Sweden: projects/activities

Directory entires that have specified Sweden as the primary or lead country for the project/activity and are included in the AMAP, ENVINET, SAON and SEARCH directories. To see the full list of countries, see the countries list. The specified country may not be the geographic region where the activity is taking place - to select a geographic region, see the list of regions.

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Displaying: 201 - 220 of 228 Next
201. Variation in life history traits in P.vulg

Study of factors influencing flowering probability in Pinguicula vulgaris. Ongoing measurements in the field will continue.

202. Effects of UV-B and CO2 on sub-arctic heaths

Continuation of long standing UV-B x CO2 enrichment on the heath below the station as a possible pre-cursor to future EU funding.

203. Resource allocation in butterflies

Recent findings on the highly polyandrous and nuptial gift giving butterfly Pieris napi shows that females may use resources (nitrogen) from thorax, presumably from breakdown of wing muscles, to increase their reproductive potential and the results indicate that also males can use thorax material in their reproduction. This possibility that males in polyandrous species use thorax material in a similar way as females is up to now unknown. As the degree of polyandry increase, males invest more to reproductive parts and equals females with respect to size.This possibility that males in polyandrous species use thorax material in a similar way as females is up to now unknown and very interesting. As the degree of polyandry increase, males invest more to reproductive parts and equals females with respect to size. This shift between the sexes in how resources are used may also be valid to breakdown of resources in thorax. The first part of the study has focused on these aspects, i.e. what are the differences in how males of species with different mating systems use their resources (especially nitrogen). For this purpose we participate in a large comparative study of Swedish and US butterflies.In the Abisko area we are interested especially in collecting one satyrid species, Erebia pandrose, since this species (in contrast to other satyrid species)is highly polyandrous.

204. LTER Cross Site: Interactions between climate and nutrient cycling in arctic and subarctic tundras

In this field project we will study vegetation characteristics along natural geographical gradients, and monitor vegetation dynamics in long-term field experiments. The measurements will be combined with remotely sensed images (i.e. satellite images) and computer models to quantify vegetation carbon exchange and to test whether these techniques are suitable to detect changes in the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of the arctic.﷡This summer a survey of leaf area indices along an east -west gradients of yearly rainfall and geography will be carried out, and one hillslope gradient and a small catchment will be studied in more detail. For each location leaf area estimates of the vegetation will be obtained using light measurements and the vegetation samples will be taken to be analysed in the lab.

205. Comparison of lichen communities in snowbeds in the Subarctic Scandes and High Sudetes

Lichen flora of snowbeds in the Massif of Slattajakka and Njuollja will be studied in close relation to the objectives of Swedish-Czech project "Comparative ecology of cryogenic landforms in the Subarctic Scandes and the High Sudetes" (C.Jonasson, L.Papáčková-Soukupová). Sampling of lichen species and assessment of their abundance will be carried out repeatedly in short-, mid- and long-term snowbeds from the beginning to the end of melting season. Similar sites will be analysed both in Slattajakka-Njuollja Massif, N Scandes and Luční-Studniční Mt., the High Sudetes. In both massifs, specific lichen zonation is characteristic for various types of snowbeds occurring in different cryogenic landforms situated in the leeward of anemo-orographiic systems, which modify snow deposition in winter (Jeník 1961). Apart of in situ easily recognizable lichens, the determination of difficult groups will be performed in laboratory by standard LM procedures, spot reactions or - if necessary - by TLC. Poorly known and taxonomically difficult tundra microlichens will be selectively collected for eventual molecular analyses.

206. Fruitset in Linnaea borealis along an altitud gradient in the subarctics

Fruit set in Linnaea borealis is known to be low. Plausible reasons for low fruit/seed set in self-incompatible plants are: pollinator shortage, xenogamous-pollen shortage and environmental conditions. Preliminary results from a study Abisko 2001 suggest that fruit set in L. borealis is partly pollinator limited. Wilcock and Jennings (1999) concluded, however, that fruit set in some Scottish populations of L. borealis was xenogamous-pollen limited. In a study on Ranuculus acris in the Norwegian mountains it was shown that the physical environment (temperature and wind) together with pollen shortage limited seed set.Does fruit set vary among populations of L. borealis along an altitude gradient in Swedish Lapland? Is fruit set higher in the valley than on the mountains? If so, what is the reason behind it? A way to compensate for low pollinator activity could be to extend flowering time. Is flowering time longer at higher elevations? If so, is it due to selection pressure or just a cause of lower metabolic rate in harsher climate? Is there a lower pollinator activity on higher elevation than on lower? Who are the pollinators of L. borealis in Abisko and is it the same along the altitudinal gradient? Is L. borealis self-incompatible in Abisko as in Scotland?Wilcock C.C. and Jennings S.B. 1999. Partner limitation and restoration of sexual reproduction in the clonal dwarf shrub Linnaea borealis L. (Caprifoliaceae).

207. Tundra Biocomplexity: the impact of snow distribution and nitrogen deposition

The issue of biocomplexity, the pattern of processes governing biodiversity vill be studied in an alpine landscape in northern Swedish Lapland, Latnjajaure catchment. The ragged topograhy in combunation with strong winds give rise to extensive snow redistribution. As most of the annual preciptation here falls as snow, most of the atmospheric nitrogen deposition will relocated to snowbeds, wheras neighboring ridges receive a minor fraction of the input. This patchiness in nitrogen supply within the landscape is forecasted to increase as the atmospheric of mainly antropogeneous nitrogen increase exponentially. Snowbeds are by IPCC regarded as particularly vulnerable ecosystem,and our working hypothesis is that increased temperature and nitrogen supply in concert is the major threat. We combine monitoring of nitrogen deposition and measurement of nitrification potential in the soil with manipulation where a nitrogen input according to the forecast for 2050 is applied to selected snowbeds. Dynamic modelling at the landscape level will help us to provide prognoses for the future changes in the alpine tundra.

208. HIBECO-Human interactions with the mountain birch forest ecosystem

Population density estimates and temperature records in relation to topography will, together with other factors, be used to predict the likelihood of defoliating outbreaks of Epirrita autumnata in the mountain birch forest.Severe severe defoliation by E. autumnata larvae may lead to a die-back of old trees and initiate a regrowth of from basal sprouts and seedlings and thus changing the age-structure of the forest. The change to a younger successional stage may have implications for reindeer husbandary. The interactions between insect-herbivory and reindeer grazing is studied in other parts of the project.

209. Climate change in a subarctic heath ecosystem

Stordalen project

210. Biological nutrient retention and changes in aquatic food-webs through river damming in N Sweden

Damming leads to depletion of major elements in boreal river water, with potential effects on biological production in coastal marine areas (Humborg et al. 2002, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16 in press), such as the Baltic Sea. Today, the causal mechanism to this element depeltion is unknown. The present project aims to estimate biological nutrient retention in a dammed river system (Luleälven) and an unregulated system (Torneälven). As to lenthic production, lake Torne träsk offers excellent opportunities to study the pelagic productivity regime of a pristine boreal aquatic system. Our field programme includes measurements of mictic conditions, nutrients (P, N, Si), dissolved and particulate constituents (major and minor elements), stabile isotopes (C, N, Sr, O), primary productivity, zooplankton abundance, and fish.

211. Environmental effects on the dynamics of the shoot population of mountain birch trees.

Bud dynamic in mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, is affected by biotic and abiotic factors such as temperature, light and herbivory. Climate probably has a large impact on module life history strategies i.e. survival, sexual and vegetative reproduction. (Modules are here defined as partially autonomous, repetitive and multicellular subunits within a tree.) Trade-off between present reproduction and future growth and/or reproduction occurs if resources are limiting. There is no direct trade-off between male catkin production and axillary bud production in mountain birch since male catkins are produced at the terminal bud of long-shoot. This bud is aborted when no catkin is present. However, same resources are used for both male catkin production and axillary bud production indicating that trade-offs occur in mountain birch. In my study I have simulated herbivory in order to study what effect trade-offs have on growth of long-shoot and bud performance.

212. Production of UVB absorbing pigments in bipolar lichens

Continuation and completion of radiation experiment that was started in 2001. It is established under the UV lamps right beside the station (near road). We are studying the effects of enhanced UV radiation on the synthesis of cortical UV screening compounds in the lichen Flavocetraria nivalis.

213. Behavioural study of Arctic butterflies and bumblebees

1. Behavioural study of Bombus and Psithyrus spp., notably nesting, foraging and diurnal patterns. To compare with same or related UK species, in relation to UK BAP and UK Bumblebee Working Group. Prior work of Bo Svensson et al is noted and will form basis for further study.2. Behavioural study of butterflies of Abisko area. Since 1982 study by Henriksen and Keutzer, there is little published work other than collectors' reports. The project is to observe mate location, nectar sources used, ovipositing, mating, diurnal patterns etc. as well as compile information about habitat, vertical and horizontal distribution etc.Both studies will involve both stills and video photography. Publication in the form of journal articles is anticipated. Both studies are contributary to monographs in preparation, one on European butterflies, the other on Bumblebees currently under consideration bt HarperCollins.

214. CLIMATE, SNOW AND HYDROLOGY IN TUNDRA ECOSYSTEMS: PATTERNS, PROCESSES, FEEDBACKS AND SCALING ISSUES.

Arctic tundra landscapes exist as a mosaic of vegetation (graminoid-, dwarf-shrub and lichen-dominated) related to topography, soil type and hydrology (wet, mesic, dry tundra). The key driver of this fine-scale mosaic is the pattern, depth and duration of snow-lie. Changes in snow-lie within the landscape, resulting from climate change, may alter the vegetation and soils of the tundra regions that modulate fluxes of trace gases (CO2 and CH4, H2O) between tundra and atmosphere. Current models do not take account of this. Our key objective is therefore to improve quantification of seasonal trace gas flux and energy balance between surface and atmosphere at the landscape scale in high latitude tundra, and the potential feedbacks to radiative forcing of climate, taking into account this fine-scale landscape mosaic mediated by the dynamics of winter snow cover and its duration.

215. Stordalen heat and CO2 experiment: Consequences of global climate change in the Scandinavian Arctic

The goal of this research is to explore how a subarctic terrestrial ecosystem in the North of Sweden will respond to climate change. The research will be organized around the effects of climate change on plant and soil processes and their linkages, the effects of climate change on the chemical quality of plant tissues in the context of forage quality, and the effects of climate change on community structure. The manipulation involves plant and soil warming and atmospheric CO2 doubling, alone and together, in the understory of an open birch forest close to the treeline.

216. Respiration in sediments of alpine lakes

In attempt to adress the importance of the sediments in the degradation of organic matter in lakes, we want to measure respiration in some alpine lakes in the Lake Torne Area. Earlier work have been made trying to measure the saturation of CO2 in surface water of lakes all over Sweden. The measurements of respiration will also be conducted in several lakes in southern Sweden. In the end we want to make whole system carbon budgets, so that we can estimate if lakes are sources or sinks of carbon.

217. Effects of UV-B radiation on Microbial communities in Kongsfjorden

Effects of UV-B radiation on microbial communities in Kongsfjorden in relation to metal and dissolved organic matter availabillity.

Biological effects Ozone Biology UV radiation Heavy metals Environmental management Exposure Arctic Model ecosystem Ecosystems
218. Enhanced deposition of atmospheric mercury during Arctic sunrice _ International campain/intercompariosn

The general objective of the project is to increase the understanding of the Mercury Depletion Events occuring at Arctic sunrise and to quantify the input of mercury to polar ecosystems during this events.

Atmospheric processes Long-range transport
219. Dynamics in a subarctic dwarfshrub community

To evaluate some factors controlling the relative performance of the four dominating species in this community (i.e. the dediduous Vaccinium uliginosum and V. myrtillus and the evergreen V. vitis-idaea and Empetrum hermaphroditum). The study includes removal of species and nutrient additions. Responses are studied in permenent plots.

Biology
220. Leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenology in the mountain birch

Relating budburst and leaf absicssion in the mountain birch to climatic conditions.

Biology Climate