Sweden: projects/activities

Directory entires that have specified Sweden as the primary or lead country for the project/activity and are included in the AMAP, ENVINET, SAON and SEARCH directories. To see the full list of countries, see the countries list. The specified country may not be the geographic region where the activity is taking place - to select a geographic region, see the list of regions.

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Displaying: 161 - 180 of 228 Next
161. Millimetre wave radiometer for stratospheric trace gas measurements

A millimeter wave radiometer is started operation at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden. The location of the instrument (67.8 N, 20.4 E) allows continuous observation of the evolution of ozone and ozone related trace gases in the Arctic polar stratosphere. It is designed for measurements of thermal emission lines around 204 Ghz. At this frequency observations include of ozone, chlorine monoxide, nitrous oxide, and nitric acid.

Ozone Geophysics Climate Modelling Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
162. Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer

The DOAS instrument consists of grating spectrometer covering the visible and near ultraviolet spectral region. Zenith-scattered sunlight is collected by simple one-lens telescopes and fed via optical fiber bundles into the spectrometers, where atmospheric absorption spectra are obtained. The instrument runs automatically. Total column densities of the stratospheric trace species ozone, NO2, BrO, and OClO are retrieved from the spectra using the DOAS algorithm. These are species that play a major role in ozone chemistry, either by themselves in ozone destruction (BrO) or as indicators of chlorine activation/deactivation (OClO). The chemistry and dynamics of ozone destruction is investigated, e.g. with respect to the location of the polar vortex during the winter. The instrument is also useful for detection of polar stratospheric clouds using the zenith-sky colour index method.

Ozone Geophysics Modelling Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
163. Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectrometry

FT-IR spectrometers are capable to quantifiy the total column amounts of many important trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere. At present the following species are retrieved from the Kiruna data: O3 (ozone), ClONO2, HNO3, HCl, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, NO2, N2O, NO, HF, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CH4, CO, COF2, H2O, HCN, HO2NO2, NH3, N2, and OCS Selected research topics and activities: chemical ozone depletion by observation of key species (O3, ClONO2, HNO3, HCl, ..) details of the ozone formation process by isotopic studies in ozone profile retrieval to detect dynamical changes transport studies of chemical tracers and tropospheric pollutants satellite validation

Atmospheric processes Ozone Organochlorines Geophysics chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Modelling Emissions Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
164. Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectrometry

FT-IR spectrometers are capable to quantifiy the total column amounts of many important trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere. At present the following species are retrieved from the Kiruna data: O3 (ozone), ClONO2, HNO3, HCl, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, NO2, N2O, NO, HF, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CH4, CO, COF2, H2O, HCN, HO2NO2, NH3, N2, and OCS Selected research topics and activities: chemical ozone depletion by observation of key species (O3, ClONO2, HNO3, HCl, ..) details of the ozone formation process by isotopic studies in ozone profile retrieval to detect dynamical changes transport studies of chemical tracers and tropospheric pollutants satellite validation

Atmospheric processes Ozone Organochlorines Geophysics chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Modelling Emissions Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
165. SKERRIES - stratospheric climatology by regular balloon-borne

Objective: to collect climatology information on the seasonal and year-to-tear variability of stratospheric CFCs, water vapour and atmospheric electrical parameters.

Atmospheric processes Geophysics Climate variability Spatial trends Climate change Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
166. Descartes

Objectives 1. To develop the measurement technique further, providing more accurate measurements and extend the method to a larger number of trace species 2. To monitor the presence of CFC:s and other longlived anthropogenic tracers in the stratosphere 3. To use long-lived anthropogenic species as tracers of atmospheric motion, in particular for comparison with atmospheric models Reserarchers: Descartes is a joint research programme currently involving N.R.P Harris and J.A. Pyle, Centre for Atmospheric Science at the Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, U.K., and Hans Nilsson and Johan Arvelius, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden

Atmospheric processes Ozone Geophysics Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Emissions Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
167. Fair Weather Atmospheric Electricity

The atmosphere carries a continuous electric current and , even during fair weather, there is a strong electrostatic electric field, up to 200 volts per meter, close to the ground. This electric current is thought to be due to the accumulated effect of thousands of thunderstorms, mostly in the tropical regions of the Earth. These storms feed a current from the ground up to the ionosphere, a highly conducting layer in the atmosphere which lies above about 70 km altitude. The current spreads out around the globe through this layer and returns to Earth through the atmosphere as the 'fair weather current' outside the thunderstorm areas. Objective: Investigation of the part of the Earths global electrical circuit: fair weather current and its interaction with geomagnetic phenomena, such as, for example, a magnetic substorms. We use the data of the air-earth current measured by a long wire antenna installed in Kiruna/Esrange, Sweden. In July 1999 we have installed a new portable antenna at a distance of about 30 km from the old one. This antenna has a length of nearly 50 m, and we are recording the near ground vertical current with a time resolution of 10 seconds. The data from both instruments will be analysed together - for comparison and possible separation of the meteorological effects.

Atmospheric processes Air-Earth current Geophysics Climate variability Arctic
168. Long-Term and Solar Variability effects in the Upper Atmosphere

Objective: to determine how solar activity influences temperatures, winds, electric currents and minor constituents and to allow possible anthropogenic influences to be determined. Uses primarily measurements by the ESRAD and EISCAT radars, plus ground-based and balloon-borne measurements of atmospheric electric fields and currents.

Atmospheric processes Noctilucent clouds Geophysics Climate variability Solar Proton Events Climate Climate change Modelling Emissions Arctic Atmosphere Polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) Temporal trends
169. Interaction between moose (Alces alces) and the willow Salix phylicifolia (Salicaceae)

The project deals with the interaction between moose (Alces alces) and one of its major food plants (Salix phylicifolia, - Salicaceae). This plant was chosen after previous investigations in this area. On one hand the food selection of moose will be investigated. On the other hand the influence of browsing on the changes of chemical compounds and morphological structures of the food plant will be studied. While the quality and the browsing degree on Salix phylicifolia will be recorded in natural habitat, the induction of changes in the plant metabolism caused by moose and its subsequent consequences for the food selection will be studied experimentally. The primary plant compounds will be analysed by standard methods. Specific secondary plant compounds will be analysed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The results of the chemical analyses should be used to calibrate near infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) to determine the quality of the food. Then the spectra should be used to predict the probable use of S. phylicifolia by moose in this area.

170. Stordalen carbon cycling and trace gas flux project 2002

The greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) exchanges in northern wetlands are affected by presence of vascular plants. The mechanisms at function are, however, largely unknown. The root adjacent zone is characterized by intense interactions between plants and their environment and many important processes relating to carbon turnover of ecosystems are taking place in this zone. A fairly large amount of the carbon assimilated by plants through photosynthesis is continuously released from the roots. These labile carbon compounds can serve as substrate for the methanogenic bacterial community of the root zone and have a substantial effect on CH4 production in the soil. Thus, even small environmental changes affecting root zone processes could have far-reaching consequences for the functioning of wetland ecosystem and their interaction with the atmosphere. The objectives of this project aim to broaden the existing knowledge about carbon circulation in wetlands.

171. ANS´climate measurerments

1. Supervision of instruments used for ANS´climate monitoring on the Observation Hill. There will be installations and comparisons between instruments used for radiation, wind speed and direction. 2. Data collection and supervision of instruments used in an ANS´project for monitoring air and groundtemperatures, wind spped and direction at a site near Lake Njulla 1000. The lake is situated below the saddle between Njulla and Slåttatjåkka. The program is described in an attachment. For the work on Njulla I plan 2-3 visits, each lasting from approximately 10h to 15h. It would be of advantage for practical reasons and also for security reasons if an assiatant could accompany me during the visits to Njulla. A battery (12 kg) has to be carried from the upper lift station to Lake Njulla.

172. Effect of reindeer grazing on biodiversity at differet spatial scales

Reindeer grazing is often considered as a threat against the biodiversity in arctic and alpine plant communities in the Nordic countries. However, there is almost no data on the effect of reindeer grazing on species richness in arctic and alpine regions. If we should understand how reindeer grazing influence species richness, it is important to distinguish between different spatial scales. Species richness on small plots is probably determined by local processes such as competition intensity, germination rate of seeds or nutrient availability, while species richness at larger spatial scales is probably determined by the heterogeneity and the size of the species pool. As different processes influence species richness at different spatial scales, the effect of reindeer grazing on species richness in small and large areas does not have to be similar. My hypotheses is that reindeer grazing sometimes increase and sometimes decrease species richness on small spatial scales, while it consistently increase species richness at larger spatial scales.

173. Belowground carbon allocation, effects of temperature and soil moisture.

Carbon allocation to, and translocation in-between, different below-ground compartments in wet and semi wet mire ecosystems are to be studied during summer 2002. The project is part of EU founded CARBOMONT, where carbon cycling in European alpine regions is studied. Stordalen mireConsidered methods were applied to dry heath ecosystems summer 2001, which successfully produced a budget over carbon allocation to belowground compartments in heath ecosystems. This year’s study is focused on wet and semi wet ecosystems, making it possible to compare below-ground carbon allocation and translocation in different ecosystems dominating Stordalen mire. Stordalen birch forest Carbon allocation to Ericoid mycorrhizae was studied under enhanced precipitation conditions, which resulted in an altered carbon allocation pattern compared to untreated ecosystems. This summer the effects of increased temperature on carbon allocation to Ericoid mycorrhizal compartments are to be studied. Temperature effects on mycorrhizal functions such as 15N labelled amino acid uptake, will also be investigated.

174. Conifer stomata analysis in Late Quaternary paleoecolgy in Scandinavia

The project aims to develop the use of stomata analysis as a Quaternary palaeoecological tool in Scandinavia following the lead in North America and Siberia (Hansen 1995, Gervais and MacDonald, 2001). A key is being produced to identify the main Scandinavian conifers from their stomata. Surface samples of lake sediment will be collected in catchments with and without the main conifers to determine the extent to which stomata are transported beyond the catchment in which the trees occur. Paleoecological work will be carried out to obtain supplementary information about the timing of the appearance and disappearance of Larix sibirica (Kullman, 1998) and to apply the knowledge gained on the dispersibility of stomata to the arrival and increase of other conifers.Surface lake samples have been collected from lakes in southern and central Sweden. I would like to find some small lakes to surface sample in Northern Sweden. Three promising areas with a high density of lakes have been identified around the Abisko field station and Kiruna areas. I will use a standard surface sediment sampler and will sample between 6 and 12 lakes. This work will have wide applicability in NW Europe, replacing the use of Trautmann's key (1953), and will contribute significantly to the increasing use of stomata as a palaeoecological tool. (see www.kv.geo.uu.se/cas.html for further information)

175. Desmid comunities in the Torne-Lappmark, depending on geographical, chemical and physical parameters

In 1964 Skuja published the results of his investigations concerning the phycological vegetation in the Torne-Lappmark, demonstrating the impressive biodiversity especially within the group of the Conjugatophyceae (Desmids). As this group proved to be a very sensitive tool to registrate changes in environmental conditions (Kies a. Handke 1990), it seemed to be of importance to have a look on the situation today and to compare the composition of the desmid communities. A further aspect is the analysis of the reliance of the biodiversity of the Conjugatophyceae on the geographical and geological conditions with modern methods. Therefor samples will be taken from swamps, ponds and lakes from the alpine, subalpine and montane regions and their main physical and chemical parameters will be ascertained. The investigations will be completed by lists of higher plabnts growing in the surrounding of the water bodies. Back in Hamburg the samples will be evaluated and used for isolating selected species of desmids not only for further investigations but also for integrating them into our culture collection of Conjugatophyceae (SVCK, Engels 1995) and Engels, 2001: http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/biologie/b-online/d44_1/44_1.htm

176. To investigate the Cambrian rock layers for trace fossils and trilobites.

To make an inventory of the fossil fauna and trace fossils at Loupakte. Depending on what is found during this inventory, I will study the diversity and possibly some behavioural aspects of the faunal traces found. This will hopefully be part of a larger project concerning Cambrian fossils.

177. Time geography analysis of tourist behaviors on wild and protect area (Abisko national park)

The aim of the project is to investigate the behavior and perception of people who consume natural area for leisur and recreational time. We want to develop simulation tool based on multi reactive system and agent based modelling. The work we want to do on abisko national park is to understand behaviors and perceptions of tourist and local people to calibrate the model. Methodology : inqueries, interviews and tracking people in the park. The objective of the research is to bring to space managers an efficient tool to forecast reactions about their policies. In the same time, we want improve the theoritical field by showing an investigation on microscale interaction is able to shown effects on the whole system and help for emergencing process of structures at macroscale.

178. Survey of European Syrphidae (Diptera)

A survey of European Sryphidae, Diptera, for which collection of voucher specimens is necessary to confirm identification.

179. Recent weathering of silicon in Northern Sweden

Lakes and dams play crucial roles in the global cycles for nutrients and organic carbon as links from the terrestrial sources to the marine sinks. The degree of retention is sometimes high in these water bodies. Treguér et al. (1995) report that increasing inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus into rivers and lakes support enhanced production of diatoms, resulting in decreasing concentrations of dissolved silicate (DSi) in the river loads. The construction of storage lakes in rivers enhances this effect, even in less eutrophicated rivers. This phenomenon is reported for large-scale systems like the Danube and the Black Sea (Humborg et al., 1997), the Mississippi river (Turner and Rabalais, 1994) as well as for more modest rivers like those entering the Baltic Sea (Humborg et al. 2000). A key factor in the retention process of the river system seems to be the residence time. The question is now which physical mechanisms governs the retention process in reservoir vs. dams. A comparative study between Akkajaure and Torne Träsk is under way to resolve the consequences of river regulation.This project is a part of a larger "programme" to investigate the reason for decreasing DSi levels in the Baltic with implications on the World Ocean.

180. Rallarvägen-The Navvy Road

The Navvy Road is an ancient monument of great symbolic value for the entry of the modern times in the Kiruna mountains. The railroad that was built to serve the mines also made the area easily accessible to scientists and tourists. The purpose of the project is to make people aware of the history of the area they see today and to make the remains of the navvies work and living easy to reach and understand. The project started 1987 when I was länsantikvarie (chief antiquarian) in Norrbotten. Most of the road and according traces were overgrown and many places forgotten. The first phase of the project was to locate the "vanished" places and parts of the road and to write information for signs along the road and a book about the navvies and their life. This work was mainly done by Agge Theander, Kiruna in cooperation with colleagues in Narvik (a similar work was done along the Norwegian part of the road)and länsstyrelsen. The work was mainly financed by länsstyrelsen.After I left Norrbotten for a similar work in Skåne the great work to clear the road, build new bridges etc was done under the supervision of länsstyrelsen. Since 1987 "historical paths" have been a very popular mode of making history living all over Sweden. The purpose of my visit is to see how my favorite project is working and to get and give new ideas how to improve the Navvy Road and similar projects in Skåne