The full list of projects contains the entire database hosted on this portal, across the available directories. The projects and activities (across all directories/catalogs) are also available by country of origin, by geographical region, or by directory.
(1) Collate information relating to the environmental transfer and fate of selected radionuclides through aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic. (2) Identify reference Arctic biota that can be used to evaluate potential dose rates to biota in different terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments (3) Model the uptake of a suite of radionuclides, both natural and anthropogenic to reference Arctic biota (4) Develop a reference set of dose models for reference Arctic biota (5) Compile data on dose-effects relationships and assessments of potential radiological consequences for reference Arctic biota (6) Integrate assessments of environmental impact from radionuclides with those for other contaminants.
Previous studies (Akvaplan-niva 1994 and 1996) on levels of POPs in limnic systems on Bear Island have shown that sediment and fish from a lake on the southern part of the island (Ellasjøen) have some of the highest levels of PCB and DDT that has been reported from Arctic areas. In a lake situated in the more central part of the island (Øyangen) levels are much lower, and in the same range as reported for lakes in Northern Norway and the Canadian Arctic. No local sources for contamination exist on Bear Island, and it is therefore likely that the contaminants are brought to the island with long-range atmospheric transport. The difference between the two investigated lakes on Bear Island may be due to differences in deposition of precipitation. This theory is currently being investigated through another project called: “Ellasjøen, Bear Island - A mass balance study of a high contaminated Arctic area." Another possible sources for contaminants to Ellasjøen can be the large colonies of seabirds that are situated close to the lake or use the lake for bathing. These seabirds may accumulate contaminants through their marine food chains and deposit guano in Ellasjøen and surrounding areas. Øyangen is much less influenced by seabirds than Ellasjøen. The aim of the present project is to map levels of selected persistent organic pollutants and study their biomagnification in freshwater and marine food chains at/near Bear Island. By linking the results from freshwater and marine food chains we aim to elucidate whether trophodynamics and interaction between marine and terrestrial food chains can be a natural mechanisms for biomagnification of POPs in specific geographic areas.
Validate the hepatic P450 enzyme system as a biomarker of levels and effects of POPs in Arctic, aquatic environments, using the anadromous (sea-migratory) Arctic charr as an indicator species.
The objectives are to test the hypothesis that the tissue re-distribution of PCB are linked to the metabolic status of the Arctic charr and that the tissue re-distribution of PCB associated with fasting will decrease the overall performance characeristics of the Arctic charr.
The general objective is to assess time trends and deposition loads of mercury and persistent organic pollutants from long-range atmospheric transport in Arctic environments (Greenland and north Swedish mountains) using lake sediments. The specific aims are: 1. Mercury - Study pre-industrial and industrial temporal changes in Hg concentrations in sediment records of remote lakes in Greenland and north Swedish mountains. - Address the hypothesis of 'cold condensation' (the progressive re-volatilization in relatively warm locations and subsequent condensation and deposition in cooler environments) of mercury, using a series of lake sediment cores along climate gradients: in Greenland from the inland ice sheet towards the coast and in the Swedish mountains from high altitudes down to the boreal forest. 2. POPs - Make a screening to establish which persistent organic pollutants are present in recent lake sediments in remote sites in Greenland and the north Swedish mountains. Besides PCBs, HCH, DDT and other pesticides, there are new environmental threats such as brominated flame retardants, such as PDBEs, which are of particular interest. The increasing use of PBDE and other brominated compounds may lead to increasing concentrations in the Arctic environment. However, very little is known about the levels of PBDEs as well as other POPs in sediments from the Arctic. - Analyse test series of selected POPs using a lake sediment core to assess temporal trends and a number of surface sediment samples from different lakes to assess spatial variability in concentrations and cumulative fluxes of POPs in Greenland and Swedish mountain lakes. - The main purpose of this pilot study of POPs is to determine the concentrations of selected POPs in sediments from Greenland and the northern Swedish mountains and to assess how useful lake sediments are for studying temporal and spatial pollution loads of POPs in Arctic environments.
The aim of the project is to obtain more insight in the response of the Greenland ice sheet to climatic change. For this purpose we will link our surface energy-balance model to an atmospheric model, so that the model can be forced by variables characterizing the atmosphere outside the thermal influence of the ice sheet itself. The modelling is supported by the mass-balance and meteorological data that we collect along a transect in West Greenland (the Kangerlussuaq-transect or K-transect). The albedo of the ice sheet is studied by means of satellite data and measurements obtained from a helicopter. Research activities - develop numerical models of the surface energy balance and the boundary layer above the ice sheet - perform annual measurements of the mass balance and ice velocity along the K-transect - maintain two automatic weather stations along the K-transect - study the surface albedo by means of remote-sensing images - improve methods to retrieve the surface albedo from satellite data by means of measurements obtained from a helicopter
The objectives of this study are to determine temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals, especially mercury, in landlocked Arctic char in Char Lake and Resolute Lake by analysis of annual sample collections, to investigate factors influencing contaminant levels in landlocked char such as the influence of sampling time, water temperature and diet, and to provide this information on a timely basis to the community of Qausuittuq (Resolute). The rationale is that small lakes in the high arctic are replenished annually with snowmelt runoff and direct precipitation which represent significant fractions of their water budgets. Declining concentrations of POPs, or increasing levels of previously unstudied POPs, in air and precipitation should be reflected relatively quickly in changes in levels in food webs and top predator fishes, compared to the vast marine environment. We know this to be the case from the sedimentary record of POPs and mercury in small arctic lakes. This project collects landlocked arctic char from lakes near Resolute annually and analyses them for mercury, a suite of other metals as well as persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides including toxaphene). Results will be compared over time. The first samples were collected from Char and Resolute Lakes in 1992/93. The next set were collected in 1997 and annually since then. Char are being collected from several lakes in the area because of limited sample numbers in some lakes and the possibility of local influences. Samples are also being archived for future analyses.
The major aim in AMAP is to monitor the levels of anthropogenic contaminants in all major compartments of the Arctic environment, and assess the environmental conditions in the area. This core programme will provide the Danish/Greenlandic authorities with data which make it possible to take part in the international AMAP programme under the Arctic Council. In order to monitor the levels of anthropogenic pollutants, samples will be collected and analysed. The measured components will include heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in order to allow for spatial and temporal trends in Arctic biota. The program has taken in consideration the recommended importance of persistent organic pollutants and mercury and the importance of the marine food chain. The core program focuses on areas with high population density or areas with high levels of pollutants in the environment.
Short Term i) to provide additional information for use in updating health advisories. Long Term i)to investigate the fate and effects of contaminant deposition and transport to the Yukon, allowing Northerners to better manage the issue of contaminants. ii)to determine levels of contaminants for use in long term trend monitoring.
Our broad area of enquiry is the role of polar regions in the global energy and water cycles, and the atmospheric, oceanic and sea ice processes that determine that role. The primary importance of our investigation is to show how these polar processes relate to global climate.
Our central geophysical objective is to determine how sea ice and the polar oceans respond to and influence the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere. Our primary technical objective is to determine how best to incorporate satellite measurements in an ice/ocean model.
1. Continue to investigate spatial and temporal patterns in mercury concentrations in fish in lakes in the Mackenzie River Basin with a focus on predatory fish in smaller lakes near Fort Simpson but also including Great Bear Lake 2. Assess temporal trends in mercury concentrations and influencing factors, e.g., climate change 3. Conduct sediment core studies as opportunities allow to characterize long-term trends in mercury deposition and productivity 4. Integrate the findings of this study with our mercury trend monitoring in Great Slave Lake and the western provinces.
It is suggested to analyse a variety of samples from Greenland and the Faroe Islands for radionuclides. The technetium pulse now under way from England will be surveyed in seawater, seaweed and shrimp, and time trends in concentrations of caesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium will be monitored in selected components of marine, fresh water and terrestrial environments. As far as possible, the sampling programme is coordinated with other sampling programmes in Greenland and the Faroe Islands. It is suggested to re-investigate the weapons plutonium pollution in Bylot Sound off Pituffik on a 5-year basis i.e. year 2002 in the present AMAP programme
It has become clear in recent years that a changing composition of the atmosphere due to human activities may influence the climate system. The production of greenhouse gases and their accumulation in the atmosphere can result in a global warming and changes in the climate system. On regional scales, this may result in even much more pronounced changes. This is particularly true for the high northern latitudes. Climate changes will impact the society and nature in many ways. The anticipated effects are large and will matter both globally (mainly negative consequences) and regionally (both negative and positive consequences). SWECLIM provides users with detailed regional climate study results. SWECLIM develops regional (limited area) climate system modeling, studies climate processes and feedback special for the Nordic region and creates regional climate (change) scenarios on a time scale of 50-100 years. SWECLIM also performs impact studies on water resources. Climate scenarios are also made available for other impact studies, such as in forestry, done by external groups. Information activities on climate change and the regional consequences are an important component in the program. The regional climate model system is built around a regional atmospheric model, regional ocean models with sea ice for the Baltic Sea and land surface modeling plus hydrology. The model system is forced at the by large-scale results from global climate models. Multi-year to multi-decade length integrations are performed with the regional model targeting a domain roughly centered on the Nordic countries and using horizontal resolutions ranging from 20-80 km.
1. To determine the depth profiles of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) as well as manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in fifteen dated Arctic sediment cores over a three year period. Mercury is the main focus. 2. To quantify geographical trends in fluxes of the mercury and its enrichment factors in Nunavut, NWT, Nunavik, and Labrador. To link mercury findings with those of paleolimnological indicators, POPs, as well as indicators of biogeochemical processes of manganese and iron, all of which are obtained from the same cores, or cores from the same sites whenever possible. 3. To complement existing data on mercury in Arctic sediment cores with data generated over a much wider latitudinal and longitudinal range than previous work in order to provide a better understanding of Hg in Canada North. 4. Secondary to Hg, to provide loading data for Pb which may help elucidate the understanding of Hg pathways and sources.
The project is meant to cover specific parts of AMAP phase II in the Faroe Islands. The project includes species from the marine and freshwater environment as well as biota from the terrestrial subprogram. The species chosen for the project are to be analysed for the environmental toxins that were termed essential in the guidelines of the circumpolar programme, but minor adjustments may occur. The selection of species to be analysed have been made so as so to elucidate the burden of contaminants in the local and often also traditional food, and at the same time it has been important to ensure comparability between countries in the AMAP area. The biota chosen are pilot whale, black guillemot, hare, sheep and lamb, arctic char and sculpin. In addition to this core program where the above-mentioned are analysed for the limited set of pollutants, certain special tasks have been planned. Examples on such special tasks are the analysis of mercury in sediment core profiles and investigation of the dioxin and POP burden in cows milk.
Objectives: 1. Locate and assemble scientific data from the U.S. Arctic on the concentrations and effects of POPs in all compartments (e.g., marine and terrestrial biota, abiotic substrates) of the Arctic. 2. Evaluate, analyze and summarize these scientific data from the U.S. Arctic into text suitable for inclusion in a new (second) AMAP publication on POPs. 3. Disseminate the summarized information via a U.S. AMAP Internet page that is directly linked to the current International AMAP Internet page. Summary (Abstract): The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) was established in 1991 and given the responsibility of monitoring the concentrations and assessing the effects of selected anthropogenic pollutants in all compartments of the Arctic. The first AMAP assessment report, published in 1998, points out gaps in our current understanding of contaminant inputs, their transport processes and food web interactions. In addition, the AMAP report noted a serious lack of information about persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the U.S. and Russian Arctic. Thus, the recommendations of the first AMAP report were to: monitor spatial distribution, contaminant levels and biological effects of POPs; improve the understanding of the adverse effects of POPs on human populations; and fill existing data gaps, specifically in the U.S. and Russia. In this work, we plan to identify sources of scientific information (e.g., published reports, datasets) on POPs in the U.S. Arctic and obtain these data for AMAP. Once data sources are identified, a small group of scientific experts will be assembled for a workshop to determine if any pertinent sources have been overlooked and to give advice on how best to evaluate, analyze, summarize and disseminate the information obtained. A working database will be designed so that the data and scientifically important findings or conclusions from each study can be organized and evaluated. Data will be analyzed statistically, as appropriate, to determine spatial and temporal trends. The data and scientific findings that have been collected and analyzed will then be summarized into text, for inclusion in the next AMAP publication on POPs. This major effort of synthesizing the existing data from the U.S. Arctic will ensure that the AMAP report adequately presents the accomplishments of U.S. scientists and research programs. The written publication and the summarized U.S. POPs data will also be presented as a U.S. AMAP Internet page linked to the International AMAP Internet page.
The following information about CLIC was taken from "Initiative", from the Climate and Cryosphere (CLIC) -- A New WCRP Initiative web site ( http://www.npolar.no/acsys/CLIC/clicindex.htm) The web site features an Acrobat PDF file version of the CLIC Draft Science and Coordination Plan (dated 8 April 2000)that should be referred to for latest information. CLIC - a new initiative for WCRP Howard Cattle -- Chairman, ACSYS Scientific Steering Group At their annual meeting, held in Cape Town, South Africa from 16-20 March 1998, the Joint Scientific Committee (JSC) for the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) reviewed the issue of the organisation of research into the Climate and Cryosphere in the WCRP. Key to this review was a paper from the ACSYS Scientific Steering Group (SSG) identifying gaps in our knowledge of some cryospheric processes in the climate system and summarising the various options for the organisation of cryospheric studies within WCRP. This paper was developed by a subgroup at the sixth ACSYS SSG meeting (November 1997), chaired by Professor Roger Barry. As a result of their review, the JSC XIX endorsed the idea of a broader programme on Climate and Cryosphere (CLIC) in the WCRP (WMO/TD-No. 929, 1998). As a first step, a Task Group was established to develop a science and coordination plan for CLIC for presentation at the twenty-first session of the JSC in March 2000, when the decision will be made on whether to initiate CLIC as a full WCRP project. More detail on the background to this can be found in an article by Hartmut Grassl and Victor Savtchenko "Cryosphere and Climate: organisation of the WCRP contribution" in WCRP Newsletter No. 2 and an article by Howard Cattle and Roger Barry "Cryosphere and Climate, The ACSYS Statement" in WCRP Newsletter No. 3. The key element of CLIC is that it will provide a globally integrated approach to the study of the role of the cryosphere in the climate system. The science and coordination plan to be developed will look at the requirements for initiating studies of cryospheric elements in which there are perceived gaps in present programmes that impact on global change research including sea level rise. It will also look at requirements for enhancing links between existing global and regional cryospheric studies and lay out a programme for ensuring accurate and appropriate treatments of cryospheric processes and interactions of the cryosphere with atmosphere, oceans and land surface in climate models and for assembling the global and regional cryospheric datasets necessary for driving and validating climate models and for diagnostic studies of the role of cryosphere in climate. Important from the coordination point of view is to provide suggestions for mechanisms for interactions with other WCRP projects, in particular GEWEX and CLIVAR, and with other cryospheric projects that could contribute to WCRP research, including identification of suitable links and mechanisms for collaboration. In summary, CLIC aims to have the following primary missions and activities: 1.Coordinates the cryospheric elements of existing projects of the WCRP (especially ACSYS, GEWEX, CLIVAR) with the aim of identifying gaps in WCRP global cryospheric research within, and at the interfaces between, these projects. 2.Coordinates, sponsors, and encourages cryosphere projects conducted under other organisations (e.g., SCAR in the southern hemisphere, IASC in the northern hemisphere) to ensure appropriate broadening of these activities and that these serve WCRP needs related to the study of cryosphere and climate. 3.Acts as the "friendly broker" between programmes and projects (both internal and external to WCRP) that are conducted in the cryosphere with some common aims, such as CLIVAR-ACSYS, ACSYS-GEWEX, ASPeCT-WCRP and MAGICS-WCRP (among others). 4.Establishes projects in the study of the role of the cryosphere in climate that cover identified gaps; these projects may involve joint sponsorship by the appropriate governmental and non-governmental bodies. The CLIC Task Group, which is responsible to the JSC through the ACSYS SSG, had its first meeting in Utrecht, The Netherlands, from 8-11 July 1998. Its co-chairs are Professor Roger Barry (NSIDC/CIRES, University of Colorado, firstname.lastname@example.org) and Dr. Ian Allison (Antarctic CRC, University of Tasmania, email@example.com). The meeting was hosted by the Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research of Utrecht University. Attendees were Roger Barry, who chaired the meeting , Steve Ackley, Oleg Anisimov, Howard Cattle, Eberhard Fahrbach, Barry Goodison, Moto Ikeda, Peter Lemke, Doug Martinson, Liz Morris, Hans Oerlemans, Olav Orheim and, from WCRP, Hartmut Grassl and Victor Savtchenko. The main business was to initiate the drafting of the CLIC Science and Coordination Plan, a first version of which was discussed by the ACSYS SSG when it met in Tokyo, Japan, in November 1998. The Plan was modified to take into account the SSG’s comments. It will be presented in initial draft form to the JSC for WCRP when they meet in Kiel, Germany, in March 1999. The draft is now available as a pdf file on the ACSYS CLIC web page. http://www.npolar.no/acsys/CLIC/clic_draft.PDF. Comments on the draft from the community are welcomed. Reference: WMO/TD-No. 929, 1998: Annual review of the World Climate Research Programme and report of nineteenth session of the Joint Scientific Committee (Cape Town, S. Africa, 16-20 March 1998).