002

The greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) exchanges in northern wetlands are affected by presence of vascular plants. The mechanisms at function are, however, largely unknown. The root adjacent zone is characterized by intense interactions between plants and their environment and many important processes relating to carbon turnover of ecosystems are taking place in this zone. A fairly large amount of the carbon assimilated by plants through photosynthesis is continuously released from the roots. These labile carbon compounds can serve as substrate for the methanogenic bacterial community of the root zone and have a substantial effect on CH4 production in the soil. Thus, even small environmental changes affecting root zone processes could have far-reaching consequences for the functioning of wetland ecosystem and their interaction with the atmosphere. The objectives of this project aim to broaden the existing knowledge about carbon circulation in wetlands.