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Displaying: 101 - 120 of 138 Next
101. Relative importance of different sources of particulate matter in the Kongsfjorden environment

The general objective of this research concerns the quantitative and qualitative study of particulate matter retained in natural (sea-ice and sediment) and artificial (sediment traps) traps in order to determine the main origin (autochtonous and allochtonous) and the relative importance of different fractions of particulate matter and to follow their fate in the environment. To quantify the autochtonous origin of particulate matter, primary production, nutrient uptake, biomass distribution, phytoplankton community structure and fluxes in the first levels of the trophic chain will be investigated. Studies will be conducted in the sea-ice environment and in the water column and compared to the particle fluxes measured both in the water, using sediment traps and in the sediment, by radiometric chronology, in order to estimate the different contribution of these habitats to carbon export to the bottom. The zooplankton will be identified and counted and primary production, nutrient uptake and phytoplankton dynamics will be related to hydrological structure and nutrient availability in the environment. The Kongsfjord results particularly suitable for the main objective of this research as it is influenced by important inputs of both atmospheric (eolic and meteroric) and glacial origin and is characterised by a complex hydrological situation which may promote autochtonous productive processes, thus determining important particulate fluxes.

athmospheric carbon dioxide Biological effects Biology Arctic haze Hydrography inorganic and organic nutrients particulate Sea ice Ice Oceanography Biodiversity Arctic Ice cores Data management Atmosphere Ocean currents phytoplankton sediment radiometric chronology zooplankton
102. Phosphorus Cycling in the Cryosphere

This project will construct detailed phosphorus budgets for polar catchments occupied by glaciers and freshwater systems undergoing rapid response to climate warming. These are Midre Lovenbreen, Svalbard; Jebsen Creek, Signy Island (maritime Antarctic) and Storglaciaren, northern Sweden. The relationship between meltwater production, pathway and phosphorus liberation from glacial sediments will be examined closely. Emphasis will be given to phosphorus sorption dynamics in turbid glacial streams and their receiving waters (fjords and lakes).

Glaciers Catchment studies Phosphorus Climate change Arctic Geochemistry Ecosystems
103. Recent weathering of silicon in Northern Sweden

Lakes and dams play crucial roles in the global cycles for nutrients and organic carbon as links from the terrestrial sources to the marine sinks. The degree of retention is sometimes high in these water bodies. Treguér et al. (1995) report that increasing inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus into rivers and lakes support enhanced production of diatoms, resulting in decreasing concentrations of dissolved silicate (DSi) in the river loads. The construction of storage lakes in rivers enhances this effect, even in less eutrophicated rivers. This phenomenon is reported for large-scale systems like the Danube and the Black Sea (Humborg et al., 1997), the Mississippi river (Turner and Rabalais, 1994) as well as for more modest rivers like those entering the Baltic Sea (Humborg et al. 2000). A key factor in the retention process of the river system seems to be the residence time. The question is now which physical mechanisms governs the retention process in reservoir vs. dams. A comparative study between Akkajaure and Torne Träsk is under way to resolve the consequences of river regulation.This project is a part of a larger "programme" to investigate the reason for decreasing DSi levels in the Baltic with implications on the World Ocean.

104. Biological nutrient retention and changes in aquatic food-webs through river damming in N Sweden

Damming leads to depletion of major elements in boreal river water, with potential effects on biological production in coastal marine areas (Humborg et al. 2002, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16 in press), such as the Baltic Sea. Today, the causal mechanism to this element depeltion is unknown. The present project aims to estimate biological nutrient retention in a dammed river system (Luleälven) and an unregulated system (Torneälven). As to lenthic production, lake Torne träsk offers excellent opportunities to study the pelagic productivity regime of a pristine boreal aquatic system. Our field programme includes measurements of mictic conditions, nutrients (P, N, Si), dissolved and particulate constituents (major and minor elements), stabile isotopes (C, N, Sr, O), primary productivity, zooplankton abundance, and fish.

105. Respiration in sediments of alpine lakes

In attempt to adress the importance of the sediments in the degradation of organic matter in lakes, we want to measure respiration in some alpine lakes in the Lake Torne Area. Earlier work have been made trying to measure the saturation of CO2 in surface water of lakes all over Sweden. The measurements of respiration will also be conducted in several lakes in southern Sweden. In the end we want to make whole system carbon budgets, so that we can estimate if lakes are sources or sinks of carbon.

106. Investigations on the diversity and role of microphytobenthos in marine and freshwater food webs.

The main research goal of this project is focused on trophic interactions within microbenthic communities in aquatic systems. Grazer-microalgae interactions are investigated by conducting field and laboratory experiments in order to get a closer idea of the microphytobenthos community structure itself. Especially the role of morphological and physiological adaptations of microalgae in the presence of specific meio- and macrofaunal predators are of great interest. In addition to that we have devised a new benthic sensor for the quantitative and qualitative assessment in situ of diverse populations of microphytobenthos with high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling rapid evaluation of the community structure and distribution.

microphytobenthos Food webs Sediments chlorophyll fluorescence marine and freshwater sediments Ecosystems benthic algae
107. Polar Hydrolgy

Polar Hydrology

108. Lake Myvatn and the River Laxá

The aim is to monitor the Lake Myvatn and the river Laxá ecosystem for (1) detecting trends, (2) detecting background variability in the system, (3) assess the efficiency of management measures, (4) observe perturbations in order to generate hypotheses about causal relationships.

Biological effects Biology Populations Catchment studies Fish Spatial trends Environmental management Mining Waterbirds Modelling Biodiversity Arctic Local pollution Food webs Sediments Diet Temporal trends Ecosystems
109. The Arctic sea ice ecosystem in recent environmental changes

Biological materials obtained in the central Arctic Ocean at the FSU “North Pole stations” in 1975-1981 have shown that the multi-year ice and ice/water interface is of rich and diverse biotop inhabited by the large number of diatoms and invertebrate animals. Two main matter fluxes in the sea ice ecosystem may be distinguished: (1) the inflow of biogenous elements from water into the ice interior where they are assimilated by the microflora during photosynthesis (summer stage), and (2) the outflow – from ice to water - of the organic matter accumulated in the summer due to photosynthesis (winter stage). Accumulation of organic matter within the sea ice interior during the process of photosynthesis may be considered as an energy depot for organisms of the whole trophic network of the arctic sea ice ecosystem. Recent data from the SHEBA Ice Camp drifted within the Beaufort Gyre 1997-1998 have shown that: (1) sea ice diatoms are very scarce by species and numbers; (2) fresh water green algae are dominated by numbers and distributed within the whole sea ice thickness; (3) invertebrate animals within the sea ice interior are not indicated; (4) invertebrate animals from the ice/water interface are scarce by species and numbers; (5) concentrations of chlorophyll and nutrients in the sea ice are significantly lower of the average concentrations measured before in this region for the same period of time. Remarkable accumulation of the organic mater within the sea ice interior were not indicated.

Biological effects taxonomy Biology Sea ice Climate change Arctic Ocean Ice Biodiversity Arctic production sea ice biota
110. UV-radiation and its impact on genetic diversity, population structure and foodwebs of arctic freshwater

The aim of this international project is to measure and model arctic UV-radiation and assess the effects on freshwater planktonic organisms and foodwebs. The fieldwork and experiments are conducted at Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen. The specific aim of our participation is to study the food web effects of UV-B stress by means of in-situ enclosure studies. In the laboratory we found that UV-B stressed algal cells may increase in volume and form a thicker cell wall. These changes in the algal cells may reduce their digestibility by zooplankton. Further the role of photopigments (like melanin and carotenoids), present in some zooplankters, will be studied in relation to the survival of these animals at high UV-B exposure. Research activities Grazing experiments with Daphnia pulex (melanic and hyaline) are performed in in-situ enclosures (under different UV exposures) in the Brandal Lagune during July. The green alga Chlamydomonas will be incubated in-situ under different UV exposures to assess the potential use of this alga as a biodosimeter for UV-B. Further the survival of melanic and hyaline daphnids will be tested in-situ.

Biological effects UV radiation survival photopigments Exposure Food webs Reproduction phytoplankton zooplankton
111. Paleeoecology and (periglacial) eolian sediment transfer in the ice-sheet marginal zone of southwestern Greenland (Kangerlussuaq region)

The project aims at reconstructing the environmental history in the interior Kangerlussuaq region since deglaciation. Focus is placed on the lacustrine and eolian sediments to decipher climate evolution in terms of temperature, evaporation- precipitation balance and phases of high- wind speed events. The overall objectives are to build a high-resolution (decadal-to-century scale) chronostratigraphic framework for past climate variability from the analysis of organic-rich lake sediments and peat filled basins using a variety of sediment analysis techniques (magnetostratigraphy, grainsize, sedimentfractionation techniques, AMS 14C dating, diatom-, pollen- and macrofossil analysis) and sedimentology. Research activities diatom analysis, pollen analysis, magnetic susceptibility, automated correlation techniques, grainsize, organic chemistry, sediment fractionation techniques, AMS radiocarbon dating, sedimentology, mapping, sediment transport and erosion measurements/monitoring, micro-meteorology, vegetation mapping, pollen rain studies, diatom salinity training sets, limnology

Glaciers Geology eolian Climate variability Climate sedimentology Climate change Quaternary geology Ice sheets Geochemistry Sediments paleeoecology geomorphology periglacial paleolimnology
112. Tundra

Overall objective is to obtain net fluxes for carbon and freshwater water from an Arctic catchment under base-case and global change scenarios. Objective of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam is to study the temporal and patial variability in floodplain sediment balance over the last 2000 years. Research activities: Selected areas in the Usa basin will be studied in detail, both in the zones of continuous and discontiunous permafrost. Fieldwork was and will be conducted in the summers of 1998 and 1999. At selected field sites, the present day processes of river erosion and deposition will be evaluated and the natural evolution and variation of amount and rate of erosion and deposition will be determined for the last 2000 years.

Pathways erosion sediment balance Soils Hydrography Catchment studies carbon flux Climate variability freshwater flux Discharges Spatial trends Climate change Geochemistry Sediments Temporal trends
113. 'NAR-2000' expedition

The 'NAR-2000' expedition was performed during August-September 2000. The overall programme of work includes: - monitoring of pollution in air, waters and bottom sediments of freshwater lakes, soils and terrestrial vegetation - soil/botanical studies - visual and remote sensing (aerial photos and video surveys) studies of damage to soil and vegetation cover. Samples of river water and bottom sediments from 25 freshwater bodies and samples from 16 terrestrial sites in the area of the Varandey and Toravey oil fields were taken for chemical analyses.

Biological effects Organochlorines PCBs Soils Catchment studies Heavy metals PAHs Pollution sources phenols Petroleum hydrocarbons Forest damage soil damage Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Sediments Atmosphere Oil and Gas Temporal trends detergents
114. Radiation monitoring in the Russian Arctic

During 2000, observations under the framework of control of radioactive contamination were continued at 34 sites of the State System of Radiation Monitoring in the Russian Arctic. At all stations, daily monitoring of exposure dose strength of gamma emissions, and daily sampling of radioactive fallout from the atmosphere to determine total beta-activity are conducted. At sites in Arkhangelsk, Naryan-Mar, Salekhard, Murmansk, Dikson Island, Zhelaniya Cape, Kheis Island and Kandalaksha, sampling of atmospheric aerosols and precipitation was performed for specific radioisotopic analysis, including determination of tritium. Samples of surface water for determination of levels of 90-Sr and tritium were collected at radioactive contamination control stations in the mouth regions of the largest rivers of the Russian Arctic (Severnaya Dvina, Pechora, Mezen, Ob, Yenisey, Khatanga, Indigirka). 26 samples were collected for this purposes in 2000. Samples for determination of 90-Sr in seawater were collected at relevant sites in the Barents Sea and White Sea.

Sources Radioactivity Discharges Pollution sources Radionuclides Emissions Exposure
115. 'Lena-2000' expedition

The 'Lena-2000' expedition was performed in the area of the mouth of the Lena river and the shelf of the eastern part of the Laptev Sea during August 2000. Samples of river and marine water, suspended and bottom sediments were taken at 30 hydrological stations to study the mechanisms of contaminant transport by river water.

Shelf seas Pathways Organochlorines PCBs Hydrography Catchment studies Heavy metals PAHs Long-range transport Contaminant transport Petroleum hydrocarbons riverine transport Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Sediments fluxes
116. Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS), Food Security and Indigenous Peoples of the Russian North

Brief: Assessment of the significance of aquatic food chains as a pathways of exposure of indigenous peoples to PTS, assessment of the relative importance of local and distant sources, and the role of atmospheric and riverine transport of PTS in Northern Russia. Project rationale and objectives: (1) To assess levels of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS) in the environment in selected areas of the Russian North, their biomagnification in aquatic and terrestrial food chains, and contamination of traditional (country) foods that are important components of the diet of indigenous peoples. (2) To assess exposure of indigenous peoples in the Russian North to PTS, and the human health impacts of pollution from local and remote sources, as a basis for actions to reduce the risks associated with these exposures. (3) To inform indigenous peoples about contamination by PTS of their environment and traditional food sources, and empower them to take appropriate remedial actions to reduce health risks. (4) To enhance the position of the Russian Federation in international negotiations to reduce the use of PTS, and to empower the Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON) to participate actively and fully in these negotiations. Project activities to achieve outcomes: (1) Inventory of local pollution sources in the vicinities of selected indigenous communities. (2) Survey of levels and fluxes of PTS in riverine and coastal marine environment important for indigenous peoples living in these environments and using them for their subsistence; and assessment of fluxes of PTS to these environments via selected rivers and the atmosphere. (3) Dietary surveys of selected indigenous communities. (4) Study of biomagnification, based on measurements of selected PTS in representative species in food chains important for the traditional diet of indigenous populations. (5) Survey and comparative assessment of pollution levels of the indigenous and general population in selected areas. (6) Dissemination of results to all relevant stakeholders.

GEF Catchment studies Contaminant transport Caribou Exposure Reindeer Dioxins/furans Sediments Pesticides persistent toxic substances Human intake Marine mammals Pathways Organochlorines PTS PCBs Soils Heavy metals Fish Indigenous people PAHs Long-range transport Spatial trends Terrestrial mammals Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Seabirds Food webs Data management Diet Human health
117. Simulation Scenarios for Potential Radioactive Spreading in the 21st century from Rivers and External sources in the Russian Arctic Coastal Zone (RADARC)

1) To perform simulation scenarios for the 21st century, including global warming scenarios, of potential radioactive spreading from sources in the Russian Arctic coastal zone and its impact on Barents, Greenland and Norwegian Seas and the Arctic Ocean; 2) To update the environmental and pollution data base of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP); 3) To assess, select and define the most probable simulation scenarios for accidental releases of radionuclides; 4) To implement a Generic Model System (GMS) consisting of several nested models designed to simulate radionuclides transport through rivers, in the Kara sea and in the Arctic ocean / North Atlantic; 5) To carry out simulation studies for the selected "release" scenarios of radionuclides, using various atmospheric forcing scenarios; 6) Assess the impact on potential radioactive spreading from sources as input to risk management.

Shelf seas Pathways Sources Hydrography Catchment studies Radioactivity Long-range transport Pollution sources Sea ice Contaminant transport Radionuclides Modelling Ice Oceanography River ice Arctic Local pollution GIS Sediments
118. Study of influence of land-based sources of radionuclides on radioactive contamination of Kara sea through Ob- and Yenisey river systems

To assess potential levels of radionuclides input into the Kara sea from existing and potential sources of technogenic radioactivity, located on the land in the Ob- and Yenisey rivers watersheds. Specific Objectives * To reveal and estimate a) most hazardous technogenic sources of radioactive contamination in the Ob- and Yenisey watersheds and b) the most possible and dangerous natural and technogenic (antrophogenic) situations (in the regions of these sources) that may result in release of radionuclides into the environment and may lead to significant changes in the radioactive contamination of the Kara sea * To estimate parameters of radionuclides (potential amount, composition, types etc.) under release to the environment from chosen sources as a result of accidents as well as during migration from the sources to the Kara sea through river systems * To set up a dedicated Database and a Geographic Information System (GIS) for modelling transport of radionuclides from the land-based sources to the Kara sea * To develop and create a dedicated model tool for simulation of radionuclides transport from land-based sources through Ob- and Yenisey river systems to the Kara sea

Pathways Hydrography Catchment studies Radioactivity Long-range transport Pollution sources Sea ice Contaminant transport Radionuclides Modelling Ice Oceanography River ice Arctic Local pollution GIS Data management Ocean currents
119. Monitoring of residues in animal tissues

According to the national residue control programme heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) and organochlorine compounds (HCH, HCB, DDT, PCB, etc) are analyzed from the samples. Investigations are done according to the Council Directive 96/23/EC.

PCBs Heavy metals Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Reindeer Diet Human health Human intake
120. Airborne Contaminants in Lake Sediments and Fish in Lapland

Objectives: To determine the temporal and spatial trends and accumulation rates of heavy metals and persistent organic contamineants and to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals. Summary: Heavy metal and persistent organic contaminant concentrations and accumulation rate are measured in Pb-210 dated sediment cores of small lakes in different areas of Finnish Lapland.

Biology Heavy metals Fish Contaminant transport Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Dioxins/furans Ecosystems