ENVINET Activities Catalog

ENVINET Activities Catalog

ENVINET (European network for arctic-alpine multidiciplanary environmental research) is a research infrastructure network focusing on multidisciplinary environmental research in Europe. The network involves representatives from 18 environmental research infrastructures from the European Alps to the Arctic, representatives of their users and representatives from relevant international organizations and networks. The participating infrastructures cover a broad range of environmental sciences primarily within atmospheric physics and chemistry as well as marine and terrestrial biology.

The ENVINET project directory covers data and observation activities at these stations.

Other catalogs through this service are AMAP, SAON and SEARCH, or refer to the full list of projects/activities.

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Displaying: 181 - 200 of 383 Next
181. Environmental sensitivity of cold water corals

Distribution • What is the current distribution of coral colonies in the North Sea? • Where are coral colonies located on the structures? • Do any colonies show evidence of exposure to drill cuttings? Monitoring & Environmental Recording • What hydrodynamic regime and levels of suspended particulate material are coral colonies exposed to? • Does the coral skeleton retain an archive of any past contamination? • Does skeletal growth vary over time and does this correlate with any past contamination? • How variable is the rate of coral growth and does this correlate with any environmental variables? Environmental Sensitivity • What effect does increased sediment load have on coral behaviour and physiology? • What effect does exposure to discharges (e.g. cuttings and produced water) have on coral behaviour and physiology? • Are such exposures realistic in the field?

Shelf seas Biological effects Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Petroleum hydrocarbons Oceanography Biodiversity Local pollution Ecosystems
182. The Effects of Turbidity on Marine Fishes

(a) To assemble and further develop an integrative methodology for in situ evaluation of the effects of turbidity and hypoxia on fish physiological and/or behavioural performance. (b) To determine experimentally the threshold values beyond which oxygen and turbidity levels are liable to alter fish physiological and/or behavioural performance. (c) To integrate the results obtained in a conceptual and predictive model. Main expected achievements: [1] establishment of a link between laboratory studies, studies in mesocosms and field studies, using the most advanced techniques for monitoring behaviour in various environmental conditions. [2] an understanding of the impact of water turbidity and oxygenation on three major components of the behavioural repertoire of fish: habitat selection, predator-prey interactions and schooling-aggregation. [3] Predictive ability for the effect of the environmental variables studied on ecologically relevant behaviour.

Shelf seas Biological effects Fish Environmental management Local pollution Food webs
183. Modelling Nitrogen Fluxes In Tundra Ecosystems On Svalbard Using N-15 Labelling Of The Snowpack And Measurement Of Natural Isotopic Abundance 180/160 And 15N/14N.

The high Arctic contains delicate, relatively pristine ecosystems that are increasingly subject to exported aerial pollution (e.g. nitrogen) and higher than average climatic temperature change. Together these factors may potentially change important biogeochemical processes (e.g. the cycling of carbon and nitrogen) and ecosystem dynamics. This project involving the University of Nottingham, The British Geological Survey and IACR Rothamsted is now entering its second field season. The project concentrates on the release and the subsequent fate of N, entering the tundra ecosystem, as a pulse during the spring thaw. The questions we propose addressing are (i) how important is this event in transferring enhanced N deposition to tundra ecosystems, and how much is lost as run-off to lacustrine and inshore marine environments, (ii) how does enhanced N affect the carbon cycle (i.e. plant growth, decomposition processes) and (iii) what is the impact on soil N mineralizationimmobilization dynamics. Two plot experiments have been set up at contrasting vegetation sites around Kongsfjorden (Brandalspyntyn and Ny-London). We have simulated the release of N from the snowpack by applying 15N label as the snow has melted. An accurate audit regarding the fate of this snowpack N can then be made (i.e. does it remain in the soil, enter the tundra flora and soil microbiology or is it lost from the system). In addition, using techniques for combined 18O+15N analysis of nitrate, we can distinguish between atmospheric- and soil-derived nitrate. This will allow us to assess and source losses of N from the tundra during the brief summer growing season. These complementary approaches will provide a quantitative understanding of the fate of deposited N in the pristine Arctic environment. The overall aim will be to parameterize an N-flux model for this important ecosystem.

Biology
184. Modelling Nitrogen Fluxes In Tundra Ecosystems On Svalbard Using N-15 Labelling Of The Snowpack And Measurement Of Natural Isotopic Abundance 180/160 And 15N/14N.

The high Arctic contains delicate, relatively pristine ecosystems that are increasingly subject to exported aerial pollution (e.g. nitrogen) and higher than average climatic temperature change. Together these factors may potentially change important biogeochemical processes (e.g. the cycling of carbon and nitrogen) and ecosystem dynamics. This project involving the University of Nottingham, The British Geological Survey and IACR Rothamsted is now entering its second field season. The project concentrates on the release and the subsequent fate of N, entering the tundra ecosystem, as a pulse during the spring thaw. The questions we propose addressing are (i) how important is this event in transferring enhanced N deposition to tundra ecosystems, and how much is lost as run-off to lacustrine and inshore marine environments, (ii) how does enhanced N affect the carbon cycle (i.e. plant growth, decomposition processes) and (iii) what is the impact on soil N mineralizationimmobilization dynamics. Two plot experiments have been set up at contrasting vegetation sites around Kongsfjorden (Brandalspyntyn and Ny-London). We have simulated the release of N from the snowpack by applying 15N label as the snow has melted. An accurate audit regarding the fate of this snowpack N can then be made (i.e. does it remain in the soil, enter the tundra flora and soil microbiology or is it lost from the system). In addition, using techniques for combined 18O+15N analysis of nitrate, we can distinguish between atmospheric- and soil-derived nitrate. This will allow us to assess and source losses of N from the tundra during the brief summer growing season. These complementary approaches will provide a quantitative understanding of the fate of deposited N in the pristine Arctic environment. The overall aim will be to parameterize an N-flux model for this important ecosystem.

Biology
185. Phosphorus Cycling in the Cryosphere

This project will construct detailed phosphorus budgets for polar catchments occupied by glaciers and freshwater systems undergoing rapid response to climate warming. These are Midre Lovenbreen, Svalbard; Jebsen Creek, Signy Island (maritime Antarctic) and Storglaciaren, northern Sweden. The relationship between meltwater production, pathway and phosphorus liberation from glacial sediments will be examined closely. Emphasis will be given to phosphorus sorption dynamics in turbid glacial streams and their receiving waters (fjords and lakes).

Glaciers Catchment studies Phosphorus Climate change Arctic Geochemistry Ecosystems
186. Control And Distribution of Inorganic Chemical Species And Microbes Within Glacier Ice

To determine where different types of impurities (primarily specific inorganic chemical species and microbes) are located on a microspopic scale within the ice and what controls their distribution.

Glaciers
187. Quantify the Contribution of Svalbard Glaciers to the Observed Sea Level Rise Over the Past Sixty Years Using Archived Aerial Surveys.

Use of digital stereo photogrammetry to spatially quantify through time the loss of ice mass on Midre Lovenbreen, Austre Broggerbreen and Slakbreen. Pairs of stereo areial photographs from each glacier will be processed to create digital elevation models from at least three periods over the last 30-50 years, and differencing them will give a highly accurate view of glacier retreat through time which can be linked through models to climate change analysis.

Glaciers
188. Seal studies in Kongsfjorden 2003

Seals studies

Biology Marine mammals
189. Effects of UV radiation on lipids, fatty acids and nutritonal quality of Arctic marine alga and zooplankton

Effects of UV radiations on lipids, fatty acids and nutritional quality of Arctic marine algae and zooplankton

Biological effects UV radiation
190. Protoniks

Observation of proton aurora on the dayside with use of spectrometer operated simultaneous in Longyearbyen and Ny-Ålesund. Absolute calibration of the instrument located at The Sverdrupstation were performed in the period 9-13 January 2003.

Atmospheric processes Geophysics Atmosphere
191. LAPBIAT Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere Water Vapor Validation Project: LAUTLOS - WAVVAP

The focus of this project is the improvement of water vapour measurement techniques in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Routine measurements of water vapour with high accuracy in these altitudes are an unsolved problem of meteorological measurements up to now. Water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas in the earth's atmosphere. Recent model calculations show that observed water vapour increases in the stratosphere contribute significantly both to surface warming and stratospheric cooling. In addition to climate change both the direct chemical and indirect radiative effects of stratospheric water changes in ozone chemistry are important as well. Despite of many activities in the past ten years, accuracies of the available methods for measuring the water vapour vertical profile in the free atmosphere are still not sufficient. Therefore one of the aims of the forthcoming EU COST Action 723 "The Role of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere in Global change", is to improve sounding and remote sensing techniques of water vapour (see http://www.sat.uni-bremen.de/cost/). Another example of the planned work focusing on water vapour is proposed GEWEX (Global Energy an Water Cycle Experiment) Water Vapour Project (GVaP). See [SPARC 2000] and the references therein. The idea of LAUTLOS-WAVVAP comparison/validation experiment which brings together lightweight hygrometers developed in different research groups, which could be used as research-type radiosondes in UTLS region. These include the following instruments: Meteolabor Snow White hygrometer, NOAA frostpoint hygrometer, CAO Flash Lyman alpha hygrometer, Lindenberg FN sonde (a modification of Vaisala radiosonde) and the latest version of regular Vaisala radiosonde with humicap-polymer sensor. The experimental plan of LAUTLOS-WAVVAP is based on the regular launches of multi-sensor payloads from the Sodankylä meteorological balloon launch facility in January -February 2004. The aim is to study the effect of atmospheric conditions such as ambient temperature, water vapour or relative humidity, pressure or solar radiation for each participating hygrometer/radiosonde. Both night and daytime launches are planned. Apart from the intercomparison/validation experiment the campaign also have an scientific aim of studying the stratospheric PSC occurrence and their dependence on local temperature and the water vapour content. The campaign will be hosted by FMI Arctic Research Centre Sodankylä assisted by Vaisala Oyj and is a part of planned Finnish contribution to Cost 723 project. The campaign in Sodankylä is partly funded from LAPBIAT Facility, which belong to the EU program: Access to Research Infrastructures (see: http://www.sgo.fi/lapbiat/). References: SPARC Assessment of Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Water Vapor/SPARC Report No2/ December 2000

atmospheric water vapor Ozone measurement technology Climate variability Climate Climate change Arctic Atmosphere hygrometers
192. Interaction between moose (Alces alces) and the willow Salix phylicifolia (Salicaceae)

The project deals with the interaction between moose (Alces alces) and one of its major food plants (Salix phylicifolia, - Salicaceae). This plant was chosen after previous investigations in this area. On one hand the food selection of moose will be investigated. On the other hand the influence of browsing on the changes of chemical compounds and morphological structures of the food plant will be studied. While the quality and the browsing degree on Salix phylicifolia will be recorded in natural habitat, the induction of changes in the plant metabolism caused by moose and its subsequent consequences for the food selection will be studied experimentally. The primary plant compounds will be analysed by standard methods. Specific secondary plant compounds will be analysed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The results of the chemical analyses should be used to calibrate near infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) to determine the quality of the food. Then the spectra should be used to predict the probable use of S. phylicifolia by moose in this area.

193. Stordalen carbon cycling and trace gas flux project 2002

The greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) exchanges in northern wetlands are affected by presence of vascular plants. The mechanisms at function are, however, largely unknown. The root adjacent zone is characterized by intense interactions between plants and their environment and many important processes relating to carbon turnover of ecosystems are taking place in this zone. A fairly large amount of the carbon assimilated by plants through photosynthesis is continuously released from the roots. These labile carbon compounds can serve as substrate for the methanogenic bacterial community of the root zone and have a substantial effect on CH4 production in the soil. Thus, even small environmental changes affecting root zone processes could have far-reaching consequences for the functioning of wetland ecosystem and their interaction with the atmosphere. The objectives of this project aim to broaden the existing knowledge about carbon circulation in wetlands.

194. ANS´climate measurerments

1. Supervision of instruments used for ANS´climate monitoring on the Observation Hill. There will be installations and comparisons between instruments used for radiation, wind speed and direction. 2. Data collection and supervision of instruments used in an ANS´project for monitoring air and groundtemperatures, wind spped and direction at a site near Lake Njulla 1000. The lake is situated below the saddle between Njulla and Slåttatjåkka. The program is described in an attachment. For the work on Njulla I plan 2-3 visits, each lasting from approximately 10h to 15h. It would be of advantage for practical reasons and also for security reasons if an assiatant could accompany me during the visits to Njulla. A battery (12 kg) has to be carried from the upper lift station to Lake Njulla.

195. Effect of reindeer grazing on biodiversity at differet spatial scales

Reindeer grazing is often considered as a threat against the biodiversity in arctic and alpine plant communities in the Nordic countries. However, there is almost no data on the effect of reindeer grazing on species richness in arctic and alpine regions. If we should understand how reindeer grazing influence species richness, it is important to distinguish between different spatial scales. Species richness on small plots is probably determined by local processes such as competition intensity, germination rate of seeds or nutrient availability, while species richness at larger spatial scales is probably determined by the heterogeneity and the size of the species pool. As different processes influence species richness at different spatial scales, the effect of reindeer grazing on species richness in small and large areas does not have to be similar. My hypotheses is that reindeer grazing sometimes increase and sometimes decrease species richness on small spatial scales, while it consistently increase species richness at larger spatial scales.

196. Belowground carbon allocation, effects of temperature and soil moisture.

Carbon allocation to, and translocation in-between, different below-ground compartments in wet and semi wet mire ecosystems are to be studied during summer 2002. The project is part of EU founded CARBOMONT, where carbon cycling in European alpine regions is studied. Stordalen mireConsidered methods were applied to dry heath ecosystems summer 2001, which successfully produced a budget over carbon allocation to belowground compartments in heath ecosystems. This year’s study is focused on wet and semi wet ecosystems, making it possible to compare below-ground carbon allocation and translocation in different ecosystems dominating Stordalen mire. Stordalen birch forest Carbon allocation to Ericoid mycorrhizae was studied under enhanced precipitation conditions, which resulted in an altered carbon allocation pattern compared to untreated ecosystems. This summer the effects of increased temperature on carbon allocation to Ericoid mycorrhizal compartments are to be studied. Temperature effects on mycorrhizal functions such as 15N labelled amino acid uptake, will also be investigated.

197. Conifer stomata analysis in Late Quaternary paleoecolgy in Scandinavia

The project aims to develop the use of stomata analysis as a Quaternary palaeoecological tool in Scandinavia following the lead in North America and Siberia (Hansen 1995, Gervais and MacDonald, 2001). A key is being produced to identify the main Scandinavian conifers from their stomata. Surface samples of lake sediment will be collected in catchments with and without the main conifers to determine the extent to which stomata are transported beyond the catchment in which the trees occur. Paleoecological work will be carried out to obtain supplementary information about the timing of the appearance and disappearance of Larix sibirica (Kullman, 1998) and to apply the knowledge gained on the dispersibility of stomata to the arrival and increase of other conifers.Surface lake samples have been collected from lakes in southern and central Sweden. I would like to find some small lakes to surface sample in Northern Sweden. Three promising areas with a high density of lakes have been identified around the Abisko field station and Kiruna areas. I will use a standard surface sediment sampler and will sample between 6 and 12 lakes. This work will have wide applicability in NW Europe, replacing the use of Trautmann's key (1953), and will contribute significantly to the increasing use of stomata as a palaeoecological tool. (see www.kv.geo.uu.se/cas.html for further information)

198. Desmid comunities in the Torne-Lappmark, depending on geographical, chemical and physical parameters

In 1964 Skuja published the results of his investigations concerning the phycological vegetation in the Torne-Lappmark, demonstrating the impressive biodiversity especially within the group of the Conjugatophyceae (Desmids). As this group proved to be a very sensitive tool to registrate changes in environmental conditions (Kies a. Handke 1990), it seemed to be of importance to have a look on the situation today and to compare the composition of the desmid communities. A further aspect is the analysis of the reliance of the biodiversity of the Conjugatophyceae on the geographical and geological conditions with modern methods. Therefor samples will be taken from swamps, ponds and lakes from the alpine, subalpine and montane regions and their main physical and chemical parameters will be ascertained. The investigations will be completed by lists of higher plabnts growing in the surrounding of the water bodies. Back in Hamburg the samples will be evaluated and used for isolating selected species of desmids not only for further investigations but also for integrating them into our culture collection of Conjugatophyceae (SVCK, Engels 1995) and Engels, 2001: http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/biologie/b-online/d44_1/44_1.htm

199. To investigate the Cambrian rock layers for trace fossils and trilobites.

To make an inventory of the fossil fauna and trace fossils at Loupakte. Depending on what is found during this inventory, I will study the diversity and possibly some behavioural aspects of the faunal traces found. This will hopefully be part of a larger project concerning Cambrian fossils.

200. Time geography analysis of tourist behaviors on wild and protect area (Abisko national park)

The aim of the project is to investigate the behavior and perception of people who consume natural area for leisur and recreational time. We want to develop simulation tool based on multi reactive system and agent based modelling. The work we want to do on abisko national park is to understand behaviors and perceptions of tourist and local people to calibrate the model. Methodology : inqueries, interviews and tracking people in the park. The objective of the research is to bring to space managers an efficient tool to forecast reactions about their policies. In the same time, we want improve the theoritical field by showing an investigation on microscale interaction is able to shown effects on the whole system and help for emergencing process of structures at macroscale.