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Displaying: 101 - 120 of 135 Next
101. Lake Myvatn and the River Laxá

The aim is to monitor the Lake Myvatn and the river Laxá ecosystem for (1) detecting trends, (2) detecting background variability in the system, (3) assess the efficiency of management measures, (4) observe perturbations in order to generate hypotheses about causal relationships.

Biological effects Biology Populations Catchment studies Fish Spatial trends Environmental management Mining Waterbirds Modelling Biodiversity Arctic Local pollution Food webs Sediments Diet Temporal trends Ecosystems
102. Tundra

Overall objective is to obtain net fluxes for carbon and freshwater water from an Arctic catchment under base-case and global change scenarios. Objective of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam is to study the temporal and patial variability in floodplain sediment balance over the last 2000 years. Research activities: Selected areas in the Usa basin will be studied in detail, both in the zones of continuous and discontiunous permafrost. Fieldwork was and will be conducted in the summers of 1998 and 1999. At selected field sites, the present day processes of river erosion and deposition will be evaluated and the natural evolution and variation of amount and rate of erosion and deposition will be determined for the last 2000 years.

Pathways erosion sediment balance Soils Hydrography Catchment studies carbon flux Climate variability freshwater flux Discharges Spatial trends Climate change Geochemistry Sediments Temporal trends
103. Permafrost in the Usa Basin: distribution, characterisation, dynamics and effects on infrastructure

- To support the further development of a geocryological database for the Usa Basin (East-European Russian Arctic), including key characteristics of permafrost such as distribution, coverage, temperature, active layer, etc. - To create GIS-based permafrost maps at the scale of 1:1,000,000 for the entire Usa Basin and at 1:100,000 for selected key sites. - To reconstruct the history of permafrost dynamics at key sites in the region over the last thousands of years using palaeoecological analysis and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits, and over the last few decades using remote sensing imagery and/or monitoring (base case scenario). - To predict permafrost dynamics at key sites in the region under future conditions of climate change (20-100 yrs), using a 1-dimensional permafrost model (future global change scenario). - To assess the effects of permafrost dynamics under base case and global change scenarios on urban, industrial and transportation infrastructure in the Usa Basin. Research activities Based on several representative sites, late Holocene permafrost dynamics will be characterized using palaeoecological techniques. Variability in permafrost conditions over the last few decades will be studied based on the available data from long-term monitoring station records and from a time series of remote sensing images (optional). Mathematical modelling of permafrost dynamics will be carried out for at least two sites and a forecast of permafrost degradation in the area under anticipated climate warming will be developed. The likely effects of permafrost degradation upon regional infrastructure (inhabited localities, heat and power engineering, coal and ore mines, oil and gas extracting complex, pipelines and railways) will be analyzed using a GIS approach. GIS data layers on permafrost dynamics and infrastructure will be compared in order to delimitate high risk areas based on existing infrastructure and anticipated permafrost degradation. Hereafter, the created GIS may serve as a basis for more detailed forecasting of permafrost dynamics under both natural and anthropogenic climate changes in lowland and alpine areas of the East-European Russian Arctic.

geocryology Geology palaeoecology Soils Catchment studies Mapping Geophysics Climate variability Climate Spatial trends Environmental management Climate change Modelling Ice GIS Permafrost Oil and Gas Temporal trends permafrost dynamics infrastructure
104. 'NAR-2000' expedition

The 'NAR-2000' expedition was performed during August-September 2000. The overall programme of work includes: - monitoring of pollution in air, waters and bottom sediments of freshwater lakes, soils and terrestrial vegetation - soil/botanical studies - visual and remote sensing (aerial photos and video surveys) studies of damage to soil and vegetation cover. Samples of river water and bottom sediments from 25 freshwater bodies and samples from 16 terrestrial sites in the area of the Varandey and Toravey oil fields were taken for chemical analyses.

Biological effects Organochlorines PCBs Soils Catchment studies Heavy metals PAHs Pollution sources phenols Petroleum hydrocarbons Forest damage soil damage Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Sediments Atmosphere Oil and Gas Temporal trends detergents
105. A study of palynodebris and dinoflagellate cysts in Holocene sediments from Greenland and Faeroe Islands fjords and North Atlantic deep-water sites

The project aims at studying the lateral and vertical (stratigraphic) variations in the composition of particulate organic debris (palynodebris sensu Boulter and Riddick, 1986) from a suite of Holocene sediment cores from off W, S, and SE Greenland, via the Reykjanes Ridge south of Iceland, to the Faeroe Islands. The main objective is to elucidate changes in paleoenvironmental and - hydrographic parameters such as temperature, trophic level, salinity, and energy in the water mass. In particular, the study aims at mapping the distribution of different species of organic walled dinoflagellate cysts in relation to these parameters.

Geology Hydrography Dinoflagellate cysts Climate change Biodiversity Arctic Holocene Palynology Sediments Ocean currents Temporal trends
106. Monitoring POPs and heavy metals in the merlin (Falco columbarius)

To monitor levels of pollutants in merlin by analysis of POPs and heavy metals in eggs and feathers. /Feathers and addled eggs of merlin were collected in 1992, 1993, 1994, 1999 and 2000 for chemical analysis of POPs and heavy metals. Comparisons with eggs from museum collections show that there has been a significant shell thinning in eggs of Norwegian merlins. From 1947 up to 1990 the eggs were on average ca. 15% thinner than normal and after 1990 the thinning has been ca. 10%. There are still high concentrations of DDE to reduce reproductive output in some cases. The PCB levels are low compared to the DDE levels and the concentrations of other chlorinated hydrocarbons are also low. Results from mercury analyses indicate possible effects on breeding performance in some adults.

Biological effects Organochlorines PCBs Heavy metals Long-range transport Spatial trends Contaminant transport merlin Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Food webs Pesticides Temporal trends terrestrial birds
107. Bird monitoring in Dividalen and Børgefjell

Population monitoring of Gyrfalcon, Golden Eagle, Willow Grouse and Passerine birds

Biological effects Populations Heavy metals Long-range transport Climate change Radionuclides Reproduction Temporal trends
108. Heavy metals in Grouse species

Study changes in liver concentrations of Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu and Zn in Lagopus lagopus and Tetrao tetrix between the time periods 1990/91 and 2000/01

Heavy metals Long-range transport Pollution sources Contaminant transport Terrestrial mammals Emissions Exposure Temporal trends
109. Terrestrial monitoring programme. Studies in vegetation ecology of boreal birch forests in Børgefjell National Park, N Norway

In 1990, the Directorate for Nature Management (DN) established an area for integrated monitoring within Børgefjell National Park, Røyrvik, N Trøndelag. Studies of vegetation-environment relationships in the area was performed by NINA. The area includes both subalpine birch forest and low alpine heath. The new established vegetation investigation included all together 80 different species. This material was processed numerically by using multivariate methods. Indirect gradient analyses were performed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Local Nonmetric Multidimentional Scaling (LNMDS). Direct gradient analyses were performed by using rescaled hybrid Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Non-parametric correlation analyses, Kendall’s , were performed between environmental parameters and DCA axis values. The results of the numerical and statistical processing were used partly to provide a description of the vegetational structure in the material and partly to quantify how much each ecological parameters contributed to determination of vegetational structure. This work shows the species distribution along various complex gradients; moisture, nutrient conditions, light etc. The investigation is primarily designed to study vegetation dynamics along these gradients and whether changes in the number of species can be related to changes in physical, biotic and, not least, chemical parameters. Variance analysis was performed to assess to what extent the sample plots tends move in a determined direction from 1990 to 1995. The variation between the years were not significant along the primary complex gradients, but there were a significant displacement of species along the following gradients. The most important species were: Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Melampyrum sylvaticum and Hylocomium splendens), which showed an increase and some cryptogams like Brachythecium reflexum, B. salebrosum and Cladonia ecmocyna which declined.

Biological effects Biology Populations Soils Mapping Heavy metals Long-range transport Acidification Spatial trends Environmental management Climate change Forest damage Modelling Emissions Exposure Biodiversity Local pollution GIS Data management Temporal trends Ecosystems
110. Monitoring terrestrial ecosystems: Ecological investigation of vegetation in the boreal birch forest of Dividalen National park, county Troms, Norway.

In 1993, the Directorate for Nature Management (DN) established a new area for the monitoring of terrestrial ecosystems in Dividalen National Park in Troms County. This report presents the reanalysis of vegetation and soil from this terrestrial monitoring area. The area in Dividalen is located in the northern boreal birch forest, in a relatively continental section where the dominant type of vegetation is bilberry-mountain crowberry birch forest (A4c). The structure of the vegetation is analysed by multivariate methods (ordination). In Dividalen all together 131 species were found; 75 vascular plants, 18 mosses, 14 liverworts and 24 lichens. This is a decrease from the number of species recorded in 1993 when 141 species were found in the same mesoplots: 74 vascular plants, 24 mosses, 18 liverworts and 25 lichens. The decrease was not significant for the total number of species or for the total number of vascular plants. However the total number of cryptogames showed a slight significant decrease in number between 1993 and 1998. This may be due to increased cover of several ericoid species. In Dividalen we found no significant changes in vegetation composition for the periode 1993 – 1998 along the first four ordination axes. However, there were changes in mesoplots with high DCA1 values. The changes were in the direction towards lower species richness. Species like Myosotis decumbens, Poa alpina, Solidago virgaurea, Cerastium fontanum and Rumex acetosa ssp. lapponicus showed the largest decrease in these mesoplots. Species that showed the largest increase were Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Mnium spinosum and Polytrichum juniperinum. We have found no relations between these changes and acidification due to deposition of pollutans. Lack of disturbance factors in the area in the last years, which favours an increase in ericoid vegetation, is the probable explanation for the changes.

Biological effects Populations Long-range transport Acidification Spatial trends Environmental management Climate change Forest damage Biodiversity GIS Temporal trends Ecosystems
111. Effects of persistent organic pollutants on polar bears in Svalbard

The study covers many areas of ecotoxicology research on polar bears. Monitoring of POP levels and studies of effects on endocrine disruption, immune system, reproduction, and demography are all parts of the study.

Biological effects Biology Populations Organochlorines PCBs Heavy metals Spatial trends Climate change Polar bear Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Reproduction Pesticides Temporal trends Marine mammals
112. Environmental Assessment in van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard

The project aims to describe the environmental status of marine sediments in van Mijenfjorden. This to provide baseline data of contaminants and biodiversity, as well as for monitoring of eventual contamination from industrial activities (coal mining).

Biological effects Glaciers Biology Populations Discharges Spatial trends Environmental management Mining Oceanography Biodiversity Arctic Sediments Temporal trends Ecosystems
113. Benthic fauna in the Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

Investigation of benthic faunal communities for: taxon distribution/ biodiversity mapping; examination of effects of glacial and physical disturbance on community structure; relation between faunal structure and sediment contaminants.

Biological effects Glaciers Biology Mapping Physical disturbance Spatial trends Pollution sources Environmental management Climate change Biodiversity Arctic Sediments Temporal trends Ecosystems
114. Environmental assessment of the Isfjorden complex, Svalbard

The project aims to carry out an environmental assessment of the marine environment close to the three main settlements in the Isfjorden complex; Barentsburg, Longyearbyen and Pyramiden. The study comprises analyses of sediment geochemistry and soft-bottom benthic fauna. Attention is given to distinguishing atmospheric transport of contaminants from those arising from local sources.

Biological effects Sources Pollution sources Contaminant transport Mining Primary recipient Radionuclides Modelling Dioxins/furans Sediments Pesticides Waste secondary recipient Biology Organochlorines PCBs Mapping Heavy metals PAHs Long-range transport Discharges Spatial trends Environmental management Petroleum hydrocarbons Biodiversity Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Data management Temporal trends Ecosystems
115. Monitoring epiphytic lichens on birch (Betula pubescens)

The aim of this project is to monitor epiphytic lichen communities in a way that enables us to separate between natural variation and the effects of acidification and long range transported air pollutants.

Biological effects Long-range transport Acidification Epiphytic lichens Biodiversity Temporal trends Birch forests
116. Radionuklide in Fischen eingangs zur Barentssee : Radionuclides in fishes at the beginning of the Barents Sea

Our projects will investigate the effects of radioactive wastes on marine ecosystems. Two marine ecosystems have been chosen for projects: 1) the dumping site for low level radioactive waste in the north-east Atlantic and 2) the western part of the Barents Sea. The data on the radioecology of North Sea and Baltic Sea obtained in our long-time monitoring programmes will serve as a basis for the interpretation of the project´s results.

Fish Radioactivity Modelling Arctic Temporal trends
117. Trajectories of Marine Ecosystem Response to Arctic Climate Change: A Barents-Bering Sea Comparison

Multi-institutional, international cooperative project to determine the possible responses of Arctic marine communities to future global climate change by comparing retrospective patterns in benthic composition and distributions to past climatic events in the Barents and Bering Seas.

Biological effects Climate variability Spatial trends Contaminant transport Climate change Biodiversity Food webs Temporal trends Ecosystems
118. Temporal assessment of Arctic pollution of mercury and persistent organic pollutants using lake sediments

The general objective is to assess time trends and deposition loads of mercury and persistent organic pollutants from long-range atmospheric transport in Arctic environments (Greenland and north Swedish mountains) using lake sediments. The specific aims are: 1. Mercury - Study pre-industrial and industrial temporal changes in Hg concentrations in sediment records of remote lakes in Greenland and north Swedish mountains. - Address the hypothesis of 'cold condensation' (the progressive re-volatilization in relatively warm locations and subsequent condensation and deposition in cooler environments) of mercury, using a series of lake sediment cores along climate gradients: in Greenland from the inland ice sheet towards the coast and in the Swedish mountains from high altitudes down to the boreal forest. 2. POPs - Make a screening to establish which persistent organic pollutants are present in recent lake sediments in remote sites in Greenland and the north Swedish mountains. Besides PCBs, HCH, DDT and other pesticides, there are new environmental threats such as brominated flame retardants, such as PDBEs, which are of particular interest. The increasing use of PBDE and other brominated compounds may lead to increasing concentrations in the Arctic environment. However, very little is known about the levels of PBDEs as well as other POPs in sediments from the Arctic. - Analyse test series of selected POPs using a lake sediment core to assess temporal trends and a number of surface sediment samples from different lakes to assess spatial variability in concentrations and cumulative fluxes of POPs in Greenland and Swedish mountain lakes. - The main purpose of this pilot study of POPs is to determine the concentrations of selected POPs in sediments from Greenland and the northern Swedish mountains and to assess how useful lake sediments are for studying temporal and spatial pollution loads of POPs in Arctic environments.

Heavy metals Long-range transport Spatial trends Pollution sources Contaminant transport Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Geochemistry Temporal trends
119. Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants and metals in Landlocked char

The objectives of this study are to determine temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals, especially mercury, in landlocked Arctic char in Char Lake and Resolute Lake by analysis of annual sample collections, to investigate factors influencing contaminant levels in landlocked char such as the influence of sampling time, water temperature and diet, and to provide this information on a timely basis to the community of Qausuittuq (Resolute). The rationale is that small lakes in the high arctic are replenished annually with snowmelt runoff and direct precipitation which represent significant fractions of their water budgets. Declining concentrations of POPs, or increasing levels of previously unstudied POPs, in air and precipitation should be reflected relatively quickly in changes in levels in food webs and top predator fishes, compared to the vast marine environment. We know this to be the case from the sedimentary record of POPs and mercury in small arctic lakes. This project collects landlocked arctic char from lakes near Resolute annually and analyses them for mercury, a suite of other metals as well as persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides including toxaphene). Results will be compared over time. The first samples were collected from Char and Resolute Lakes in 1992/93. The next set were collected in 1997 and annually since then. Char are being collected from several lakes in the area because of limited sample numbers in some lakes and the possibility of local influences. Samples are also being archived for future analyses.

Organochlorines PCBs landlocked arctic char mercury Heavy metals Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Temporal trends
120. Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants and metals in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic

The objective of this project is to study long term temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in ringed seals from the Canadian arctic. The project rationale is that there are previous results for POPs and mercury in ringed seal tissues for many locations. Furthermore there may be regional differences in temporal trends due to geographical differences in POPs and mercury in marine waters and food webs within the Canadian arctic. It is relatively cost efficient to return to the same locations for additional samples using the same sampling and anlaysis protocols are were used in previous studies (see AMAP and Canadian Assessment Reports). Samples are being collected with the help of hunters and trappers organizations in each community. During 2000-01 samples are being collected at Resolute, Arctic Bay and Pond Inlet. The study will also analyse samples collected recently (1998/99) from Pangnirtung, Arviat and Grise Fiord. Results will be compared with previous data which the Principal Investigator generated in the 1980's and early 1990's. Preliminary results will be available in mid-2001.

Organochlorines PCBs mercury Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Temporal trends ringed seals Marine mammals