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My study is focussed on the effects of global changes on subarctic microbial communities in the soil. From previous studies in Cassiope-dominated heaths in the area it is known that experimental warming simulating expected effects of climatic change in this century might affect microbial communities and their activity, for instance shown by changes in trophic structure of nematodes and exchange of greenhouse gases. However, microbial reponses to warming and enhanced nutrient turnover as a result of greater litter supply in more species- and nutrient-rich heaths are not known. The current study will be a part of a long-term global change research project in which 24 plots in a species-rich heath near the heliport in Abisko have been manipulated since June 1999. The aim of my M.Sc. project is to reveal some of the responses of the soil microbial communities to three years of warming and enhanced litter supply. A suite of parameters within the field of microbial biomass, activity and diversity will be measured throughout the plant growing season, or in a final harvest at the end of the season.
This is a Masters project (examensarbete) Exjobbet (20p) innebär två delar, och ska gå på halvtid: Del I: Evelina ska skriva en uppsats (10 p) som utvärderar kontrollerande faktorerna för markandning (som en del av det globala kolkrettsloppet) i subarktiska miljöar. Uppsatsen ska granska den vetenskapliga litteraturen och ge grunden för senare fältarbete. Huvudsyftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur globala förändringar (d v s klimat förändring, samt förändringar i atmosfärisk kemi) möjligen kan påverka C flöden i subarktiska miljöer. Uppsatsen ska vara klar innan slutet av juni. Del II: Experiment ute i fält i Abisko trakten (10 p) som undersöker hur tillgången till nedbrytbara organiskt material, samt inorganiska ämne (t ex kväve eller phosphor) påverkar CO2 utsläpp (som markandning). Fältarbetet ska pågår under 3-4 veckor, och senare i Uppsala ska fältdatan analyseras, och del II av uppsatsen färdigskrivas. Hela verksamheten ska vara klar innan slutet av oktober 2002.
The research addresses questions of drivers and controls of biogeochemical (nutrient and carbon) cycling in arctic ecosystems. The focus is, first, on interactions between plants, microbes and the soil organic matter and the project explores possible, periodic competition for nutrients between soil microbes and plants and the mechanisms of net nutrient mineralisation coupled with plant nutrient uptake. Another focus is on how pools and fluxes of carbon and nutrients in, and between, major ecosystem components are likely to be affected if the arctic climate changes (”the greenhouse effect”). This research is based on data collected from experimental manipulations of arctic ecosystems that have lasted for close to, or over, a decade.
Investigating methods of facilitating revegetation of roadside of the E-10 between Kiruna and Riksgränsen
To find an optimised guideline to accidental risk management where geomorphic, meteorologic and botanical observations are used as background material. The project is a continuation as previous work started up in 1998. A licentiate report was produced in 2001 where slope processes as hazards to the Kiruna-Riksgränsen railway was investigated.
Linnaea borealis is a stoloniferous dwarf shrub with long lasting connections between ramets. Along the stolons three types of lateral shoots can be produced: vertical reproductive and non-reproductive and horisontal non-reproductive, i.e. vegetative reproduction. I want with this study to find out which of the shoot types is most important for the survival of the ramet and if this changes depending on site conditions. I have three sites in the vicinity of Abisko with different light conditions and different forest floor vegetation, at each site 20 ramets have been followed for five years now. This summer the clonal fragments will be harvested.
DART is a project investigating the dynamic response of the forest_tundra ecotone to environmental change. The whole project includes eximination of trace-gas fluxes, decomposition, snow distribution/- melt, browsing, and plant growth responses. My own part of the project deals with the distribution of the tree-line trees and effects of artificial warming on mountain birch saplings (Betula pubescens Ssp. czerepanovii).
Study of sexual dimorphism in physiological traits in ten Salix species in the surroundings of Abisko. Field measurements will be carried out about basic leaf traits, photosynthesis and transpiration. In the lab, measurements will be carried out on N content. Samples for future analysis will be collected.
The aim of this project is to characterise the spectral reflectance properties of a range of tundra (dwarf shrub and lichen) species using a high-resolution spectroradiometer, and to relate these properties to physiological state, especially biomass. This will provide us with control data for our remote-sensing investigations of the impact of air pollution on tundra vegetation around nickel smelters in Russia, by indicating the natural (unpolluted) optical properties. Species to be investigated will include empetum nigrum, vaccinium spp, rubus chamaemorus, cetraria nivalis, cladonia rangiferina, and some grasses and bog.
To investigate the availability of trace-fossils and trilobites in the Cambrian sand-, silt-, and limestone formation at Loupakte. Large bedding planes with trace fossils will be searched for. Studies will then be conducted on the diversity and behaviour of trilobites and the trace-fossils and their makers.This is a preliminary study that hopefully will constitute a part of a Ph.D-project.
PINE (Predicting Impacts on Natural Ecotones) will investigate the potential impacts of key land-use management decisions on the European tree-line ecotones under different climatic change scenarios. The focus is on identifying critical thresholds of change, some of which may be irreversible. The aim is to inform decision makers of the consequences of their actions in terms of sustainable development, landscape change and biodiversity. The first step will be to assess the decision-makers’ and stakeholders’ perceptions of environmental change and risk. We will then go on to produce a spatially explicit, dynamic forest succession model (TreeMig) tuned specifically to tree-line ecotones. The model parameters are defined using variables which initiate, control and terminate tree growth. These are derived from cambium dynamics and an innovative multi-proxy approach in which the proxies used are tree ring width, density, stable carbon isotope ratios, height increment, needle production and pollen deposition. Data will be collected from a range of tree-line tree species at sites in Sweden, Finland, Austria, Italy and Slovenia. The model will be evaluated using the past response of tree line plant communities to climatic change under varying management regimes and then used to predict changes in the tree-line ecotones in response to climatic change under different land-use change scenarios.
Continous real time measurements of corbon dioxide and metheane exchanges at different subhabitats at the Stordalen mire in relation to the winter and spring shift.
The overall aim of our research is to increase understanding of ecosystem dynamics at the forest–tundra ecotone in northern Europe and, in particular, to quantify the dynamics of the response of this ecotone to changes in climate and in land use. In order to achieve this overall objective we are addressing the following more specific objective: To investigate the extent to which potential dynamic responses of the ecotone to environmental changes are modulated by other limiting factors, including propagule dispersal, seedling establishment, disturbance régime and herbivore impacts. Current experiments will involve the sowing of tree seeds within/without vertebrate exclosure plots established in 1997 and subsequent counting of seedlings.
Detailed inventory of four peaks at altitudes ; just above subalpine, between low alpine and middle alpine, between middle alpine and high alpine and at highalpine. Vegetation cover and plant species with abundance are inventored with different methods. Temperature loggers are burried in main geographical directions. The purpose is to reinventory these peaks after a longer period (about 5 to 10 years) and analyse eventual differences. The project is coorinated by the University of Wien in Austria. The peaks inventoried is west of Tornehamn, south and east of Latnjajaure and Kårsatjåkka.
The project aims to describe the effects of increased frequency of freeze-thaw cycles on the soil fauna in an arctic environment. Little is known about the effects of global warming on soil animals in habitats of limited nutrient supply and with high climatic stress. Manipulations of the soil temperature will be conducted to increase the frequency of freeze-thaw events. Springtail and mite species diversity and abundance will be investigated, together with screenings of the nutrient availability in the soil after such events. Mesocosm studies will be conducted for a closer study of the effects of temperature changes on decomposition and mineralization. Species of springtails and mites will be returned to the laboratory to investigate cold and drought hardiness. A project including soil warming has been conducted in Abisko for over a decade, and it is our intent to include investigations of soil fauna (springtails and mites), and the interactions between these and the microbial fauna. It is interesting to see whether 10 years of soil warming have changed the springtail and mite species diversity and abundance, and whether this has affected the natural nutrient cycles.
In order to isolate bacteria with a potential for cold-resistant production of enzymes, antibiotics, detergents, etc. I would like to sample a number of different tundra soils in the Abisko area. This will include soils representing a variety of organic matter, degree of humification, water-logging and soils surrounding different types of vegetation.
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbioses are omnipresent in the Arctic, and shifts in ECM communities may be expected in a future warmer climate. As large functional differences exist among ECM fungal genera, species and isolates, this could affect several important ecosystem processes, such as plant C fixation and allocation belowground and plant uptake of different nutrient pools. The objectives of this project are 1) to characterize responses of ECM associations of a circumpolar plant species (Betula nana L.) to manipulations of air temperature and soil nutrient availability and 2) to relate functional characteristics of ECM communities to ecosystem C and N cycling.The project consists of three elements: 1. Quantitative analyses of responses in ectomycorrhizal morphotype communities associated with B. nana to manipulations of air temperature and soil nutrient availability at two sites (Abisko, Sweden, and Toolik Lake, Alaska). Fieldwork 2002. 2. Field and growth chamber studies of functional differences among ectomycorrhizal fungi and communities from Abisko and Toolik Lake. Fieldwork 2002. 3. Along a natural gradient, relationships between ECM communities and availability and uptake of different N forms will be examined under natural conditions. Fieldwork 2003-04.
Preparation of a photograhic guide to the Butterflies of Europe. This involves photograhing European butterflies in their natural habitats. A small number of voucher specimens are collected to confirm the identity of the photographed taxa.
Study of the colonisation of mountain birch above timberline: -Determining age classes of trees (by dendrochronology)=> datation of colonisation event(s). -Inflence of climate change by comparison to climatic datas. -Determining fitness of individuals above timberline and comparison to individuals in the forest. -Origin of the individuals above timberline => kin relatedness study by molecular and morphometric methods.
The purpose of the project is to study the geomorphological processes that accomplish sediment transfers in mountain catchments in the Abisko area. Using both field data and remote sensing methods, an attempt will be made to model the processes and the resulting effects on landforms within a GIS. Methods of estimating process frequency or rate, e.g. by lichenometry, will be used. Main field site is the Nissunvagge valley, previously studied in the 1980´s (Nyberg 1985). The results will be evaluated from a climate change perspective.