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Displaying: 121 - 140 of 183 Next
121. Long distance pollen transport in the Arctic: 1. Greenland

The submitted proposal aims to perform the monitoring of the pollen rain in the Greenland atmosphere by distinguishing the local pollen production, relatively low, from pollen grains originating from other Arctic areas. A regular monitoring of the atmospheric pollen content must be performed in order to evaluate the amount emitted and characterise the seasonality of the emission. A comparison with air mass trajectories must allow the modelling of long distance transport

Biology Climate variability Spatial trends Modelling Biodiversity Data management pollen Atmosphere Ecosystems
122. Living in a spatially structured environment: evolutionary ecology of seabird-parasite interactions

The aim of this research program is to examine the response of animal populations to environmental variability at different spatial scales. We attempt to determine how individuals respond to the spatial heterogeneity of their environment, and what are the consequences of this response for the dynamics of subdivided populations. Specifically, we consider an ecological system involving biotic interactions at three levels: seabirds, their tick _Ixodes uriae_, and the microparasite _Borrelia burgdorferi_ sensu lato (Lyme disease agent). Colonies of seabirds represent discrete entities, within and among which parasites can circulate. Our previous work on this system in the norwegian arctic has enable us to show that (1) host dispersal can be affected by local conditions, (2) seabird tick populations are specialised among different host species, namely between sympatric kittiwakes _Rissa tridactyla_ and puffins _Fratercula arctica_, (3) in the kittiwake, females transmit antibodies against _Borrelia burgdorferi_ when their chicks have a high probability to be exposed to the tick vector. We propose to combine different approaches, incorporating field surveys and experiments and population genetic studies (of hosts and parasites), in order to better understand the role of local interactions and dispersal in the dynamics of such a system. The research program implies collaborations with researchers from other french groups, as well as with Canadian (Queen’s University) and Norwegian colleagues (from NINA and the University of Tromsø).

Biology Populations Epidemiology Evolutionary ecology Spatial trends Biodiversity Seabirds Ecosystems
123. photosynthesis of lichens from lichen-dominated communities in the alpine/nival belt of the alps

The photosynthetic productivity and the factors affecting it are measured in the nival zone of the Alps. Patterns of CO2 exchange for several lichen species are determined whilst recording environmental factors such as light and temperature and lichen water content. Whilst these records will show the lichen response over the year they can most easily be interpreted when the photosynthetic ability of individual lichens is well known. To achieve this the response of each species to light intensity, temperature, thallus water content and humidity will be determined under fully controlled conditions in the laboratory. The final aim is to achieve an initial carbon balance model for the lichen species. This will be aided considerably by the deploying of a continuously recording chlorophyll fluorescence system that will provide activity data for one lichen species on a better than hourly basis throughout the year.

Biological effects Biology microclimate CO2 gas exchange photosynthesis chlorophyll fluorescence ecophysiology lichen Ecosystems alpine environment
124. Studies of periglacial and glacial structures and permafrost conditions in ice free areas around Ny Ålesund area

Project Description: - Landform mapping of the periglacial and glacial structures using remote sensing / aerial photography and field observation - Genetic studies of ground ice using geochemical and stable isotope techniques - Studies of microbial life in extreme periglacial environment

glacial structures Mapping Geophysics microbial life Geochemistry Data management aerial photography periglacial structures Permafrost
125. Detection of spatial, temporal, and spectral surface changes in the Ny-Ålesund area 79 N, Svalbard, using a low cost multispectral camera in combination with spectroradiometer measurements.

Changes in surface reflection at the arctic tundra at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79 N) were monitored during the melting season 2002 using a low cost multispectral digital camera with spectral channels similar to channels 2, 3, and 4 of the Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite sensor. The camera was placed 474 m above sea level at the Zeppelin Mountain Research Station and was programmed to take an image automatically every day at solar noon. To achieve areal consistency in the images (which is necessary for mapping purposes) the images were geometrically rectified into multispectral digital orthophotos. In contrast to satellite images with high spatial resolution the orthophotos provide data with high spatial and high temporal resolution at low cost. The study area covers approximately 2 km2 and when free of snow, it mainly consists of typical high arctic tundra with patchy vegetation and bare soil in between. The spectral information in the images was used to divide the rectified images into maps representing different surface classes (including three subclasses of snow). By combining classified image data and ground measurements of surface reflectance, a model to produce daily maps of surface albedo was developed. The model takes into account that snow-albedo decreases as the snow pack ages; and that the albedo decreases very rapidly when the snow pack is shallow enough (20-30 cm) to let surface reflectance get influenced by the underlying ground. Maps representing days with no image data (due to bad weather conditions) were derived using interpolation between pixels with equal geographical coordinates. The time series of modeled albedo-maps shows that the time it takes for the albedo to get from 80% to bare ground levels varies from less than 10 days in areas near the coast or in the Ny-Ålesund settlement till more than 70 days in areas with large snow accumulations. For the entire study area the mean length of the 2002 melting period was 28.3 days with a standard deviation of 15.1 days. Finally, the duration of the snowmelt season at a location where it is measured routinely, was calculated to 23 days, which is very close to what is the average for the last two decades.

Digital camera Hydrography Mapping Geophysics Climate variability Orthophotograph Spatial trends Remote sensing Orthophoto Modelling Arctic GIS Spectral Temporal trends Ecosystems
126. Physiological adaptations of the arctic fox to high Arctic conditions

To investigate arctic foxes physiological adaptations to life at high latitudes. Resting and running metabolic rates, body weight, food intake, body core temperature, heart rate, and blood parameters were examined during different seasons and during periods of food deprivation.

Biological effects Biology Climate Arctic Ecosystems
127. Diversity and nitrogen fixation activity of cyanobacterial communities in terrestrial arctic ecosystems

Biological nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria is a key process for productivity in terrestrial Arctic ecosystems and the activity is dependent of size and diversity of cyanobacterial populations. Changes in biodiversity after pertubations of different types of habitats simulating climatic changes or other antropogenic effects will be studied by molecular methods and correlated to variations of nitrogen fixation activity.

Biology nitrogen fixation cyanobacteria Climate change Biodiversity Arctic
128. Diversity and changes on temporal and spatial scales of the cyanobacterial community in the high arctic environment of Spitsbergen, Svalbard Islands

The structure and role of the cyanobacterial communities that colonise bare soils and fix nitrogen in the arctic ecosystem will be studied. The planned activities will focus on the isolation, identification and characterisation of cyanobacteria from arctic habitats and on the changes of the cyanobacterial community along a transect from a retreating glacier front to a more stable habitat characterised by the presence of mature vegetation. For these purposes, a polyphasic approach encompassing microbiological, morphological and molecular techniques will be applied to environmental samples and isolated cultures. The obtained results will give new insights on the diversity and role of nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria in the arctic and, in more general terms, on ecosystem development under changing climatic conditions.

Biology nitrogen fixation cyanobacteria Soils Climate change Biodiversity Arctic Ecosystems
129. Estimation of gravity around Ny-Ålesund

Estimation of gravity around Ny-Ålesund

Gravity Mapping
130. Monitoring of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in the Kongsfjord area

To evaluate temporal variation in arctic fox numbers and their food resourses in the Kongsfjorden area. The number of foxes captured per 100 trap-days are used as an index of fox density termed "Fox Capture Index". The observations of denning activity i.e. observation of number of arctic fox litters and litter size at den are termed "Fox Den Index" as a second index of fox abundance. A third index is termed "Fox Observation Index". This index is based on both observations of adult foxes seen away from breeding dens pr 100 h field work and reports on request from scientists and local people on observations of adult foxes during summer. In addition, reports on observation of fox tracks in the study area were collected in 1990-2001 as a fourth index, which were called "Fox Track Index". The field census are conducted for 10 days starting at the end of June. All dead foxes in the area should be collected.

Biology Climate Terrestrial mammals Arctic Reproduction Ecosystems
131. Arctic Coastal Dynamics

Part of the international project Arctic Costal Dynamics (ACD) were Department of Physical Geography, University of Oslo participates. The working group consists of Trond Eiken (UoO), Bjørn Wangensteen (UoO) and Rune Ødegård (Gjøvik University College). The aim of this part of the ACD-project is to quantify coastal cliff erosion by the use of terrestrial photogrammetry.

Geology Long trend coastal cliff erosion monitoring Arctic GIS Permafrost Temporal trends
132. ESPRI

The objectives of this project is to study the effect of environmental stochasticity on the Svalbard reindeer population dynamics, nad further evaluate how this may affect reindeer-plant interactions.

Biological effects Biology Populations Climate variability Climate Climate change Terrestrial mammals Arctic Reindeer Temporal trends Ecosystems
133. ClimateBasis

Projects at Zackenberg Station Relevance: Climate Change Project title: Duration: Start year: 1995 End year: Continuing Responsible institution: Relevance: Climate Change Changes in UV radiation and its effects

Climate variability Climate change
134. Causes for GPR reflections in an alluvial permafrost environment

3-D GPR (ground penetrating radar) profiling of permafrost deposits and examination of their geocryologic and sediment properties for verification of GPR profiles. The scientific project has the following aims: To improve the understanding of how GPR (ground penetrating radar) reflections are generated in frozen ground; to reveal the main factors (geophysical and sedimentary) controlling electromagnetic reflection characteristics and their spatial continuity as examplarily studied along a continuous permafrost section, i.e. to distinguish between physical (dielectricity, conductivity and density) and sedimentary (ice/water content, grain size distribution, content of organic matter, texture) properties and estimate their proportionate quantity on the origin of the wave reflections.

ground penetrating radar Geology Geophysics Arctic Sediments Permafrost
135. BIRD satellite validation

The German Aerospace Center (DLR) Bi-spectral Infrared Detection (BIRD) small satellite is a technology demonstrator of new infrared push-broom sensors dedicated to recognition and quantitative characterisation of thermal processes on the Earth surface. BIRD was successfully piggy-back launched on October 22, 2001 with an Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C3) into a circular sun-synchronous orbit with an altitude of 572 km and a North - South local equator crossing time at 10:30 h. Besides cameras working in the visible and near infrared spectral range there are two cameras working in the middle infrared (MIR, 3.4 – 4.2 µm) and in the thermal spectral range (TIR, 8.5 – 9.3 µm) respectively. The objective is to validate these two cameras in cooperation with the Koldewey-Station in Ny-Ålesund. Therefore meteorological and aerological data as well as radiation measuring data will be used.

Atmospheric processes Vegetation fires Mapping Clouds Fire maps Spatial trends Forest damage Industrial hazards Hot spots Atmosphere Temporal trends Volcanic activities Vegetation changes Satellite validation
136. Heat and mass transfer in the active layer

The active layer, the annually freezing and thawing upper ground in permafrost areas, is of pivotal importance. The moisture and heat transfer characteristics of this layer also determine the boundary layer interactions of the underlying permafrost and the atmosphere and are therefore important parameters input for geothermal or climate modeling. Finally, changes in the characteristics of the permafrost and permafrost related processes may be used as indicators of global ecological change provided the system permafrost-active layer-atmosphere is understood sufficiently well. The dynamics of permafrost soils is measured with high accuracy and high temporal resolution at our two sites close to Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Using these continuous data we quantify energy balance components and deduce heat transfer processes such as conductive heat flux, generation of heat from phase transitions, and migration of water vapor.

Water flux Geology Soils Geophysics Spatial trends Modelling Arctic Permafrost Temporal trends Energy flux
137. Seismological "Very Broad Band" Station (VBB-Station)

The new seismological broad band station KBS at Ny-Ålesund replaces a former WWSSN station operated by the Institute for Solid Earth Physics of the University of Bergen. Both instrumentation and data acquisition of the old station were inadequate to meet all the demands for highest data quality for today's modern seismological research. The high technical standard of the new stations instrumentation now fulfils all the requirements of a modern broad band station. Therefore this station is integrated into the international Global Seismological Network, GSN, for monitoring the world-wide seismic activity. Special interests focus on regional seismicity at and around Svalbard itself and along the ridges in the arctic ocean. KBS is an open station, e.g., any interested scientist or international organization os allowed to retrieve data of special interest. Data are routinely processed and stored at the IRIS Data Management Center in Seattle. Copies are also available at the Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ).

Geology Seismology Geophysics Arctic
138. Long Term Monitoring of Solar Radiation in Ny-Ålesund

Permanent monitoring of basic climate data for the purpose of better understanding the Arctic climate processes and detecting trends.

Atmospheric processes UV radiation Geophysics Climate Climate change solar radiation Arctic Atmosphere
139. Dynamics in a subarctic dwarfshrub community

To evaluate some factors controlling the relative performance of the four dominating species in this community (i.e. the dediduous Vaccinium uliginosum and V. myrtillus and the evergreen V. vitis-idaea and Empetrum hermaphroditum). The study includes removal of species and nutrient additions. Responses are studied in permenent plots.

140. Tracing the natal origin of redshank (Tringa totanus) using Strontium isotopic fingerprints.

The aim of the project is to use Strontium isotopic ratios in bone and feather tissue to discriminate between the two races of redshank (Tringa totanus)that overwinter on Scottish estuaries. One race brittanica breeds in Scotland and the other, robusta breeds in Iceland. Preliminary results have shown there to be two distinct clusters of ratios for the two races enabling the racial identification of juvenile birds. It is planned to extend the study to develop other migratory tracing methods for shorebirds and wildfowl using European estuaries.

Biology shorebird Strontium isotopes migratory tracing.