ENVINET (European network for arctic-alpine multidiciplanary environmental research) is a research infrastructure network focusing on multidisciplinary environmental research in Europe. The network involves representatives from 18 environmental research infrastructures from the European Alps to the Arctic, representatives of their users and representatives from relevant international organizations and networks. The participating infrastructures cover a broad range of environmental sciences primarily within atmospheric physics and chemistry as well as marine and terrestrial biology.
The ENVINET project directory covers data and observation activities at these stations.
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The main objective was to investigate the importance of the sediment as a nutrient source for blooms of nuiscance filamentous algae. Nutrient fluxes from the sediment were hypothesised to be of greater importance in maintaining algal biomass than were nutrients originating from the overlying water column. We aimed to assess the relative importance of algal mats on sediment geochemistry and nutrient release under stillwater and controlled flow conditions. Using nutrient fluxes as a surrogate for ecosystem function, we wished to investigate the role of species richness in maintaining the integrity of nutrient diagenesis. In this context, it is not necessarily the number of species that is important in maintaining nutrient supply to algal blooms, but the contribution individual species make to mediate nutrient release.
The phsyiological and locomotive reaction to factors that influence environmental behaviour of Nordic krill from the Gullmarfjorden were studied in terms of swimming energetics, predator avoidence and food utilization. In a newly developed experimental approach, individuals were maintained under defined conditions in flow through chambers and continuously monitored for swimming activity and oxygen consumption. Chemical, physical and biological parameters were applied and the reaction of the krill determined. Stress levels, defined this way, will serve as a reference for unfavourable conditions in the field. Thermal characteristics of digestive enzymes from the midgut gland were furthermore identify the optimum conditions for nutrient assimilation. The results will contribute to the understanding of diel vertical migration, dispersion and aggregation of krill which, in turn is essential for the interpretation of ecosystem dynamics and trophic interactions.
The project as a whole consists of a number of sub-projects which are: a) Is female coloration a signal of quality? b) Do males conduct post-spawning mate choice through differential filial cannibalism? c)Do female preferences for male size change throughout the season? d)Do female common gobies compete for access to high-quality males? e)Are male reproductive decisions influenced by prior expectation of female quality? f)How is male-male competition over nest sites influenced by resource holding potential and resource value? g)How do parasites influence mate preferences in two-spotted gobies?
The experiments comprise automated receiving systems for 150 and 400 MHz transmissions from NIMS (formerly known as NNSS) satellites that are used to determine the ionospheric electron content by means of the differential carrier phase method. Receivers are located at Ny-Ålesund, Longyearbyen, Bjørnøya and Tromsø. Measurements of electron content from the receiver network are inverted in a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to yield two-dimensional images of electron density over a wide region. The observations are used to investigate the dynamical processes responsible for the spatial structuring of the plasma distribution in the polar ionosphere. These tomographic images are complementary to measurements made using the EISCAT and EISCAT Svalbard radars and auroral optical instruments located on Svalbard.
The aim of this project is to study the physical oceanography of the sea in the area where Kongsbreen glacier get in touch with the sea in the inner part of Kongsfjord. In particular the project aims: to characterise temperature and salinity of water masses in the inner part of Kongsfjord close to Kongsbreen Glacier to characterise major fresh water outflow from Kongsbreen glaciers to the sea in the inner part of the fiord to collect time series if seawater currents in-out from the inner part, temperature and salinity patterns for one year from summer 2001 to summer 2002. to collect a one year time series of sea level changes by an automatic self recording depth gauges deployed close to the base.
The aims of the project are: - to evaluate the fluxes of radionuclides in the water column and their accumulation in the sediment, on a short-time scale; - to determine the C/N and delta13C-delta15N ratios in suspended and sedimentary matter, and test their use as tracers of origin, composition and transformation pathways of organic particles. The selected study area is the Kongsfjord-Krossfjord system, Svalbard, considered as representative test-site for studying processes occurring in Arctic fjords. The focus of the project will be on the processes occurring at the glacier-sea interface, where enhanced lithogenic and biogenic particle fluxes are reported in summer. Specific methods will be used to trace the particle sources. The rate of accumulation-resuspension processes will also be investigated from the inner fjord to the outer continental shelf.
Study of secondary metabolites and peptides produced by arctic plants. The aim of the project is the chemical and biochemical analysis of arctic plants such as Saxifraga spp., Artemisia borealis and Pedicularis dasyantha and others, for the search of compounds (secondary metabolites and peptides) to be employed as potential new drugs The basic working program in the arctic base will focus on the collection and preliminary work up (extraction, initial fractionation) of vegetal tissues from arctic plant species and their storage for the subsequent finer analyses
The general objective of this research concerns the quantitative and qualitative study of particulate matter retained in natural (sea-ice and sediment) and artificial (sediment traps) traps in order to determine the main origin (autochtonous and allochtonous) and the relative importance of different fractions of particulate matter and to follow their fate in the environment. To quantify the autochtonous origin of particulate matter, primary production, nutrient uptake, biomass distribution, phytoplankton community structure and fluxes in the first levels of the trophic chain will be investigated. Studies will be conducted in the sea-ice environment and in the water column and compared to the particle fluxes measured both in the water, using sediment traps and in the sediment, by radiometric chronology, in order to estimate the different contribution of these habitats to carbon export to the bottom. The zooplankton will be identified and counted and primary production, nutrient uptake and phytoplankton dynamics will be related to hydrological structure and nutrient availability in the environment. The Kongsfjord results particularly suitable for the main objective of this research as it is influenced by important inputs of both atmospheric (eolic and meteroric) and glacial origin and is characterised by a complex hydrological situation which may promote autochtonous productive processes, thus determining important particulate fluxes.
Symbion pandora is a commensal on Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) with a very complicated life cycle. The species was described very recently and appointed to a new phylum, Cycliophora. Obviously nothing is known about the biology of this animal. The present study investigated the feeding biology of Symbion pandora. This was investigated by offering them two different high quality food items: Algae and mussel. Additionally, incubations with radiolabelled dissolved amino acids were done to estimate the energy contribution from DOM. A specific goal was to quantify the amount of organic matter taken in during one meal and estimate how much this contributes to the total energy requirement of internal budding, production of larvae etc. during the life cycle of the cycliophoran. This was done by autoradiography and radiolabel incorporation.
The aim of our work was to study the occurrence of inorganic carbon pumps in the cell membrane and their importance in the supply of C for photosynthesis in different macrophyte species. This was performed by checking and comparing responses of several green, brown and, especially, red marine macroalgae species under CO2 disequilibrium conditions in the presence of buffer and/or inhibitors of carbon uptake. In addition, the effect of the different treatments was also checked in the marine phanerogam Zostera marina.
The activity pattern is recorded by new techniques of real-time video tracking of the benthic activity. Electronic intelligent sensors allow the time analysis of benthic numeric objects with intensive automated recording sessions. We record the natural behaviour of several animals over 24h cycles. We also look into possible antagonistic behaviour, i.e. how animals feed when they have tubes close to each other and when feeding may occur in the same patches. Comparison is made between active motile surface deposit feeders and tubicolous surface deposit feeders. Activities of Amphiura filiformis, A.chiajei (motile burried Ophiuroids) and Melinna cristata (tubicolous Polychaete) are extracted by image analysis and quantified. Amphiura activity is restricted to its deposit feeding mode and no suspension feeding is present in the experiments. We also examine how addition of phytoplankton to the sediment will affect the feeding activity and if Amphiura and Melinna can locate patches of food. Dynamics of the response to food addition is studied.
Most studies of energetics in marine filter feeders have focused on animals living in steady state food conditions. However, copepods experience highly variable access to food because of food patchiness and behavioural avoidance of predators. For small copepods this is especially important since they lack the potential of energy storage, e.g. in the form of lipids. After a period of food deprivation Acartia tonsa show a compensatory increase in ingestion rate, but only temporarily and on the time scale of the gut filling time. The copepods are able to compensate for the lacking input of food. On the other hand, longer periods of starvation (6-14h) induce elevated ingestion rates that lasts longer than gut filling time. Under these circumstances other energetic factors influence the ingestion rate. Consequently, the energetics of the copepods are highly variable in a patchy food environment.
To asses the utility of a new range of microelectrode sensors in measuring the flux rates of oxygen and nutrients across the sedimentary diffusive boundary layer and into and through macrofaunal tubes and burrow structures.
To be completed.
In order to evaluate the capacity of mussels to accumulate pollutants and to enhance growth and physiological effects, an investigation was carried out in the Faroe Islands and in the Skagerrak. In March 2000, about 1500 mussels of proper dimensions (length ranging between 5 and 6 cm) were collected in the Kaldbak Fjord (Faroe Islands) on a 10m water column. Selected mussels were divided in 4 groups (320 each) and deployed in 4 different stations (one at the Faroe Islands and three in the Skagerrak). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were also deployed in the same stations for the preconcentration of lipophilic pollutants. One month later (end of April-beginning of May) mussels and SPMDs were recollected and sent to different laboratories for the determination of various parameters.
This project was initiated the previous year under a LSF funding. Its purpose was to provide a detailed descriptive, experimental and molecular study of aplacophoran embryology and larval development in the context of the current macro-evolutionary and developmental issuses. Research was to focus on the aplacophoran chaetoderm Chaetoderma nitidulum which is readily available at Kristineberg Marine Research Station. Aspects of aplacophoran development to be examined were the following: 1. Basic embryology and larval development. 2. Specification of the dorsal-ventral organizer and mesoderm. 3. Development of the larval and adult musculature systems and larval sensory organs. 4. Expression pattern of the engrailed gene and protein.
Amphiura filiformis is a common brittlestar founded in abundance in the vicinity of Kristineberg Marine Station. Despite numerous ecological studies on aspect of it's biology remains unclear, the animal is luminous and nearly nothing is known on the phenomenon. This project aimed firstly to describe morhological, physiological and ethological aspects of the bioluminescence of Amphiura filiformis and secondly to investigate the mechanism and role of regeneration on the recovery on bioluminescence.
The project aims at producing an ENVISAT-1 mission-long monitoring of the inorganic chlorine (Cly) and fluorine (Fy) loading in the Earth’s middle atmosphere, based on FTIR vertical column abundance measurements of the key related species HCl, ClONO2, HF and COF2 at 10 ground-based NDSC sites distributed worldwide. These Cly and Fy inventories will be completed with ClO and OClO measurements expected as Level-2 products from ENVISAT-1. The column abundances of the source gases CFC-12 and HCFC-22 will be used to place the stratospheric Cly and Fy evolution in perspective with the more complete sets of organic chlorinated and fluorinated compounds measured at the ground by the in situ networks NOAA-CMDL and AGAGE. The assimilation of the retrieved geophysical data bases will be performed through 3-D model calculations incorporating physical, chemical and transport characteristics of the global atmosphere.
The present project aims at the geophysical validation, from pole to pole and on the long term, of key ozone-related level-2 products (O3, NO2, BrO, OClO, and ClO) from GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT-1, and at a contribution to the maturation of the related level-1b-to-2 data processors. Application data processing will be used to convert level-2 data into a more suitable format for validation and scientific end-users. The respective performances of the ENVISAT data products, and their sensitivity to various relevant parameters, will be investigated from the Arctic to the Antarctic, over a variety of geophysical conditions. The impact of these performances on specific atmospheric chemistry studies will be emphasised. The pseudo-global investigations will rely on correlative studies of ENVISAT data with high-quality ground-based, in situ and balloon observations associated with the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC).
The project will provide a long-term, pseudo-global validation support to the ENVISAT-1 atmospheric measurements, based on mutually consistent high-quality solar and lunar observations from FTIR spectrometers operated at primary and a number of complementary NDSC stations. The validation is limited to a number of target species, most of which are primary NRT or OL level-2 products of the mission, with focus on NOy components: O3, NO2, NO, N2O, HNO3, HNO4, H2CO, CO and CH4. Synergistic use will be made of column and profile data from MIPAS, GOMOS and SCIAMACHY. The ground network will deliver mean vertical column abundances for all target species with NDSC-type quality, and height profile information for some target gases as secondary products to the PI's home institute, where the correlative analyses with the ENVISAT-1 products will be done. Asynoptic mapping tools will support the validation efforts.