Russia: projects/activities

Directory entires that have specified Russia as the primary or lead country for the project/activity and are included in the AMAP, ENVINET, SAON and SEARCH directories. To see the full list of countries, see the countries list. The specified country may not be the geographic region where the activity is taking place - to select a geographic region, see the list of regions.

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Displaying: 1 - 6 of 6
1. Observations of ice conditions of the Arctic Ocean and Arctic seas

Monitoring of ice conditions: providing of collection, analysis, archiving and presentation of information obtained from different information sources The continuous monitoring system is based on information from two main groups. The first one is immediate direct observation of the state of ice cover. The information sources are Roshydromet’s permanent polar stations, automatic weather stations and buoys, satellite images in different wave ranges through international hydrometeorological information exchange channels under the auspices of WMO (ETSI) and Ice Services of different countries. Occasional observations by marine expeditions and “North Pole” drifting stations also belong of this group of observation. These are so-called initial or raw data to be further processed, accumulated and archived. As a rule, this information is interesting only to specialists and is not presented without special processing. The second one is processed and summarized information, i.e. diagnostic, analytical and prognostic information. Diagnostic information is a result of processing of initial or raw information. These are adapted and geographically bound satellite images, ice maps, diagnosis of the current state in the form of descriptions and different bulletins. Analytical information is a consolidation of heterogeneous initial and diagnostic information on the ice cover state in the form of overviews and bulletins for different periods of time and different components of ice conditions. Prognostic information is a forecast of different lead times for different phenomena and characteristics of ice conditions. Actually ESIMO AARI web-portal presents a series of group 2 information products having the best informativity and ready for the direct use by customers.

Sea ice
2. Permanent research base in the field of glaciology in Barentsburg (Spitsbergen).

1. Snow cover (Spitsbergen) - Study of multi-year changes in snowiness near Nordenskiöld Land - Study of impact of spring-summer snow melting on superimposed (infiltration) ice formation on glacier surface - Study of mechanical and thermophysical properties of snow cover in different Spitsbergen landscapes - Study of impact of snowiness and summer melting conditions on the STL conditions under modern climate change (by the example of multi-year measurements near Barentsburg) - Study of structure and dynamics of large and multi-year snowfields as indicators of current climate change in this region. Contact person: Nikolay Osokin (, Ivan Lavrentiev 2. Spitsbergen glacier surge mechanism: - Studies on Grenfjord non-surging glacier Fridtjovbreen surging glacier. Methods: radiolocation, radiophysics, DGPS, mass balance. Contact person: Yury Macharet 3. Monitoring of Spitsbergen polythermal glaciers to assess long-period climate change. Objects of long-term monitoring of changes in geometry and hydrothermal structure of polythermal glaciers: Tavle, Aldegonga Contact person: Yury Macharet 4. Ice deposits on Spitsbergen - Obtaining of new data on glacier thickness and volume - Definition of correlation relationships - Contribution of glaciers to world ocean level Contact person: Andrey Glazovsky 5. Glacier mass balance on Nordenskiöld Land (Spitsbergen): - Aldegonga, Eastern Grenfjord, Tavle - Development of new methods of mass balance measurement: core and non-core drilling, DGPS, temperature survey. Contact person: Andrey Glazovsky 6. Remote sensing (RSD), (Novaya Zemlya, FJL) Development of GIS-base for glaciers on the Russian Arctic archipelagos for remote monitoring of their current state and changes. Assessment of iceberg discharge and ice caps. Observation of glacier dynamics. Contact person: Andrey Glazovsky Yury Macharet 7. Remote sensing and validation (if possible) in situ (Russian Subarctic mountains – Polar Urals, Byrranga, Putorana, Suntar-Khayata mountains, Chersky Range, Koryak Upland, Chukotka) Executors: M. Ivanov, G.A. Nosenko, M.D. Ananicheva, G.A. Kapustin et al (RAS IO),,,, V.A. Sarana, MSU, Research Laboratory “North’s Ecology”, Network type: Data are given for Barentsburg station - atmosphere (RAS PGI, Murmansk) - coastal ecosystem, including freshwater (yes/no) - marine ecosystem: Biological center on Spitsbergen. MMBI, Murmansk ( Integrated study on Spitsbergen has been carried out since 1994 in the biological center within the framework of MMBI’s International Environmental Laboratory. The main areas of scientific activities on Spitsbergen are as follows: acquisition of comparative data on biodiversity of flora and fauna and marine ecosystems on the north part of the Gulf Stream western branch; development of the model of the impact of melting (fresh) waters on the marine ecosystem in glacier bays of different types on western Spitsbergen; monitoring of Arctic ecosystems evolution and other natural phenomena. - ocean AARI, Saint Petersburg ( - cryosphere: periodic observations of snow cover and glaciers and seasonally melting layer of permafrost formation on Spitsbergen. Remote observations of Novaya Zemlya and FJL glaciers. - human factor anf socio-economic indicators ( - space physics - (

Ecosystems Oceanography Sea ice
3. The Arctic sea ice ecosystem in recent environmental changes

Biological materials obtained in the central Arctic Ocean at the FSU “North Pole stations” in 1975-1981 have shown that the multi-year ice and ice/water interface is of rich and diverse biotop inhabited by the large number of diatoms and invertebrate animals. Two main matter fluxes in the sea ice ecosystem may be distinguished: (1) the inflow of biogenous elements from water into the ice interior where they are assimilated by the microflora during photosynthesis (summer stage), and (2) the outflow – from ice to water - of the organic matter accumulated in the summer due to photosynthesis (winter stage). Accumulation of organic matter within the sea ice interior during the process of photosynthesis may be considered as an energy depot for organisms of the whole trophic network of the arctic sea ice ecosystem. Recent data from the SHEBA Ice Camp drifted within the Beaufort Gyre 1997-1998 have shown that: (1) sea ice diatoms are very scarce by species and numbers; (2) fresh water green algae are dominated by numbers and distributed within the whole sea ice thickness; (3) invertebrate animals within the sea ice interior are not indicated; (4) invertebrate animals from the ice/water interface are scarce by species and numbers; (5) concentrations of chlorophyll and nutrients in the sea ice are significantly lower of the average concentrations measured before in this region for the same period of time. Remarkable accumulation of the organic mater within the sea ice interior were not indicated.

Biological effects taxonomy Biology Sea ice Climate change Arctic Ocean Ice Biodiversity Arctic production sea ice biota
4. Polar microbial ecology

Ecology of bacterioplankton and bacterioneuston in the polar seas, distribution, number, in situ heterotrophic activity, involvement in natural purification processes from oil pollution.

Biological effects heterotrophic bacteria oil biodegradation. number distribution Sea ice Environmental management Contaminant transport Petroleum hydrocarbons Arctic activity Polar seas
5. White Sea

Oil pollution and oil biodegradation in the inner part of Kandalaksha Bay and adjacent areas.

Biological effects environmental effects. Sea ice Environmental management Contaminant transport Petroleum hydrocarbons ice Arctic Local pollution sediments water oil pollution Ecosystems White Sea oil biodegradation
6. 'Arctic-2000' expedition

The expedition 'Arctic-2000' included climatic, hydrometeorological and hydrochemical studies in the eastern part of the Central Arctic Basin, during the period July-August 2000.

Contaminant transport Heavy metals Hydrography Ice Long-range transport Oceanography Organochlorines PAHs PCBs Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Petroleum hydrocarbons Sea ice