Russia: projects/activities

Directory entires that have specified Russia as the primary or lead country for the project/activity and are included in the AMAP, ENVINET, SAON and SEARCH directories. To see the full list of countries, see the countries list. The specified country may not be the geographic region where the activity is taking place - to select a geographic region, see the list of regions.

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Displaying: 1 - 20 of 33 Next
1. Marine coastal observations

Monitoring and forecast of the sea and atmosphere state in the coastal area, support of safety of navigation and marine activities. Main gaps: Initial data before 1977 have not been digitized.

Atmosphere Oceanography
2. Local network of pollution control in Barentsburg (Spitsbergen)

Local monitoring, Barentsburg: regular sampling, twice a year

Pollution sources
3. Observations of ice conditions of the Arctic Ocean and Arctic seas

Monitoring of ice conditions: providing of collection, analysis, archiving and presentation of information obtained from different information sources The continuous monitoring system is based on information from two main groups. The first one is immediate direct observation of the state of ice cover. The information sources are Roshydromet’s permanent polar stations, automatic weather stations and buoys, satellite images in different wave ranges through international hydrometeorological information exchange channels under the auspices of WMO (ETSI) and Ice Services of different countries. Occasional observations by marine expeditions and “North Pole” drifting stations also belong of this group of observation. These are so-called initial or raw data to be further processed, accumulated and archived. As a rule, this information is interesting only to specialists and is not presented without special processing. The second one is processed and summarized information, i.e. diagnostic, analytical and prognostic information. Diagnostic information is a result of processing of initial or raw information. These are adapted and geographically bound satellite images, ice maps, diagnosis of the current state in the form of descriptions and different bulletins. Analytical information is a consolidation of heterogeneous initial and diagnostic information on the ice cover state in the form of overviews and bulletins for different periods of time and different components of ice conditions. Prognostic information is a forecast of different lead times for different phenomena and characteristics of ice conditions. Actually ESIMO AARI web-portal presents a series of group 2 information products having the best informativity and ready for the direct use by customers.

Sea ice
4. Overview of the State of the Arctic Hydrometeorological Observation Networks

In the context of the tasks SAON SG steering group, the topology of the Arctic hydrometeorological observation network can be presented in the following concise form: 1. Agrometeorological; 2. Actinometric; 3. Aerological (radiosounding); 4. Water balance; 5. Hydrological on rivers; 6. Hydrometeorological on lakes; 7. Glaciological; 8. Meteorological; 9. Marine hydrometeorological (in the coastal zone, river estuaries, open areas including marine vessel and expeditionary); 10. Avalanche; 11. Ozone measuring; 12. Heat balance; 13. Atmospheric electricity; 14. Water, soil and snow surface evaporation; 15. Chemical composition of water and air. Observation network data are operationally transferred to Roshydromet’s data telecommunication network except for those indicated in items 4, 7,12-15. The main networks in terms of the number of observation points and volume of information obtained are meteorological, marine hydrometeorological, river hydrological, aerological and actinometric ones. Meteorological observations are considered as the main type of observations. To establish a common database and control timely and complete collection and distribution of information, a catalog of meteorological bulletins is being created to be the plan of hydrometeorological information transfer from the sources to Roshydromet’s data telecommunication network to distribute among information recipients The catalog of meteorological observations is maintained by State Institution “Hydrometeorological Center” and State Institution “Main Radio-Meterological Center”. Electronic version of the catalogs of meteorological bulletins is maintained by State Institution “Main Radio-Meterological Center” and located on the Internet site The catalog of meteorological bulletins contains the following information: − Name of Roshydromet’s subordinate Federal State Institution and observation point to input data into the automated data system; − shortened title of the hydrometeorological bulletin in proper format; − observation data coded form; − hours of observation; − data transfer check time; − number of observation points taking part in one bulletin; − lists of five-digit indices for observation points. Changes are entered into the catalogs of meteorological bulletins quarterly. WMO’s WWW is considered as the main foreign information consumer. The lists of WMO correspondent stations are given in WMO publications # 9, vol. C, part 1 (Catalog of Meteorological Observations), vol. A (Observation Stations). 2. SAON is expected to stimulate the process of improving configuration and completeness of the circumpolar region monitoring system as a potential tool for international consolidation of the opportunities available in the functioning of observation networks in order to improve national standards quality and ensure more complete compliance of the Arctic research strategies proposed to socioeconomic needs and interests of Arctic countries 3. The catalog of points and main observations is given in Table 1 (see Fig. 1). The maximum development of the Russian hydrometeorological observations in the Arctic was reached in early 1980s, when information was received from 110 stations. In subsequent years, the number of stations decreased more than twice (Fig. 2). The current level of observations is determined by the functioning of a network consisting of 49 points two of which are automatic weather stations. Three points are temporarily removed from operation. In short term, 8 automatic stations are expected to be opened; while in medium and long term, the number of manned observation points will increase up to 52-54, and the number of automatic ones – up to 20-25. For the manned network, the meteorological program includes a set of eight-hour observations of: atmosphere pressure, wind parameters, air and soil temperature, relative humidity, weather phenomena, cloud height, visual range, precipitation, while for automatic weather stations – a set of reduced 4-hour observations. The marine hydrometeorological program includes coastal observation of temperature, water salinity (density), sea-level variations, heave, ice distribution (and thickness) as well as meteorological parameters under the change of observation conditions from hourly to ten-day observations. The river hydrological program is quite similar to the marine one. It does not include observations of water density, however, they can be included for the stations having a special status, measurement of water discharge, alluvia and chemical composition of water. The programs will include hourly and ten-day observations. The aerological program will include 1-2 –hour measurements of: atmosphere pressure and wind parameters on selected isobaric surfaces. Actinometric observations include measurement of 5 components of atmosphere radiation balance in case of the full program and measurement of total radiation under a reduced program. Network type: The main networks in terms of the number of observation points and volume of information obtained are meteorological, marine hydrometeorological, river hydrological, aerological and actinometric ones.

Oceanography Atmosphere Ecosystems
5. Aerological Observation Network in the North Polar Region

Monitoring and study of free atmosphere in the North Polar Region

6. Permafrost observational networks in Russia

Lack of consistent spatially representative and sufficiently long time series characterizing the state of permafrost and its dynamics under changing climatic conditions necessitates improvement and further development of observational networks. The purpose of this section is to provide an insight into the permafrost networks available in the Russian part of the Artic. Data characterizing the state and dynamics of Russian permafrost in the past several decades come from three independent sources. The first source of data is soil temperature observations up to 3.2 m. depth conducted at selected meteorological stations. These conventional measurements are not specifically targeted at studying permafrost parameters. Two other networks, authorized under the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and its associated organizations, have been developed for monitoring permafrost temperature and seasonal thaw depth. Temperature observations in the boreholes are conducted under the framework of the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) project. Another source is the data from the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) project. Here we give brief description of these networks and results obtained so far for Russian permafrost regions. Main gaps: Although soil temperatures are measured at many of the Russian stations, observations in permafrost regions are sparse and do not capture the whole range of permafrost variability due to difference in climatic and biophysiographical conditions. • Evaluation of the soil temperature regime and dynamics through correlations with air temperatures is not an option, since only a small part of total variability is explained. • Other networks and measurements are needed to evaluate the dynamics of permafrost.

7. Monitoring of Biodiversity in the Arctic

Briefly and schematically, data on the availability of monitoring information on seabirds nesting in the Russian Arctic are given in the Table. It should be noted that the less favorable situation with monitoring of nesting sea birds is in the central Russian Arctic and its high-latitude regions where colonies exist of Arctic and high-Arctic type. No monitoring is being conducted there, and no systematic observations were made before. The situation is a little bit better with facultativecolonial disperse nesting species, they are rarely the subjects of long-term research and monitoring programs. The situation is better with the Arctic peripheral zones, i.e. White-Barents Seas and Bering-Far East sectors. There are areas covered by long-term observations, but they are often those that are out of the Arctic region according to CAFF definition (Onega Bay, Taui Bay, Commander Islands). Unfortunately, the most representative sea bird monitoring series in the CAFF area, collected in Kandalaksha and Wrangel Island reserves, were interrupted and/or disturbed in the 1990s (in terms of continuity of methods of material collection).

8. Hydrological observation network for land water bodies

Monitoring of the state of land water bodies and river estuaries Network type: Data on the network for land water bodies and river estuaries covers the region of the Russian Arctic limited with its water resource boundaries close to the AMAP boundaries. Within these boundaries, when the network extension was the greatest in the 1980s, there were 288 points including 199 basic ones (97 of which are reference ones) and 89 auxiliary and departmental ones. Actually in the Russian Arctic, there are 182 points including 137 basic ones (88 of which are reference ones) and 52 auxiliary and departmental ones and 12 of which function under special estuarine programs

9. Network of coastal observation of Arctic seas level

Monitoring and study of fluctuation of Arctic seas level

10. Network of terrestrial meteorological observations

Monitoring and forecast of the atmosphere state and climate change. Main gaps: Initial historical data from specific stations have not been digitized It is needed to control and recover gaps in historical data from specific stations.

11. Human Health National Social-hygienic monitoring system

To establish and maintain the state-owned national system of monitoring, analysis, assessment and support of decision making in the area of environmental and public health with focus on management of health risk factors such as environmental pollution, infections, food and water quality etc. The system has been enforced by the federal governmental Decree Feb. 2. 2006 # 60. It comprises all administrative units (republics, oblasts (counties), autonomous okrugs, cities and some municipalities of Russian Federation including those located in the arctic region. Main gaps: The health and demographic data link exclusively to administrative provinces of Russia which are not always applicable to geographical and climatic regions such as arctic. Network type: Service of Protection Consumers’ Right and Human Wellbeing, Federal Service of Hydrometeorology, laboratories accredited for contaminant measurements, regional/city administration health committees, hospitals Regional and City based observations

Human health
12. Monitoring component of solar radiation in the Arctic

The World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) was established by the order of WMO in the Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (Saint Petersburg) in 1964 to centrally collect and provide solar radiation data from the world actinometric network stations. Main gaps: Actually the acquisition of data from some Arctic stations, including Russian ones, is paused due to reconstruction of national actinometric networks. The network included in the international data exchange is sparse. Network type: • Collection of actinometric data from National Meteorological Administrations and other organizations • Processing and control of operational information • Scientific and methodological interaction with NHMS’ • Publication and distribution of bulletins “Solar Radiation and Radiation Balance. World Network”, including data access through the WRDC server • Service of users of information on solar radiation • Analysis of historical data • Creation of metadata base

13. Aerological observation network

Monitoring and forecast of the atmosphere state and climate change. Main gaps: Initial historical data before 1961 from specific stations have not been digitized. A part of metadata have not been digitized

14. Oceanological observations in the Arctic Ocean

Monitoring and study of hydrophysical and hydrochemical parameters of the Arctic Ocean

15. Network of voluntary marine meteorological observations

Incidental hydrometeorological observations along vessel routes. Monitoring and forecast of the surface layer atmosphere state, hydrometeorological support of safety of navigation and marine activities.

16. Network of hydrological stations located on rivers and channels

Monitoring and forecast of the state of water streams and hydrological hazards, assessment of water resources. Main gaps: Initial data before 1984 have not been digitized.

17. Integrated Arctic Socially-Oriented Observation System

The aim of the IASOS network is to monitor changes on the way to better (or worse) Quality of Life (QL) and sustainability, increase knowledge of trends in socio-economic, political and living conditions of residents (indigenous and non-indigenous) of the Russian North under the impacts of happening changes in climate, biodiversity, character of human impacts, socioeconomic and political changes and human responses (including strategic planning for climate change adaptation, etc.) The major objectives of the IASOS network are: - Identify main QL issues, factors effecting these issues; - Observe and analyze human-defined targets and solutions of arising QL issues taking into account local people’s perceptions and strategies developed at different scales (from local to national and circumpolar) in order to achieve better QL and sustainability; - Detect key indicators (most important from the QL improvement point of view) to be monitored and tested during long-term observations in case study regions (observation sites); - Carry out local observations of socio-economic and environmental trends impacting QL and human capital on the base of specially developed methodology, approaches and tools of socially-oriented observations; - Involve arctic residents (indigenous and non-indigenous), their local and traditional knowledge in QL observations; - Raise peoples’ awareness of happening changes in living conditions, policy and environment, help people to set targets in order to achieve better QL and sustainability. This is to be done with the help of participatory observations, information-educational workshops and other tools; - Consolidate national and international collaborations in the Russian North on socially-oriented observations and research; - Translate better experience of the Arctic states in achieving higher quality of life and sustainability into local, national policies and adaptation strategies. Network type: - Thematical observations - Community-based observations

Human health
18. Oceanographic observations

Monitoring and forecast of the sea and ocean state, support of safety of navigation and marine activities. Main gaps: Additional control is needed for historical data, especially with regard to hydrochemical parameters.

Oceanography Atmosphere
19. Permanent research base in the field of glaciology in Barentsburg (Spitsbergen).

1. Snow cover (Spitsbergen) - Study of multi-year changes in snowiness near Nordenskiöld Land - Study of impact of spring-summer snow melting on superimposed (infiltration) ice formation on glacier surface - Study of mechanical and thermophysical properties of snow cover in different Spitsbergen landscapes - Study of impact of snowiness and summer melting conditions on the STL conditions under modern climate change (by the example of multi-year measurements near Barentsburg) - Study of structure and dynamics of large and multi-year snowfields as indicators of current climate change in this region. Contact person: Nikolay Osokin (, Ivan Lavrentiev 2. Spitsbergen glacier surge mechanism: - Studies on Grenfjord non-surging glacier Fridtjovbreen surging glacier. Methods: radiolocation, radiophysics, DGPS, mass balance. Contact person: Yury Macharet 3. Monitoring of Spitsbergen polythermal glaciers to assess long-period climate change. Objects of long-term monitoring of changes in geometry and hydrothermal structure of polythermal glaciers: Tavle, Aldegonga Contact person: Yury Macharet 4. Ice deposits on Spitsbergen - Obtaining of new data on glacier thickness and volume - Definition of correlation relationships - Contribution of glaciers to world ocean level Contact person: Andrey Glazovsky 5. Glacier mass balance on Nordenskiöld Land (Spitsbergen): - Aldegonga, Eastern Grenfjord, Tavle - Development of new methods of mass balance measurement: core and non-core drilling, DGPS, temperature survey. Contact person: Andrey Glazovsky 6. Remote sensing (RSD), (Novaya Zemlya, FJL) Development of GIS-base for glaciers on the Russian Arctic archipelagos for remote monitoring of their current state and changes. Assessment of iceberg discharge and ice caps. Observation of glacier dynamics. Contact person: Andrey Glazovsky Yury Macharet 7. Remote sensing and validation (if possible) in situ (Russian Subarctic mountains – Polar Urals, Byrranga, Putorana, Suntar-Khayata mountains, Chersky Range, Koryak Upland, Chukotka) Executors: M. Ivanov, G.A. Nosenko, M.D. Ananicheva, G.A. Kapustin et al (RAS IO),,,, V.A. Sarana, MSU, Research Laboratory “North’s Ecology”, Network type: Data are given for Barentsburg station - atmosphere (RAS PGI, Murmansk) - coastal ecosystem, including freshwater (yes/no) - marine ecosystem: Biological center on Spitsbergen. MMBI, Murmansk ( Integrated study on Spitsbergen has been carried out since 1994 in the biological center within the framework of MMBI’s International Environmental Laboratory. The main areas of scientific activities on Spitsbergen are as follows: acquisition of comparative data on biodiversity of flora and fauna and marine ecosystems on the north part of the Gulf Stream western branch; development of the model of the impact of melting (fresh) waters on the marine ecosystem in glacier bays of different types on western Spitsbergen; monitoring of Arctic ecosystems evolution and other natural phenomena. - ocean AARI, Saint Petersburg ( - cryosphere: periodic observations of snow cover and glaciers and seasonally melting layer of permafrost formation on Spitsbergen. Remote observations of Novaya Zemlya and FJL glaciers. - human factor anf socio-economic indicators ( - space physics - (

Ecosystems Oceanography Sea ice
20. Arctic Birds Breeding Conditions Survey

The Survey is aimed at improving understanding of regularities in population dynamics of Arctic terrestrial birds (in particular waterfowl) by means of collating at pan-Arctic scale information on environmental conditions on breeding areas

birds Biology Climate variability Spatial trends Terrestrial mammals Arctic Temporal trends