The purpose of the Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) is to support and strengthen the development of multinational engagement for sustained and coordinated pan-Arctic observing and data sharing systems. SAON was initiated by the Arctic Council and the International Arctic Science Committee, and was established by the 2011 Ministerial Meeting in Nuuk.
The SAON inventory builds on a survey circulated in the community at the inception of the activity. This database is continously updated and maintained, and contains projects, activities, networks and programmes related to environmental observation in the circum-polar Arctic.
To edit or add records to any of the catalogs, log in or create an account.
The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) has 32 measurement stations distributed across Sweden, of which 16 are situated north of 60°N (Table 6, #6.1). They mainly measure radiation from radioactive compounds on the soil surface and automatically sound the alarm if the radiation increases. Every seventh month, radioactivity is measured on the soil surface at 4 to 5 spots in every municipality to check eventual radiation changes and to retain knowledge at an acceptable level (Table 6, #6.2). Special programs monitor 137Cs in humans (whole body), reindeer, fish, moose, and roe deer (Table 6, #6.3). The main incentive for this is the remains from the Chernobyl accident in 1986.
Estimates of human intake of environmental pollutions via food and drinking water are performed in cooperation with the National Food Administration (Table 4, #9.4). During 2006 an estimation of children’s intake of dioxin was finalized. The concentration of pollutants in groundwater wells is studied in cooperation with SGU and the National Board of Health and Welfare.
One focus of SEPA’s subprogram for human biological data concerns metals in human bodies (Table 4, #9.1). It includes studies on lead concentration in human blood, mercury in hair, and cadmium concentration in urine. Old hair samples have been collected and analyzed for mercury. Methyl mercury may damage the central nervous system, and at the fetal stage effects may occur already after low exposure. A study in Uppsala is investigating persistent organic compounds in breast milk. Concurrently, the young mothers answer a questionnaire, and hair samples are collected to analyze methyl mercury. Cadmium in urine is an indicator of the load on kidneys, and especially women with low iron storage have an elevated risk for increased cadmium uptake. A program on cadmium in women that started in Gothenburg, then expanded to Stockholm, Lund, and Umeå is under way. In 2007, a second round started in Gothenburg. A questionnaire is filled in concurrently with collection of a urine sample.
Organic compounds, especially persistent organic pollutants (POP), are of special interest and are included in one of SEPA’s subprograms (Table 4, #9.2). The subprogram includes different groups in the population. On military enlistment, young men are tested for persistent organic compounds in the body. Mercury content is measured in high consumers of fish, and the concentration of flame retardants is measured in samples of breast milk from women who breast-feed. The National Food Administration stores important data from control of pesticides in vegetables, where more than 2 000 samples are taken per year and residues from more than 200 different pesticides are analyzed. To date, no data have been analyzed and reported from this material, but it will be done in the first phase of this SEPA subprogram. Sampling of breast milk will continue with the intent to monitor organic environmental pollutants. Already existing is a long time series on the concentration of flame retardants and PCB in breast milk. Concurrently, samples will be transferred to the environmental sample bank at the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM), which means that samples will be available for comparison in the future.
Studies of human exposure to cancer-inducing air pollutants (Table 4, #9.3) are being conducted in Gothenburg, Umeå, Stockholm, and other sites. The importance of smoking habits, traffic, and other potential sources will be determined for a better risk evaluation. Measurements will be conducted according to a rolling schedule, with one city at a time and a group of 40 randomly chosen people, 20 to 50 years of age. The background concentrations in air will be followed at the same time. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide is particularly severe during winter. An estimate of the number of people exposed to nitrogen dioxide concentrations in excess of current limits is performed every fifth year. An improved method of calculation, i.e. the urban model, has been used since winter 2006/2007. The urban model will also be used to calculate the number of people that are overexposed to particles.
Is updated every day during the season, 2002-2007
Temperature, Salinity, pH, Oxygen, Hydrogensulphide, Phosphate, Total-Phosphorous, Nitrite, Nitrate, Ammonium, Total-Nitrogen, Alkalinity, Silicon, PON, POC, and Chlorophyll-a Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, Bacterial plankton, Zoobentos, Phytobentos, Seal, Sea Eagle, Amphipod, Sedimentation, Primary production, Klorophyll
The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) maps ice extent and type for shipping and weather prognoses (Table 6, #4.1). The ice extent at sea is of great importance for navigation, and assistance from an icebreaker is often needed, especially for harbors in the Bothnian Bay. Hence, ice conditions are mapped daily during the winter period, normally from the end of November until the end of May. Ice meteorologists take advantage of detailed reports about ice type and ice thickness from observers along the coast, e.g. pilots, special ice observers, and from the icebreakers passing through the ice-covered sea. Observations from helicopters are part of the regular icebreaking activities. Satellite images, especially from US weather satellites (NOAA-15, NOAA16 and NOAA-17), complement the ice reports and provide information on the large-scale ice situation on the scale 1 km x 1 km during clear sky conditions. More detailed ice information, down to the scale 20 m x 20 m, can be retrieved from a satellite-based instrument called Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). SAR sensors are also found onboard the Canadian RADARSAT (in operation since 1996) and on the European ENVISAT (since 2003) and provide information on the ice situation regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A good description of the ice situation is also needed as input data for weather prognosis models because the extent of sea ice has a major influence on weather (especially in coastal areas), and on temperature, cloudiness, and precipitation. Results from daily ice mapping are saved in a database from which e.g. climate statistics for the Baltic region may be generated.
The Seal and Sea Eagle subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.6) monitors marine top consumers as indicator species to assess harmful effects of environmental toxics. Hopefully, in the long run, the program will show that these species have natural reproduction, health, and population. At present the subprogram has no sampling network. In the Bothnian Bay, the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM) monitors grey seals, ringed seals, and European sea eagles. These observations will show the state and trends of population size, development, and health of seals and of reproduction, population size, and development of European sea eagles. The aim of early warning is to detect changes in reproduction, health, survival, and population trends that may result from changes in the marine environment.
The Integrated Coastal Fish Monitoring subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.5) documents the composition of the stationary fish community as well as the growth, general health situation, and reproduction success of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and burbot (Lota lota) as indicators of environmental toxics. Fish from one site close to Umeå is sent to Gothenburg University for analysis of biochemical, physiological, histological and pathogenic variables in perch.
The Free Water Body subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.4) aims to describe the effects of primarily overfertilization by means of hydrographical, chemical, and biological methods. One part of the program collects samples as frequently as 18 to 25 times per year at a few sea and coastal stations. Another part collects samples only once per year, during winter, to map the extent of areas with low oxygen content and the size of the nutrient pool, which gives the prerequisites for algal bloom in spring.
Metals and Organic Environmental Pollutants subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.3) will report mainly on environmental toxics in biota in the large sea basins, of which the Bothnian Bay and the Gulf of Bothnia are the farthest north. Sea mussels, fish, and bird eggs are collected and analyzed for the content of metals and organic toxics. The material is then stored at the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM) for possible later retrospective analyses.
The subprogram, Macro Fauna Soft Bottoms, contains trend and aerial monitoring of soft-bottom fauna in the Gulf of Bothnia. It is conducted by Umeå Marin Research Center (UmU-M) and includes basic sediment investigation and assessment of oxygen concentration in bottom waters. The aim is to observe if, and in what way, the structure of the bottom macro fauna changes. Changes may indicate over-fertilization and oxygen stagnation. Embryogenes of Amphipod (Monoporeia affinis and Pontoporeia femorata) and its environment is studied at 7 sites in Baltic Proper and 5 sites in Gulf of Bothnia as an indicator species of bottom sediment quality.
Stream water is assessed in two programs in which SMHI conducts most river discharge observations. It has 155 discharge stations in northern Sweden that belong to the Base Hydrological Network (Fig. 5, Table 6, #3.1). SMHI reports daily discharges in 46 rivers north of 60°N to BALTEX (Table 6, #3.2). The size distribution of the catchments is characterized as minimum 30 km2, median 6 400 km2 and maximum 33 930 km2, and the relative area of lakes as minimum 3%, median 6.4%, and maximum 21%. SLU is in charge of the water quality and SFB of the test fishing program. In the River Mouth Survey the goal is to estimate the element discharge from Sweden to the sea. Monthly sampling is conducted in 23 rivers and the samples are analyzed for pH, conductivity, NH4, NO2, NO2+NO3, Kjeldahl-N, Tot-N, Tot-P, PO4, TOC, Si, absorbance (on filtered and nonfiltered samples), KMnO4, Fe, Mn, alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO4, Cl, F, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Ni, V, As, Al, Hg. The primary goal of the Trend Streams program is to build time series to detect eventual environmental changes. The streams are of quite different sizes, with drainage basins from 1 to 10 000 km2. For water chemistry 37 streams are sampled monthly and the samples analyzed as for the River Mouth Survey. Out of the 37 streams 27 are selected for yearly sampling of bottom fauna and benthic diatoms, and in turn electrical test fishing is performed once per year in 16 of these.
The National Lake Survey (Table 4, #7.4) gives an aerial coverage of water quality in Swedish lakes. Water samples are taken at 0.5 to 2 m depth in a total of 1841 lakes in northern Sweden in a 6-year rotation with about 350 lakes per year. The samples are taken after the lake’s complete overturn in the autumn. For water chemistry the samples are analyzed for 20 variables (temperature, pH, NH4, NO2+NO3, Tot-N, Tot-P, PO4, TOC, Si, absorbance, Fe, Mn, alkalinity, Ca, Mg, K, Na, SO4, Cl and F) and less frequently for 9 trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Ni, V, Al). In the Trend Lakes program the sampling is more frequent (4 times per year for water chemistry and one time per year for bottom fauna, phytoplankton and macrophytes). The aim of the program is to build time series to detect environmental changes due to e.g. Climate change or large scale changes in deposition load. In this program about 40 lakes are sampled in northern Sweden. For water chemistry the samples are analyzed for the same elements as in the National Lake Survey. In addition test fishing is conducted in 2 of the lakes per year. Invented variables: Temperature, pH, NH4, NO2-NO3, Tot-N, Tot-P, PO4, TOC, Si, Absorbance, Fe, Mn, Alkalinity, Ca, Mg, K, Na, SO4, Cl, F, and trace metals Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Ni, V, Al Sampling depths: Sampling at 0.5 - 2.0 m depth during fall circulation Network layout: The network is based on EMEP-squares and gives between 19 and 134 lakes sampled per county every year. Sampled lakes rotation: About 350 lakes are sampled in northern Sweden every year in a six-year -periodical program. Out of 4824 lakes sampled in the country 2112 are situated in northern Sweden.
Since the late 1960s, the Swedish Geological Survey (SGU) has operated a groundwater network comprising about 400 wells throughout Sweden. The groundwater level is measured twice per month, resulting in maps (published monthly) of the groundwater situation in the country (Table 6, #7.1). Chemical analyses are performed twice per year in 30 wells selected from the network (Table 6, #7.2). The groundwater sampling network for water quality called “reference stations – groundwater” is split in two parts: one called trend stations (comprised of 80 stations that are sampled a couple of times per year) and the other called periodical stations (comprised of a large number of stations sampled once every 6 years). In total, 528 stations are sampled every 6 years, most of which are natural springs and the rest are groundwater observational wells and municipal water supplies (Table 4, #7.1). Half of the trend stations are situated in small aquifers, e.g. till deposits, while the other half are situated in large aquifers such as sand and gravel deposits in eskers and fossil deltas. Groundwater from all stations is analyzed according to a base program. In addition, complementary analyses are performed for a number of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, As, V and in some cases Hg). SGU operates a network for groundwater comprising about 400 stations for groundwater level and 30 stations for groundwater quality. This network is financed by SGU and data are not freely available. SGU also operates a environmental monitoring network for groundwater comprising 80 trend stations visited a couple of times per year and 528 periodical stations that are only visited oncce per six years. This monitoring network is financed by SEPA and data can be downloaded from SGU hompage. Water from the reference stations are analyzed for the following chemistry: All stations: Temperature, pH, PO4-P, Tot-P, conductivity (EC), NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2-N, Tot-N, TOC, F, Cl, Alk/Ac, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Si and Al Further analysis for periodical stations are the following metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, As, V and Hg and the organic compounds trichloretylen, tetrachloretylen
Since 2007, SLU has conducted daily phenology observations on forest trees (birch, Scots pine, and Norway spruce) during the spring at four sites in northern Sweden (Fig. 5, Table 5, ##7.2, 8.2, 13.2, and 14.2) In addition, the phenology of 15 plant species is observed at two sites and of birch at one site, all at Abisko (Table 5, #1.11, and 1.12).
At present, Sweden has 4 integrated monitoring (IM) sites that are part of a European network on integrated monitoring with an extensive measurement program. One of these sites, Gammtratten, situated in central Västerbotten, monitors several variables (Table 4, #3.2). SGU conducts groundwater sampling at 3 of the sites. In total, 18 stations are sampled 4 times per year. A program for comprehensive information on the state of forests in Europe was launched 1985 in response to acid deposition and fear of forest decline. The program was named the European ICP-Forest Program (International Co-operative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests operating under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, Table 6, #5). ICP-Forest monitors forest conditions in Europe and operates at two levels of intensity. Level I is a systematic 16 km by 16 km transnational grid having around 6 000 observation plots in Europe. Level II is comprised of around 800 sites in selected forests throughout Europe with more intense observations. The Level I measurements consist of three parts: crown condition assessment, soil condition assessment, and foliar survey. The crown condition assessment includes the degree of defoliation, discoloring, and damage visible on trees. The soil condition assessment addresses possible nutrient imbalances caused by, e.g. acid deposition. The foliar survey assesses foliar nutrient concentrations, because changes in environmental conditions may affect foliar nutrient concentrations. The Swedish contribution is made by the national forest inventory (SLU-FRM), which estimates the degree of crown defoliation and discoloring on 700 permanent plots around the country. The Swedish Forest Agency (SST) organizes the Level II observational plots. They manage a program with more than 200 permanent plots throughout Sweden, on which they estimate forest vitality (several measures), forest growth, soil chemistry, and field vegetation. Of these plots, 100 are connected to the international network, and 20 are north of 60°N. Foliage chemistry is determined on 100 plots, deposition and soil water chemistry on 50 plots, air quality on 25 plots, and climate on 14 plots. The sampling intensity varies from once in 5 years to once per hour depending
At present there are about 12 micrometeorological tower sites north of 60°N in Sweden that use eddy covariance techniques to measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, energy, and at some sites methane between terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere on a long-term and continuous basis (Table 5, ##5, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16–22). Among these tower sites, Norunda is the oldest and most complete complete (Table 5, #5). Three towers are in use at Rosindal, 70 km northwest of Umeå, in full-scale nitrogen and carbon dioxide experiments (Table 5, #12). In addition, one site is located at Zackenberg on Greenland (Table 5, #22). At the sites, data on vegetation, soil, and meteorological and hydrological conditions are also collected. The Swedish sites are integrated in the international Fluxnet program that assembles more than 400 eddy covariance sites around the world in an effort to better understand land surface – atmosphere interaction and its role in global change. The Swedish micrometeorological towers are presently financed by research councils, viz. Swedish Research Council (VR) and Formas, EU and university faculties. A European research infrastructure for flux measurements, the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is being planned and includes Sweden as one of the participating nations.