The purpose of the Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) is to support and strengthen the development of multinational engagement for sustained and coordinated pan-Arctic observing and data sharing systems. SAON was initiated by the Arctic Council and the International Arctic Science Committee, and was established by the 2011 Ministerial Meeting in Nuuk.
The SAON inventory builds on a survey circulated in the community at the inception of the activity. This database is continously updated and maintained, and contains projects, activities, networks and programmes related to environmental observation in the circum-polar Arctic.
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Fluvial transport, its dynamics and structure, constitute a good indicator of the condition of the natural environment in various climatic zones. Analysis of fluvial transport components allows for precise determination of the rate and directions of transformations of geosystems of any importance. In the polar zone, very sensitive to global changes, it seems expedient to identify the mechanisms and structure of fluvial transport, particularly in the conditions of the observed glacier retreat, the main alimentation source of proglacial rivers. Studies carried out in the zone revealed difficulties in determination of fluvial transport structure, particularly the actual bedload of gravel-bed rivers based on direct measurements, resulting from: short measurement series, lack of standardization of research methods and measurement equipment, and strategy of selection of study objects and sampling. The research project presented concerns determination of mechanisms of fluvial transport and sediment supply to Arctic gravel-bed river channels. The mechanisms reflect the processes of adaptation of proglacial rivers of the Arctic zone to changing environmental conditions, and indicate the dominant directions of transformations of paraglacial geosystems of various importance. For studies on Arctic geosystems, the region of the south Bellsund (SW Spitsbergen) was selected due to extensive knowledge on its hydro-meteorological and glacial-geomorphological conditions, and long-term measurement series carried out by the research station of the MCSU, among others within the framework of the international monitoring network: SEDIBUD (IAG) and Small-CATCHMENT program. For detailed studies, rivers with various hydrological regimes were selected, functioning at the forefield of the Scott and Renard Glaciers. The Scott River glacial catchment and glacier-free catchments of the Reindeer Stream and the Wydrzyca Stream (with a snow-permafrost hydrological regime) meet the selection criteria for representative test catchments analyzed for the following programs: SEDIFLUX, SEDIBUD, and POP.
The National Lake Survey (Table 4, #7.4) gives an aerial coverage of water quality in Swedish lakes. Water samples are taken at 0.5 to 2 m depth in a total of 1841 lakes in northern Sweden in a 6-year rotation with about 350 lakes per year. The samples are taken after the lake’s complete overturn in the autumn. For water chemistry the samples are analyzed for 20 variables (temperature, pH, NH4, NO2+NO3, Tot-N, Tot-P, PO4, TOC, Si, absorbance, Fe, Mn, alkalinity, Ca, Mg, K, Na, SO4, Cl and F) and less frequently for 9 trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Ni, V, Al). In the Trend Lakes program the sampling is more frequent (4 times per year for water chemistry and one time per year for bottom fauna, phytoplankton and macrophytes). The aim of the program is to build time series to detect environmental changes due to e.g. Climate change or large scale changes in deposition load. In this program about 40 lakes are sampled in northern Sweden. For water chemistry the samples are analyzed for the same elements as in the National Lake Survey. In addition test fishing is conducted in 2 of the lakes per year. Invented variables: Temperature, pH, NH4, NO2-NO3, Tot-N, Tot-P, PO4, TOC, Si, Absorbance, Fe, Mn, Alkalinity, Ca, Mg, K, Na, SO4, Cl, F, and trace metals Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Ni, V, Al Sampling depths: Sampling at 0.5 - 2.0 m depth during fall circulation Network layout: The network is based on EMEP-squares and gives between 19 and 134 lakes sampled per county every year. Sampled lakes rotation: About 350 lakes are sampled in northern Sweden every year in a six-year -periodical program. Out of 4824 lakes sampled in the country 2112 are situated in northern Sweden.